The book stands as a primary text in disability studies on the family and a supporting text in applications with rehabilitation counseling. The emphasis on community opens its value to practitioners, managers, and policy advocates. The first part of the book makes the case from philosophy to praxis for an alternative to current rehabilitation counseling paradigms. Nothing of our current practice is lost, but much is gained in its translation into a social model that places community at the center of a client-centered practice. This approach creates the appropriate space to bring rehabilitation counseling and the family together. Read in synthesis, the first five chapters present the framework for a community-based approach to rehabilitation counseling beyond the family. The second part of the book recounts the family disability experience across disability contexts. Each chapter provides a unique profile that maps the current relationship between rehabilitation counseling and the family experience. These chapters can be read alone as the state of practice and a guide to current rehabilitation counseling interventions. The final part of the book considers a sampling of the professional implications and considerations of moving forward with a community-based model. It explores cultural perspectives on disability and their relationships to family from the vantage point of four established collective identities: Hispanic Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans.
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Rehabilitation counselors work with individuals with chronic illness or disability (CID) and the profession is responding to the growing need for family support. There has been a call for family inclusion in research agendas and training programs. This chapter describes the impact of progressive chronic illness on the family and explores its meaning in the context of rehabilitation counseling. It identifies the role of the rehabilitation counselor in serving the family. The chapter discusses the impact on families and rehabilitation counseling of HIV and multiple sclerosis (MS) as examples of chronic illness. The majority of rehabilitation literature framing psychosocial adaptation to CID has focused on antecedents, process, and outcomes. Rehabilitation professionals should recognize the roles family members will take such as caregivers, de facto health providers, partners, and key social supports for the member with a CID.
Rational emotive behavior therapy (
REBT) is an active–directive form of counseling and psychotherapy in which practitioners employ cognitive, behavioral, and emotive (or affective) techniques in order to help people achieve and maintain constructive change. This chapter introduces the history and major concepts of REBT. It describes the counseling process, counseling relationship, and counseling techniques associated with this therapy. It also describes REBT’sapplication in rehabilitation counseling and reviews the current REBTevidence base and research. The chapter helps the reader to identify, describe, and apply major theoretical and philosophical concepts and to accomplish the following: understand the concept of rationality as defined in REBT; describe and define rational and irrational beliefs and the biological and social influences on the development of irrational beliefs; describe the interrelationship among cognition, behavior, and emotion in REBTtheory and the ABCframework; and discuss the state and direction of REBTresearch.
- Go to article: Modern Models of Psychosocial Adaptation to Chronic Illness and Disability as Viewed Through the Prism of Lewin’s Field Theory: A Comparative Review
Modern Models of Psychosocial Adaptation to Chronic Illness and Disability as Viewed Through the Prism of Lewin’s Field Theory: A Comparative Review
Purpose: In this article, we describe how four recent models of psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability (CID) could be fruitfully conceptualized and compared by resorting to the general framework of Lewin’s field theory—a theory frequently regarded as a precursor and the primary impetus to the development of the field of somatopsychology.
Method: Based on a comprehensive literature review and theoretical integration, we have provided the reader with a brief review of Lewin’s field theory and its applications to rehabilitation and psychosocial adaptation to CID, highlighted the main components of the four models of psychosocial adaptation to CID, and reviewed the models through the theoretical lens of Lewin’s theory.
Results: Lewin’s field theory provides a robust and viable theory to conceptualize psychosocial adjustment for CID. Research and clinical implications to practicing rehabilitation counselors and researchers based on the conceptual and practical synergy formed through the understanding of psychosocial adaptation to CID within Lewin’s theoretical framework have also been provided.
Conclusions: Lewin’s field theory provides a theoretical framework for understanding research and clinical implications related to psychosocial adaptation for individuals with CID.
- Go to article: The Conventional and Unconventional About Disability Conventions: A Reflective Analysis of United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities
The Conventional and Unconventional About Disability Conventions: A Reflective Analysis of United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities
This article presents an analysis of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in relation to prior United Nations conventions on disability and U.S. disability policy law with a view to identifying the conventional and also the incremental advances of the CRPD. Previous United Nations conventions related to disability have had, at best, partial success in effectively protecting the human rights of individuals with disabilities. The CRPD, as a policy instrument, has considerable potential for advancing the legal rights of persons with disabilities in the United States and globally. This article reviews this potential from national and international perspectives and explores the implications of the CRPD for rehabilitation counseling advocacy and education.
- Go to article: Introduction to the Special Issue: CORE Standards for the Master's Degree Curriculum in Rehabilitation Counseling
- Go to article: Participation and Psychological Capital in Adults With Parkinson's Disease: Mediation Analysis Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health
Participation and Psychological Capital in Adults With Parkinson's Disease: Mediation Analysis Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health
The purpose of this study was to explore how the functional impact of Parkinson's disease affects participation and to evaluate whether positive psychological capital (PsyCap) mediates the relationship within the context of the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health Model.
Survey responses were analyzed from 144 adults with Parkinson's disease using a quantitative, correlational research design employing multiple regression and hierarchical regression analysis to examine hypothesized relationships.
The results of the correlation analysis indicated that there was a statistically significant, moderate-to-strong positive correlation between functioning and PsyCap and participation. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that functioning accounted for 65% of the variance in participation. Although PsyCap was associated with participation, no mediating effect was observed.
The results are consistent with traditional clinical judgment that physical functioning is positively correlated with participation. This study represents the first evaluation of the role of PsyCap in people with Parkinson's disease, and the results of the correlational analysis suggest that continued investigation of these relationships is warranted.
Parkinson's disease results in a variety of motor and non-motor features that frequently result in reduced participation in valued life activities.
- Go to article: Employment Among Working-Age Adults With Multiple Sclerosis: A Data-Mining Approach to Identifying Employment Interventions
Employment Among Working-Age Adults With Multiple Sclerosis: A Data-Mining Approach to Identifying Employment Interventions
Purpose: To examine demographic, functional, and clinical multiple sclerosis (MS) variables affecting employment status in a national sample of adults with MS in the United States.
Method: The sample included 4,142 working-age (20–65 years) Americans with MS (79.1% female) who participated in a national survey. The mean age of participants was 51.93 years (SD = 8.7). The dependent variable was employment status. The predictor variables included a set of demographic, functional, and MS variables.
Results: The chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) analysis indicated that participants who were receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) had significantly lower rates of employment (8.6%) than those who were not receiving SSDI (53.9%). For those not receiving SSDI, the most important factor predicting employment status was MS impact on physical functioning, as measured with the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale Physical Impact scale.
Conclusion: The data-mining approach (i.e., CHAID analysis) provided detailed information and insight about interactions among demographic, functional, and clinical variables and employment status through the segmentation of the sample into mutually exclusive homogeneous subgroups. Implications for rehabilitation intervention, based on these subgroupings, are discussed.
- Go to article: Differential Vocational Rehabilitation Service Patterns Related to the Job Retention and Job-Seeking Needs of Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis
Differential Vocational Rehabilitation Service Patterns Related to the Job Retention and Job-Seeking Needs of Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis
The experience of living with multiple sclerosis (MS) can have a profound effect on employment. The impact of MS is a complex interaction of personal, medical, functional, financial, and psychosocial variables that ultimately results in up to 80% of persons with MS leaving their jobs within 10 years of their diagnosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the employment status of applicants with MS who were seeking services from state vocational rehabilitation (VR) agencies could be classified based on the type of services provided. A quantitative descriptive research design employing discriminant analysis (DA) was used to determine differential services received by employed and unemployed applicants with MS. Findings indicate that persons with MS who were employed at application were more likely to receive services geared toward career stabilization (i.e., assistive technology/accommodation services, counseling and guidance, and cognitive retraining-type rehabilitative services). Conversely, the unemployed applicant group had a higher propensity to receive services focused on job placement (i.e., job readiness, job seeking, and job placement services). Although a disparity persisted between the average worker in the United States and the outcomes achieved by VR service recipients regarding weekly wages and hours, services provided by the state-federal VR program reduce this disparity. In addition, the return on investment (ROI) associated with providing services to persons with MS was calculated as providing an $8 return for every dollar spent. Persons with MS employed at application had an ROI of more than $10 for every dollar spent. Implications for persons with MS, rehabilitation counselors, health care professionals, and policymakers are provided.
- Go to article: Current Knowledge and Training Needs of Certified Rehabilitation Counselors to Work Effectively With Veterans With Disabilities
Current Knowledge and Training Needs of Certified Rehabilitation Counselors to Work Effectively With Veterans With Disabilities
Veterans with disabilities have gained national attention in recent years because of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. This study examined certified rehabilitation counselors’ (CRCs ) knowledge and preparation for working with veterans with disabilities on their rehabilitation. Results indicate that CRCs report low levels of preparation in some of the areas deemed important by veterans and professionals. However, CRCs report high knowledge in many important areas to work effectively with veterans with disabilities.