Your search for all content returned 84 results
A survival analysis is frequently performed using: Kaplan–Meier estimator for estimating the survival functions; log-rank test for comparing the survival distributions of two independent samples; and proportional hazards model for estimating the hazard functions, and comparing the survival distributions of two or more samples. The Kaplan–Meier estimator is the most widely used nonparametric estimator for quantifying the proportion of research participants free of event by a certain time. The construction of the Kaplan–Meier estimator takes into account both the number of individuals whose events were observed and the number of individuals who were censored within a certain time. The Kaplan–Meier curve is a step curve that drops at time points when an event occurs. The Kaplan–Meier estimator is a naïve estimator that may present a false picture of the survival probability over time if there are other risk factors affecting the survival other than the intervention of interest.
This chapter presents definitions and descriptions for epistemology, phenomenology, ethnography, grounded theory, participatory action research (PAR), ethical research and content analysis. Qualitative methodology is the study of the individual subject’s perceived experience. Assessing the “mean” or average experience of many is not its goal, but rather the purpose of qualitative research is the identification of a few variables that impact a small sample, that would probably not come to light in a quantitative study. Rigor clarity and the economical application of logic are fervently applied in its utilization. Qualitative measurement is a highly useful addition to a clinical study in which the primary end point is a quantitative measure. Reliability can be addressed by multiple observers, interviewer corroboration, research participant check and confirmation with larger studies. The chapter also provides pitfalls and helpful hints related to the concept of qualitative research.