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- Go to article: Looking Back and Looking Forward: The ICM Trienniel Meeting in Durban, South Africa, and Research Dedicated to Decreasing Maternal and Infant Morbidity and Mortality
- Go to article: Factors Associated With Timely Initiation of Breastfeeding and Prelacteal Feeding in North-Central Nigeria
Factors Associated With Timely Initiation of Breastfeeding and Prelacteal Feeding in North-Central Nigeria
Delay in initiation of breastfeeding after birth is associated with the introduction of other feeds. It has been recommended that all women should initiate breastfeeding within the first hour after birth. Early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding could reasonably reduce neonatal deaths. The aim of this study was to assess the initiation of breastfeeding and prelacteal feeding in Plateau State, Nigeria.
MATERIALS AND METHOD
A cross-sectional design was adopted for the study. A total of 763 women drawn equally from the three senatorial zones of the state voluntarily completed a questionnaire. Results were analyzed using chi-squared statistics and regression analysis.
Findings show that 33.1% of women initiated breastfeeding in a timely manner. The relationships between the timely initiation of breastfeeding and the use of pain relief, maternal age, maternal employment, economic status, influence of family and friends, and advertisement were found to be statistically significant. Furthermore, 92% gave breast milk for the first feed, while 8% gave infant formula, glucose, herbs, or water. Inadequate breast milk production, delayed initiation of breastfeeding, and health conditions were factors identified as responsible for prelacteal feeding.
The proportion of women who initiated feeding in a timely manner was low, which underscores the need to promote and support early initiation of breastfeeding in the state. There is thus a need for a public education campaign, particularly directed at women receiving antenatal care, and focusing on the need for establishing feeding early. Women with health challenges and those with a history of poor milk production may require additional support to breastfeed as recommended.
- Go to article: Role of Vitamin C in Prevention of Preeclampsia in High-Risk Cases: Randomized Controlled Trial
To evaluate the effect of vitamin C intake on the incidence of preeclampsia in high-risk cases.
Prospective double-blinded multi-center randomized controlled trial involving 940 qualified patients equally divided into two groups one receiving vitamin C and the other receiving placebo starting from 12 weeks gestational age.
No significant difference was found between vitamin C and placebo on the incidence of preeclampsia, maternal problems (prelabor rupture of membranes, antepartum hemorrhage, and placental abruption), and fetal outcomes (birth weight, Apgar scores, preterm delivery, admission to NICU, and low birth weight).
Vitamin C intake in pregnancy is not recommended for prevention of preeclampsia, maternal or fetal problems in cases at high-risk for developing preeclampsia.
This article calls for a new way of looking at the home birth debate by challenging the underlying assumptions and beliefs that lead to the polarized discourse. The debate around home birth is about more than place of birth or perinatal mortality. It raises deeper and more complex issues that need to be explored. This article moves the debate about home birth from one about death to one about human nature, from one about statistics, to one about why the statistics will not end the debate. It explores less familiar discourses such as confirmation bias, group polarization, fear, risk, scientific paradigms, and power using insights from disciplines such as philosophy and psychology for guidance as to why “infinite love and enormous rejection” have come to fill the discourse about home birth. If we do not try and understand why the home birth debate is so polarized and develop new strategies to overcome the great divide, we will never make progress with important decisions as how home birth should safely be made available to women.
There are very few studies examining how the prenatal attachment of the father to the fetus affects father–infant attachment, while there are numerous studies on maternal–fetal, maternal–infant attachment. The pregnancy period is a potential opportunity to increase the paternal attachment of fathers whose wives are expecting a baby. The aim of this study was to determine paternal–fetal attachment and the factors with an effect.
The sample group of this descriptive (comparative) study consisted of expectant fathers accompanied by their wives at 24–36 weeks of pregnancy (n = 182). Ethics committee approval and the necessary permissions were obtained from the relevant institution. The data were collected by the researchers using the Question Form and Paternal Fetal Attachment Scale. The data collected were analyzed using percentage distribution, the Independent samples t test and the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test.
The results of the study showed that the participants who experienced fatherhood for the first time and felt ready to be a father had higher paternal attachment scores than experienced fathers.
For the establishment of healthy attachment starting in the prenatal period and continuing thereafter, there are important tasks for healthcare professionals to ensure that fathers can cope with the new roles and responsibilities just as well as the mothers.
- Go to article: International Confederation of Midwives Education Standing Committee: Joint Expertise for Midwifery Education
The global health community has implemented several initiatives over the past in the interest of accelerating country-by-country progress toward the Millennium Development Goal of improving maternal health. Skilled attendance at every birth has been recognized as an essential component of approaches for reducing maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.
Midwives have been acknowledged as a preferred cadre of skilled birth attendant. The International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) speaks for the global community of fully qualified (professional) midwives. The ICM document entitled Essential Competencies for Basic Midwifery Practice is a core policy statement that defines the domains and scope of practice for those individuals who meet the international definition of midwife. This article explores the meaning of competence and competency as core concepts for the midwifery profession. An understanding of the meaning of these terms can help midwives speaking individually at the clinical practice level and midwifery associations speaking at the policy level to articulate more clearly the distinction of fully qualified midwives within the skilled birth attendant and sexual and reproductive health workforce. Competence and competency are fundamental to the domains of midwifery education, legislation, and regulation, and to the deployment and retention of professional midwives.
- Go to article: Episiotomy at Public Health Institutions in Hosaena Town, Southern Ethiopia: An Institution-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Episiotomy at Public Health Institutions in Hosaena Town, Southern Ethiopia: An Institution-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Episiotomy was first suggested about two centuries back to prevent perineal tear as well as a fetal head injury. However, there have been controversies about its benefits over its side effects. The magnitude of episiotomy varies across the world. No study was conducted in the study area. This study was aimed at assessing the magnitude and factors associated with episiotomy at public health institutions.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS
Institutional-based cross-sectional study design was employed in four public health institutions in Hosaena Town. Data were collected through interviews administered structured questionnaires and supplemented with maternal chart review and anthropometric measurement from May 1st to June 30th, 2019. Study participants were selected using a systematic random sampling technique. EpiData 3.02 and SPSS version 21 software were used for data entry, and analysis, respectively. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis were done. Variables at p-value < 0.2 were transferred to multivariable logistic regression analysis. Then variables at p-value <0.05with 95% CI were considered as statistically significant and AOR was used to interpret factors associated with episiotomy. Tables and graphs have been used to present the results.
A total of 410 delivered mothers were included in the study and the magnitude of episiotomy was 57.6%with a mean of 95% CI = 0.53–0.63.Being primiparous (AOR = 16.96, 95% CI: 9.26, 31.05), meconium-stained amniotic fluid (AOR = 3.82, 95% CI: 1.84, 7.96), Second stage of labor lasting more than 2 hours (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.11, 5.32), births attended by non-midwife professionals (AOR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.24, 4.14) and newborns head circumference >35 cm (AOR = 5.73, 95% CI: 3.29, 10.00) were factors significantly associated with episiotomy.
Episiotomy was performed in more than half of the mothers included in the study. All the responsible bodies from the administrative to clinical practitioners should be in action to lower the magnitude of episiotomy by assuring that it is practiced restrictively with scientific indications.
- Go to article: Perceived Benefits and Barriers to Prenatal and Postpartum Exercises Among Child Bearing Women in Kano, Nigeria
Perceived Benefits and Barriers to Prenatal and Postpartum Exercises Among Child Bearing Women in Kano, Nigeria
Pregnancy is a stressful phenomenon experienced by women, during which the body experiences dramatic anatomical, physiological, and psychological changes.
The study examined perceived benefits and barriers to prenatal and postpartum exercises among pregnant women in Kano.
The study was a descriptive survey in which 400 consenting pregnant women attending antenatal clinic were recruited for a period of 3 months (November 2019 to January 2020, using systematic random sampling technique. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was utilized to elicit responses and the data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation, and frequency distribution.
Findings showed that the respondents have a mean age of 26.86 ± 5.4 years which ranges from 17–47 years. Prenatal exercises may be associated with the prevention of excessive weight gain and/or gestational diabetes and/or preeclampsia. The study further revealed that most of the respondents agreed that postpartum exercises prevents vaginal and uterine prolapse and urinary incontinence, helps in losing post pregnancy body weight and prevents diastasis recti abdominis. The major barriers identified included lack of access to facilities, lack of family support, and cultural factors.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The study concludes that there is a positive perception of the benefits of prenatal and postpartum exercises and therefore, recommends that maternity care givers should provide accurate, adequate, and relevant information and advocate increased social and family support.