When working in a healthcare organization, one may learn that they “practice Lean”, or they follow principles of “Design Thinking”, or they mention some other model of how they approach and solve problems as an organization. This chapter describes how the problem-solving method compares to these two methods. Regardless of the organizational problem-solving method used in the organization, the knowledge of using the problem-solving method as a thought process will be complementary to, and not competing with, these other methods. The two aspects of the problem-solving method that will be most useful to the reader regardless of the problem-solving method used in the organization are how to define the problem and engaging with stakeholders. Of the three methods, the problem-solving method is agnostic as to the type of problem being faced, and can be thought of as a “logic processor” to apply in any situation when engaging in organizational problem-solving.
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This chapter reviews prevention, including genetic counseling. It discusses genetic testing for diagnosis as opposed to screening and the treatment for genetic disease. Methods of prevention begin with education of the public and health care professionals and identification of those at risk. Genetic counseling is the process of helping people understand and adapt to the medical, psychological, and familial implications of genetic contributions to disease. The malignant cells often exhibit aneuploidy as well as translocations that are found only within the tumor cells. Genetic errors that arise from specific cell lines are somatic mutations. It is suggested that there is a thorough collection of family, genetic, and medical history for children entering the adoption process. Nurses may play a variety of roles in genetic counseling that reflect their preparation, area of practice, primary functions, and setting. The chapter explains the incidence of chromosome abnormalities.
Nurses working in the field of obstetrics must have a greater depth and breadth of genetic knowledge over any other subspecialty. In gestation, nurses should include education on the effects of teratogens, prenatal screening options, and prenatal diagnoses. After delivery, early recognition of genetic disorders is important for immediate initiation of potentially life-saving therapies. Preconception education is a critical component of health care for women of reproductive age. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend that all women of childbearing age consume 0.4 mg of folic acid daily to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs). Counseling can still be useful in terms of optimum pregnancy management in a setting best able to cope with any anticipated problems. Complex and multifaceted maternal and fetal factors influence the consequences of drugs, radiation, and chemical and infectious agents to the developing fetus.
The health professions have taken very seriously the importance of ethical considerations in research and practice. Most of the ethical issues regarding measurement of human subjects have been addressed in connection with biomedical and social research. Three basic, comprehensive ethical principles provide the foundation for the guidelines, recommendations, and standards that provide for the rights and well-being of human subjects in measurement and research: respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. In accordance with these ethical principles, researchers are obliged to recognize and protect the basic rights of subjects in measurement activities. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) privacy regulations took effect on April 14, 2003. These provisions, which require health care organizations and providers to protect the privacy of patient information, underscore the importance of privacy in the measurement context, and limit communication and use of individual patient health information in both practice and research.
This chapter examines pre- and postconference expectations and activities, explores forms to be used by the professor and the students, suggests care plans and patient assignments, and describes sample concept maps and a math skills assessment. A student with no experience in health care may be shy or sheepish when it comes to hands-on care. It may be of benefit for the students to be paired in the first few weeks of clinical classes. The care plan forms can help guide the student through the nursing process. Medication forms will help the student learn about various medications. Nursing education has adopted the use of concepts maps to assist students in gathering patient information. Patient safety is the number one priority for all health care professionals. Dose calculations are a daily activity for nurses.
In this chapter, the author began working in international medical humanitarian aid, with an organization called Medecins Sans Frontieres/Doctors without Borders (MSF). Pediatrics and Pediatric Intensive Care are where the author’s nursing career had started. With assignments in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Haiti, and South Sudan, the author have provided care for people who have been displaced due to conflict, victims of war trauma, women with high-risk pregnancies, malnourished and critically ill children, and people with HIV and tuberculosis, and responded to outbreaks of preventable illnesses such as measles and cholera. MSF opened the Sibut project, with a focus on providing care for young children and women of child-bearing age. The security system includes daily contact with all of the village leaders in Sibut, including the Catholic priests, the imams at the Muslim mosque, the village elders, and the militia leaders.
This chapter explains the seminal Institute of Medicine (IOM) report: The Future of Nursing (
FoN): Leading Change, Advancing Health and the background organizations that wrote it. It demonstrates some key recommendations of FoN: Leading Change, Advancing Health report and its “fit” with Indian Country. The chapter differentiates between challenges in obtaining nursing education in Indian Country and those in dominant culture settings. The IOM’s effort with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) on the FoN has been noticed by many, yet direct care nurses are largely unaware of the report. The chapter outlines the FoN recommendations into two groups: gaining education, practicing to its fullest scope, and pushing for more, including lifelong learning; and shaping policy, being at the table as full partners in health care redesign, and leading change. For American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) nurses graduating from tribal colleges and universities (TCU), the majority will have an associate’s degree.
Multiple physical changes can impair the mental health of the aging individual. These changes include: acid-based imbalances, dehydration, electrolyte changes, hypothermia or hyperthermia, and hypothyroidism. This chapter reviews the most common mental health disorders affecting the elderly population and trends affecting care delivery. Moreover, chronic, unresolved pain has been associated with an increased risk of a mental health disorder such as depression, suicide, or anxiety. The aging individual may exhibit signs and symptoms of insomnia such as sleeping for short periods during the night, sleeping during times of normal social activities, arising early in the morning while others sleep, and experiencing daytime sleepiness. The chapter concludes by applying the nursing process from an interpersonal perspective to the care of an elderly patient with a mental health disorder.
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Overview of Nurse-Managed Wellness Centers and Wellness Programs Integrated Into Nurse-Managed Primary Care Clinics
Nurse-managed wellness centers (NMWC) are practice settings that are community based, directed by an advanced practice nurse, and staffed by public health nurses, advanced practice nurses, and other members of an interdisciplinary health care team. The wellness center model stresses primary prevention and facilitates self-care of the individual with regard to health care strategies and decision making. Freestanding NMWC services include health promotion and disease prevention activities that focus on primary and secondary prevention strategies as well as wellness programs. Students from various health care disciplines, such as nursing, pharmacy, social work, physical therapy, and nutrition, actively participate in NMWC activities. Students benefit in multiple ways because clinical assignments at NMWCs expose them to real-life situations that individuals, families, and groups experience beyond the boundaries of the acute care setting. Wellness centers complement existing primary care services. NMWCs are effective and achievable models of health care delivery.
The 19130 Zip Code Project at the Community College of Philadelphia (CCP) started as a curriculum innovation: the CCP Department of Nursing’s response to the national shift toward community-based health care. The project resulted in the refocusing of the nursing curriculum and the development of partnerships with CCP’s neighbors in the 19130 zip code. It also is an excellent example of a nurse-managed wellness center without walls. The Zip Code Project has put down deep roots in the neighborhood and in the nursing curriculum. It has produced a community-based model for educating local health professionals and a service-learning model for enhancing health service delivery by local agencies. The faculty arranged community-based clinical experiences for nursing students in the neighborhood surrounding CCP. Although CCP sits in the middle of the zip code, faculty knew little about community-based health care services in the community.