Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes two injury types: primary and secondary. In infants and young children, nonaccidental TBI is an important etiology of brain injury and is commonly a repetitive insult. TBI is by far the most common cause of acquired brain injury (ABI) in children and is the most common cause of death in cases of childhood injury. In 2009, the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) issued validated prediction rules to identify children at very low risk of clinically important TBI, which is defined as TBI requiring neurosurgical intervention or leading to death. The range of outcomes in pediatric TBI is very broad, from full recovery to severe physical and/or intellectual disabilities. Children and adolescents who have suffered a TBI are at increased risk of social dysfunction. Studies show that these patients can have poor self-esteem, loneliness, maladjustment, reduced emotional control, and aggressive or antisocial behavior.
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- Go to chapter: Neurodevelopmental Disabilities: Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Neurodevelopmental Disabilities: Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
This chapter defines neurodevelopmental disorders, and examines the medical, psychosocial, and vocational aspects of two neurodevelopmental disorders that are increasing in the U.S. population: autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It provides populations at risk of being diagnosed with ASD or ADHD, and distinguishes key considerations for outreach, eligibility determination, and rehabilitation assessment and planning. The chapter considers services to be included in the rehabilitation plan to facilitate goal achievement for consumers with ASD or ADHD, and examines evidence-based practices in job development, placement, and retention. Both ASD and ADHD can be accompanied by co-occurring psychiatric disabilities. Counseling and guidance are always individualized to the unique characteristics, rehabilitation needs, and preferences of each rehabilitation consumer. Rehabilitation counselors must also take into consideration the importance of family involvement in the transition and rehabilitation of youths with ASD and ADHD.
This chapter describes changes in the age demographic of the American populace that will steadily increase the number of elderly people in the United States for the next 30 years, and examines the relationship among aging, health, and disability. It provides the characteristics and needs of people who have frequently occurring aging-related disabling conditions such as dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, and stroke. The most common chronic health conditions for people over the age of 65 include arthritis, hypertensive disease, heart disease, hearing impairments, musculoskeletal impairments, chronic sinusitis, diabetes, and visual impairments. It is important for rehabilitation counselors to understand the impact that population aging has had and will continue to have on family interaction and socialization, the American economy, and human health care and social service systems. In providing counseling and guidance services to individuals with age-related disabilities, the issue of chronicity is often of paramount concern.
This chapter examines the roles that lifestyle factors and climate change play in the onset and exacerbation of emerging disabilities, and provides examples of chronic illnesses and disabilities linked to lifestyle and climate change that are increasing in the population. It considers the medical, psychosocial, and vocational characteristics of emerging disabilities associated with lifestyle and climate change, and explores characteristics of populations at risk of acquiring disabilities and chronic illnesses associated with lifestyle and climate change. The respective incidences of diabetes, asthma, and heart disease have reached epidemic proportions in the United States. The chapter presents an overview of the health impacts of extreme heat, extreme weather events, air pollution, and vector-borne diseases. Temperature increases, changing precipitation patterns, and extreme weather events have resulted in the increased spread of vector-borne diseases. Health promotions services may be especially beneficial to individuals with lifestyle disabilities to assist them with changing health-related behaviors.
This chapter examines the medical, psychosocial, and vocational characteristics, challenges, and rehabilitation needs of emerging populations of individuals with psychiatric disabilities, and introduces a recovery-oriented approach to providing responsive services to individuals with psychiatric disabilities. It explores integrated, evidence-based, and emerging practices to facilitate better recovery and rehabilitation outcomes for these populations. The onset of psychiatric disabilities occurs during critical years when major changes are occurring in the areas of identity formation and cognitive, psychosocial, psychosexual, and career development. Many individuals with psychiatric disabilities receive their health care in emergency departments and intensive care units and not until their secondary conditions create medical crises. Substance use disorders (SUDs) often co-occur with psychiatric disabilities. The principles of recovery align with the core values and principles of rehabilitation counseling. Illness management and recovery (IMR) is an evidence-based practice for equipping individuals with the knowledge and skills they need to self-manage their disabilities.
This chapter defines emerging disabilities; explores medical, psychosocial, and vocational implications of emerging disabilities that distinguish them from traditional disabilities; and provides demographic characteristics of individuals who are most vulnerable to acquiring emerging disabilities. It examines some social and environmental trends that have contributed to the development of emerging patterns and types of disabilities including advances in medicine and assistive technology, globalization, climate change, poverty, violence and trauma, the aging American populace, and disability legislation. Psychological and physical trauma from warfare, violent crime, intimate partner violence, and youth violence can result in permanent physical, cognitive, and psychiatric disabilities. Diagnostic uncertainties, misdiagnoses, and skepticism on the part of medical providers are frequently associated with emerging disabilities. Women also represent a population that is at an increased risk of acquiring emerging disabilities and chronic illnesses. Rehabilitation systems are still not fully prepared to address the multifaceted needs of individuals with emerging disabilities.
This book provides a better understanding of emerging disabilities and their impact on all areas of life and explores implications for rehabilitation counseling practice, policy, and research. It first defines emerging disabilities and examines current societal trends that contribute to the onset and diagnoses of chronic illnesses and disabilities that are considered to be emerging in the United States. Then, the book provides an overview of medical, psychosocial, and vocational aspects that distinguish emerging disabilities from traditional disabilities. The first section of the book includes four chapters on emerging disabilities with organic causes or unknown etiologies. It examines disabilities and chronic illnesses that are characterized by chronic pain. The second section of the book examines the role of natural and sociocultural environments in creating new patterns and types of disabling conditions. It focuses on both lifestyle factors and climate change and how these contribute to the onset and/or exacerbation of chronic illness and disability and explains physical disabilities, chronic illnesses, and mental health conditions that result from violence. The final section of the book explores implications for rehabilitation practice, policy, and research to better respond to the unique concerns and needs of rehabilitation consumers with emerging disabilities. It suggests research topics, designs, and procedures for building upon our knowledge about the rehabilitation needs of emerging disability populations and developing evidence-based practices to facilitate successful rehabilitation outcomes for individuals in these populations.
This chapter discusses medical, psychosocial, and vocational issues across emerging disability populations that should be addressed in the rehabilitation process. It also discusses the application of the ecological model developed by Szymanski, Hershenson, Ettinger, and Enright as a framework for assessment and planning with consumers who have emerging disabilities. The chapter examines the role that rehabilitation counselors can play in responding to issues affecting the lives of people with emerging disabilities in each phase of the rehabilitation process. Outreach to administrators, school counselors, mental health counselors who provide school-based services, teachers, school psychologists, parents, and students may be necessary to ensure that these students are made aware of the availability of rehabilitation services. One of the primary goals of counseling and guidance is to facilitate psychosocial adaptation to disability. Rehabilitation counselors can play a pivotal role in assisting consumers with emerging disabilities to develop health literacy skills.
This chapter discusses various types of violence and their impact on human health, functioning, and onset of physical and psychiatric disabilities, and identifies approaches and programs for treating individuals who have sustained disabilities from violent acts. It examines populations that are most vulnerable to violence, and explores trauma-informed approaches to providing services to these clients in all phases of the rehabilitation counseling process. Military sexual trauma (MST) is heavily confounded by military culture, making the decision to report sexual trauma extremely difficult. The functional limitations associated with disabilities acquired through violence can substantially impair survivor’s ability to achieve and maintain competitive employment. Outreach may be particularly necessary to inform individuals with violence-related disabilities about rehabilitation services. Frain et al. emphasized the importance of training in self-management techniques for veterans because they tend to have poor self-management skills.
This chapter defines chronic pain, types, and causes; describes medical characteristics of two emerging chronic pain conditions namely chronic migraines and fibromyalgia; and discusses symptomology, diagnosis, and treatment issues associated with these conditions. It explores the medical, psychosocial, and vocational aspects of chronic pain, and examines the characteristics of populations most likely to experience chronic pain. The chapter presents recommendations for providing responsive rehabilitation counseling services to the growing numbers of individuals living with chronic pain who are served by rehabilitation counselors across all employment settings. As myths about chronic pain are so prevalent, rehabilitation counselors must carefully examine their own potential biases and misconceptions about chronic pain, its causes, and treatment. Complementary health approaches are often used by people with chronic pain and may include yoga, spinal manipulation, massage therapy, heat and cold applications, meditation, acupuncture, herbal medicines, vitamins, and minerals.