In this study, survival analysis is used to examine time to rearrest for both domestic violence and nondomestic violence crimes among a cohort of domestic violence offenders (N = 286) over a 10-year period. In addition, risk factors for rearrest such as demographic, offending history, and batterer treatment variables are examined to determine their influence on domestic and nondomestic violence recidivism. Overall, the results suggest that approximately half of domestic violence offenders are rearrested. Furthermore, among those who are rearrested, they are rearrested fairly quickly and for generalized (both domestic and nondomestic violence offenses) versus specialized offending. Risk factors associated with both types of rearrest included age, marriage, and domestic violence offense history. Several additional risk factors were unique to rearrest type. Study limitations are explicitly stated and policy implications are discussed.
Your search for all content returned 4,173 results
The firearm mortality rate in West Virginia (WV) increased over the past four years and is currently 50% higher than the national rate. These alarming statistics, combined with the urban-to-rural shift in firearm injuries, prompted this 10-year epidemiologic overview. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the current study stands alone as the only report of its kind on firearm injuries in the rural setting of southern WV. Firearm injuries were common in White males within the age range of 20–49 years. Assault, which is typically identified as an urban problem, was found to be the most common injury in the study population. In our data series, injury severity score was the strongest predictor of mortality, followed by self-inflicted cause of injury and trauma to the neck/head region.
- Go to article: About Ethnicity, Fitting In, and Acting Out: Applying the Person–Environment Fit Framework to School Misconduct
About Ethnicity, Fitting In, and Acting Out: Applying the Person–Environment Fit Framework to School Misconduct
Starting from a person–environment fit framework, this study investigates whether ethnic congruence—the percentage of co-ethnics in a school—relates to school misconduct and whether congruence effects differ between ethnic minority and majority students. Moreover, we investigate whether eventual associations are mediated by friendship attachment, perceived teacher support, and general school belonging. Multilevel analyses of data from 11,759 students across 83 Flemish secondary schools show that higher ethnic congruence is associated with lower levels of school misconduct but only for ethnic minority students. This effect was not mediated by friendship attachment, nor by teacher support, but it was mediated by general school belonging. We conclude that ethnic minority students in schools with a higher percentage of peers of co-ethnic descent are less likely to break the school rules because they feel more contented in the school context, which is congruent with the person–environment fit framework.
- Go to article: Absolute and Relative Involvement in Homicide Offending: Contemporary Youth and the Baby Boom Cohorts
Absolute and Relative Involvement in Homicide Offending: Contemporary Youth and the Baby Boom Cohorts
Recent concerns have been expressed that youths are an increasingly violent segment of U.S. society. This report explores such claims by presenting alternative dimensions with which trends in youth violence can be interpreted. Using Uniform Crime Reports and U.S. Bureau of the Census data for 1958-1993, rates of arrests for murder, taken to represent absolute levels of involvement in this form of violence, are analyzed for trends among 15- to 19-year-olds. Relative involvement, operationalized as the ratio of arrest rates for those aged 15-19 to those of the remainder of the population, is also analyzed for trends. A pronounced upward trend since the mid-1980s in both rates and ratios of arrests for murder is found for ages 15-19, resulting in this group now having the highest levels of absolute and relative involvement in murder arrests of any age category, a distinct departure from previous years. As a context for interpreting these levels, the involvement of current 15- to 19-year-olds is shown to exceed by a considerable margin the involvement of similarly aged cohorts of baby boomers, a youth group formerly the object of considerable public concern. Research is encouraged that addresses the multifaceted sources contributing to this dramatic societal shift in age-related patterns of arrests for murder and, by assumption, involvement in homicide offending.
- Go to article: Abstracts From the 13th Annual National Rehabilitation Educators Conference in San Francisco, California
- Go to article: Abstracts From the National Council on Rehabilitation Education 14th Annual National Rehabilitation Educators Conference in Manhattan Beach, California
- Go to article: Abused and Rejected: The Link Between Intimate Partner Violence and Parental Alienation
Previous studies have demonstrated a connection between intimate partner violence (IPV) and a child’s alienation from the abused parent, but little is known about the relationships between the type of IPV, aspects, and severity of a child’s alienation, and the target parent’s gender. This study assessed the presence of an IPV history (verbal and physical aspects) among parents who identify as targets of their children’s unreasonable rejection. Also investigated were associations between the form of IPV and manifestations of a child’s alienated behavior, parent’s gender and type of IPV, and parents’ gender and degree of the child’s alienation. Self-identified alienated parents (n = 842) completed an online survey that included an IPV screening measurement (Hurts, Insults, Screams, Threatens screening tool) and a measure of the parent’s perception of their child’s alienated behaviors (Rowlands Parental Alienation Scale). The majority identified as IPV victims and reported a higher level of verbal than physical abuse. More mothers than fathers identified themselves as IPV victims. As a group, IPV victims rated their child as more severely alienated than did non-IPV alienated parents. Mothers were more likely than fathers to report physical aggression by the other parent and more likely than fathers to assess their child’s alienated behaviors as more severe. Victims of physical violence reported their children were less likely to withhold positive affection from them. This knowledge may assist in earlier identification of the alienation process and greater recognition, legitimacy, funding, and opportunities for enhanced collaboration among stakeholders. This, in turn, may lead to improvements in prevention, intervention, and accountability, thus helping to interrupt alienation processes.
- Go to article: Abused Women or Abused Men? An Examination of the Context and Outcomes of Dating Violence
The present study examines the controversial issue of whether women and men are equally abused in dating relationships. Undergraduate and graduate students (n = 874) completed a survey about their experiences and perpetration of psychological, sexual, and physical aggression within dating relationships. To enable a more contextualized understanding of these phenomena, motives for and outcomes of dating violence were also assessed. Women and men reported comparable amounts of overall aggression from dating partners, but differed in the types of violence experienced. Women were more likely to experience sexual victimization, whereas men were more often the victims of psychological aggression; rates of physical violence were similar across genders. Contrary to hypotheses, women were not more likely to use physical violence in self-defense than men. However, although both genders experienced similar amounts of aggressive acts from dating partners, the impact of such violence is more severe for women than men.
Dealing with hostile interpersonal relationships at work has been the topic of many popular books and workshops. Yet, with the exception of sexual harassment, there is surprisingly little mention in the organizational research literature on the nature, extent, and costs of abusive work interactions. These more frequent, more tolerated, and, thus, more damaging interpersonal interactions involve hostile verbal and nonverbal nonphysical behaviors directed by one or more persons towards another. The primary aim is to undermine the other to ensure compliance. In this study, we examined the extent to which students experienced nonsexual nonphysical abusive behavior on their jobs, the impact of this experience on job satisfaction, the characteristics of the actor and target, and responses to these behaviors, particularly turnover. The results indicate that although most of the students had very positive interactions at work, exposure to abusive behavior was familiar, was relatively frequent, and had a negative impact on the targets. The actors tended to be bosses and older than the targets. The quality of the interpersonal relationships at work was related to job satisfaction and intention to leave. The implications of these results are discussed with respect to individual, situational, and organizational factors that may be related to the presence and impact of abusive interpersonal interactions. Avenues for research on the nature, extent, and impact of these behaviors at both the individual and organizational levels are identified.
This study adds to the available literature on female-perpetrated intimate abuse by examining Dutton’s (2007) theory of the abusive personality (AP) in a sample of 914 women who had been involved in dating relationships. Consistent with the AP, recalled parental rejection, borderline personality organization (BPO), anger, and trauma symptoms all demonstrated moderate-to-strong relationships with women’s self-reported intimate psychological abuse perpetration. Fearful attachment style demonstrated a weak-to-moderate relationship with psychological abuse perpetration. A potential model for explaining the interrelationships between the elements of the AP was tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). Consistent with the proposed model, recalled parental rejection demonstrated relationships with BPO, trauma symptoms, and fearful attachment. Similarly consistent with the model, trauma symptoms demonstrated a relationship with anger; and BPO demonstrated strong relationships with trauma symptoms, fearful attachment, and anger. Additionally, anger itself had a strong relationship with women’s self-reported perpetration of intimate psychological and physical abuse. Contrary to the proposed model, fearful attachment had a nonsignificant relationship with anger when this relationship was examined using SEM.
The study of men’s violence against their intimate partners is segregated from the study of other forms of violence. Comparing intimate partner violence (IPV) to other violence, however, allows one to examine whether the motivation and the legal response are similar. I examine whether men’s assaults on partners are particularly likely to have a control motive, whether women’s assaults on partners are particularly likely to be motivated by self-defense, and whether intimate partner violence is less likely to be reported to the police and legally sanctioned. The evidence casts doubt on the feminist approach, which has dominated the study of IPV. I suggest that a theory of instrumental violence provides a better understanding of IPV. Such an approach recognizes a variety of motives and emphasizes the role of conflict in intimate relationships, sex differences in strength and violence, and the importance of chivalry. Finally, I suggest that social scientists who study IPV should be more careful in their descriptive terminology.
One of the primary functions of the K–12 education system is to prepare children to be ready for college or a career. Central to college and career readiness is students’ proficiency in three key academic skill areas: reading, writing, and mathematics. Given the importance of academic skills, a core skill for school psychologists is the ability to collect and use assessment data that inform an intervention targeting students’ academic skills. This chapter introduces readers to the importance of evaluating the environment in which a student is receiving instruction, assessment instruments used within schools for identifying and monitoring the progress of students with academic intervention needs, and the three tiers of multi-tiered system of support (MTSS). This chapter reviews the essential components of academic assessment and intervention as well as couches them within a MTSS. It describes the relevance of social justice in implementing academic MTSS.
- Go to article: Academic Literacy and Cognitive Processing: Effects on the Examination Outcomes of Speech-Language Pathology Students at a South African University
Academic Literacy and Cognitive Processing: Effects on the Examination Outcomes of Speech-Language Pathology Students at a South African University
This study was conducted in the South African context, where education is in a state of transition. One of the central issues in higher education is the development of academic literacy. However, as a result of an inadequate focus on educational linguistics and a lack of explicit instruction in academic literacy, many students do not achieve their full potential. This study focuses on aspects of academic literacy in the examination responses of a group of students studying in the discipline of speech-language pathology. The purpose of the study was to determine whether or not there is a relationship between the students’ academic literacy skills and their ability to answer examination questions. By means of an exploratory retrospective longitudinal record review, the examination scripts of 20 students were rated for evidence of various academic literacy skills. The ratings were highly correlated to the actual examination marks in both years of study, suggesting that there is a need to incorporate explicit instruction in academic literacy to develop students’ metacognitive processes while reading and writing for academic purposes.
- Go to article: Acceptability of a Stage-Matched Expert System Intervention for Domestic Violence Offenders
Most interventions for men who batter are standardized and “one-size-fits-all,” neglecting individual differences in readiness to change. A multimedia expert system intervention based on the transtheoretical model (the “stage model”) was developed as an adjunct to traditional court-mandated programs. The expert system assesses stage of change, decisional balance, self-efficacy, and processes of change and provides immediate individualized stage-matched feedback designed to increase readiness to end the violence. Fifty-eight male batterer intervention program clients were invited by agency staff to complete an expert system session and an evaluation of the program; 33 men were recruited at program intake and the remainder from ongoing groups. Responses to the intervention were very positive. For example, 87% of participants reported that they found the program to be easy to use, and 98% said it could probably or definitely help them change their attitudes or behaviors. Findings provide encouraging evidence of the acceptability of this stage-matched approach to intervention for domestic violence offenders.
Partner aggression is a major public health concern. Batterers’ intervention programs (BIPs) are commonly used as an alternative to incarceration for offenders who have been arrested for domestic assault. Historically, BIPs have shown little effectiveness in reducing partner aggression. This article presents a new BIP based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT; Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999). ACT is a third-wave therapy that builds on the cognitive-behavioral tradition, focusing on increasing psychological flexibility by promoting acceptance and mindfulness processes. Several lines of evidence support the use of ACT in the treatment of partner aggression. Achieving Change Through Values-Based Behavior (ACTV; Lawrence, Langer Zarling, & Orengo-Aguayo, 2014) was developed based on ACT principles with a specific focus on feasibility and transferability to the community correctional setting and court-adjudicated treatment. ACTV incorporates experiential skills training and uses innovative methods to engage participants and teach the ACT processes. This article details the components of ACTV, including a case study to illustrate one participant’s journey through the program. We also present preliminary pilot data, which look promising with respect to reductions in domestic assault and violent recidivism.
This chapter provides a conceptual framework for understanding access to medical care and discusses many of the barriers faced by residents of rural communities. The sociodemographic characteristics of rural residents differ from those of urban populations in ways that may affect their need for medical care. A substantial body of research indicates that individuals without health insurance coverage are at substantially greater risk for poor medical care access and health outcomes. One of the more intractable access problems facing rural Americans is the relatively lower supply of medical care professionals practicing in rural versus urban settings. To address the shortage of health care professionals, the more limited financial resources of rural residents, and the geographic dispersion of rural populations, the federal government has implemented a number of programs aimed at improving access to rural medical care.
Purpose: Workplace accommodations are central to improving employment outcomes for people with and without disabilities; this study presents national estimates comparing accommodation requests and receipt as reported by individuals with and without disabilities.
Method: Estimates are developed from the May 2012 Current Population Survey Disability Supplement.
Results: The findings highlight variability in accommodation requests by disability type and status. Accommodation request rates are also presented by occupation and industry groups.
Conclusions: As employers voice concerns about the additional burden of employing individuals with disabilities under new regulatory requirements, our findings highlight that 95% of individuals requesting an accommodation were people without disabilities.
- Go to article: Acculturation, Gender Stereotypes, and Attitudes About Dating Violence Among Latino Youth
This study examined the relationship between personal characteristics (gender, acculturation, belief in gender stereotypes, recent dating experiences), and attitudes and knowledge about dating violence in urban Latino youth (N = 678). All participants completed self-administered surveys at school. Relative to girls, boys held more problematic (proviolence) attitudes about dating violence and reported less knowledge about dating violence and its consequences. Teens who were more traditional (less acculturated), those who endorsed gender stereotypes, and those who reported recent fearful dating experiences tended to report less knowledge about abuse and lower endorsement of nonviolent attitudes. Multivariate analyses revealed that all four personal variables predicted dating violence knowledge. By contrast, attitudes were predicted by endorsement of gender stereotypes only, or gender stereotypes and gender. Implications for dating violence interventions and future directions for research are explored.
- Go to article: Achievement Goals in Students With Learning Disabilities, Emotional or Behavioral Disorders, and Low IQ Without Special Educational Needs
Achievement Goals in Students With Learning Disabilities, Emotional or Behavioral Disorders, and Low IQ Without Special Educational Needs
This study focuses on the goal orientations of students with and without special educational needs (SEN). The sample (mean age 13 years, 10 months) was composed of 37 students with low IQ, but without SEN; 37 students who were diagnosed as having learning disability (LD); and 37 students having emotional or behavioral disorders (ED). The groups were matched by IQ and gender. The results showed that students without SEN scored significantly higher in mastery goal orientation, significantly lower in performance-avoidance orientation, and had a lower work-avoidance orientation than students with LD or ED. Students with ED showed a significantly lower performance-approach orientation than students without SEN and students with LD. Results from correlational and regression analyses showed that SEN is always an explaining variable for goal orientation and that group differences cannot be explained by IQ, gender, actual achievement, self-estimation of achievement, and school anxiety.
The past century and a half has witnessed remarkable achievements in child health in the United States. Disparities exist for many health conditions because societal and environmental influences determine how children’s bodies form and grow, and experience determines how they think and feel. This chapter outlines the contours of the problem of health inequity for children by delineating some statistics drawn from U.S. sources. It illustrates the situation by giving an example of the path through which societal inequity leads to poor health and developmental outcomes in a child with asthma. Despite what can look like a very distressing picture, all is not bleak. There are tried and true interventions that are working all over the United States. The chapter shares some of these ideas and provides bibliographic references for the reader to analyze deeper into learning about the causes of and interventions for addressing disparities in child health.
While differences in health outcomes between men and women emerged in the last century, the differences in health outcomes between groups distinguished by race, ethnicity, and other socially related factors have persisted for more than a century; as long as we have had data in the United States and across the globe. Improvements in population health and achieving health equity require an accelerated development of an area of specialization that can explicate how and why inequities among men exist, and present evidence that informs efforts to improve the health of men and reduce inequities among them. This chapter describes the phenomenon of "diseases of despair" and how it relates to men’s health disparities. It discusses how it differs from other disparity populations. It explains why discussions of men’s health disparities should inherently take an intersectionality lens and describes health disparities faced by African American men in particular.
- Go to article: Aching to be Understood: Vocational Rehabilitation Implications for Emerging Adults in Chronic Pain
Emerging adults, the developmental period ranging from the late teens through the 20s, experience chronic pain at an estimated rate of 7.6%–14.3% and report greater pain interference (i.e., pain that disrupts daily life activities) than middle-aged or older adults. Chronic pain can interfere with the completion of developmental tasks associated with biological, psychological, occupational, and social changes necessary to move from emerging adulthood into young adulthood. For these reasons, the impact of chronic pain may be more detrimental for emerging adults than for middle-aged and older adults.
To investigate the unique characteristics and vocational rehabilitation needs of emerging adults with chronic pain and to identify and implement policies, practices, and interventions that facilitate the achievement of vocational rehabilitation consumer’s self-determined goals.
The authors reviewed the literature on (a) common conditions that cause chronic pain in emerging adults, (b) the populations most at risk of experiencing chronic pain in emerging adulthood, (c) psychosocial aspects of chronic pain for this population, (d) vocational impact of chronic pain on emerging adults, and (e) the use of the disability centrality model to guide assessment and planning.
This literature review examines best practices related to vocational rehabilitation and emerging adults living with chronic pain. Comprehensive recommendations are provided that inform all phases of the vocational rehabilitation planning process, including services related to outreach and eligibility, counseling and guidance, physical and mental restoration, post-secondary education, job development and placement, and accommodation planning.
This paper examines applications of action research to rehabilitation education. An overview of action research is provided, and specific examples of action research in rehabilitation and other professions are illustrated. Emphasis is placed on utilizing action research to evaluate teaching and student learning and develop scientist practitioners who engage in active self-reflection about their practices.
It is paramount for professionals working with bereaved children to provide activities and opportunities for a child to explore his or her grief experience. Activities can provide insight to the professional about the child, their family prior to the death, and how the death has impacted the child’s environment. This chapter describes some things to keep in mind when planning activities for children and provides samples of activities that can be used with children in a support or counseling setting. Activities, by their very nature, facilitate meaning making because they allow the person to be creative, interact with others, or engage in ritual. The chapter presents a few samples of activities used over the years with children for the purpose of meaning making, continuing bonds, problem solving, and perspective building. Activities can also provide structure to the support setting.
Activity keys provide detailed suggestions for how one might craft the answer for a given activity. Part IV of the text provides the “how-to” practice chapters for the act phase to help you learn each of the steps in this phase. All of the work in the act phase builds on the work in define and study phases. This chapter provides the answer for each of the following activity keys namely, create integrated set of recommendations; develop key implementation milestones; revisit stakeholder analysis; create communication plan; implement communication plan and validate approval/consensus of recommendations; develop detailed implementation plan; and monitor results against key performance indicators.
- Go to article: Acute Alcohol Use, History of Homelessness, and Intent of Injury Among a Sample of Adult Emergency Department Patients
Acute Alcohol Use, History of Homelessness, and Intent of Injury Among a Sample of Adult Emergency Department Patients
Background: The literature is clear that adults who are currently homeless also have higher rates of intentional injuries, such as assault and suicide attempts. No study has assessed whether intentional injuries are exacerbated because of substance use among adults with a history of homelessness. Methods: Data were obtained from a cohort of adults admitted to 3 urban emergency departments (EDs) in Texas from 2007 to 2010 (N = 596). Logistic regression analyses were used to determine whether a history of homelessness was associated with alcohol use at time of injury in intentional violent injuries (gunshot, stabbing, or injury consistent with assault). Results: 39% adults with a history of homelessness who were treated at trauma centers for a violent injury. Bivariate analyses indicated that adults who had ever experienced homelessness have 1.67 increased odds, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.11, 2.50], of any intentional violent injury and 1.95 increased odds (95% CI [1.12, 3.40]) of a stabbing injury than adults with no history of homelessness. Conclusions: Adults who experienced homelessness in their lifetime were more likely to visit EDs for violence-related injuries. Given our limited knowledge of the injuries that prompt ED use by currently homeless populations, future studies are needed to understand the etiology of injuries, and substance-related injuries specifically, among adults with a history of homelessness.
Acute care hospitals and ambulatory health care facilities employ more social workers than other settings including individual and family services, schools, and state and local government agencies. The number of practicing health care professionals continues to rise and health care is now the largest employer in the United States. Acute care hospitals often include medical and surgical units, and patients need services that are required to be supervised by licensed medical personnel. Ambulatory settings provide diagnosis, treatment, and care that is not inpatient, and the treatment and care do not require the specialized services. This chapter identifies dialysis social work in nephrology settings as ambulatory care. It provides case exemplars to highlight acute and ambulatory care social work and the processes that are involved in assessment, intervention, and treatment. The chapter explicates areas of strength and concern in the present state of acute and ambulatory care social work practice delivery.
The purpose of this article is to assess the prevalence of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) following violent assault in victims who come to the emergency ward, and compare the effects with degrees of injury. Two hundred and fourteen victims of violence completed a questionnaire 1 to 2 weeks after the assault. Measures included the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, the Trauma Symptom Checklist and the Crisis Support Scale. Results: Twenty-four percent met the full ASD diagnosis and 21% a subclinical ASD diagnosis. Childhood sexual and physical abuse and shock due to a traumatic event that happened to someone close increased the likelihood of ASD four to ten times. Feeling of security and ability to express feelings reduced the likelihood of ASD by one-quarter, while feeling let down by others and hopelessness increased the likelihood of ASD respectively 1.4 and 2.6 times.
Evidence-based interventions (
EBIs) are frequently modified to accommodate a range of cultural, population, and setting factors. While EBIadaptations have the potential to improve outcomes (e.g., intervention effectiveness, acceptability, engagement), they can also negatively impact outcomes if not approached in a thoughtful manner. This chapter provides a practical primer on EBIadaptation to ensure the highest likelihood of positive outcomes. Emphasizing the use of an equity lens, we review from start to finish the adaptation process, stressing the importance of a systematic approach that retains fidelity to an EBI’s core functions and uses adaptation process frameworks. We cover reasons for and types of adaptation, how to identify if an EBIneeds to be adapted and what to adapt, considerations for intended and unintended consequences of EBIadaptation, and finally, we provide methods to systematically document and track the impact of EBIadaptations for yourself and the broader field.
Interventions for men who perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV) have historically been relatively ineffective at reducing or stopping subsequent IPV. However, there are several strong theoretical reasons that suggest Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), an intervention that emphasizes the use of mindfulness and aims to foster psychological flexibility, may be particularly well-suited to interrupting the factors that maintain IPV. The goal of the present article is to review the evidence for the application of ACT to target IPV. In addition, empirical studies that have, to date, shown promising initial support for a targeted intervention (Achieving Change Through Values-Based Behavior; ACTV) are reviewed. The implications for using ACT-based skills with perpetrators of IPV are discussed, along with potential future directions and further applications of ACT to hard-to-treat populations.
- Go to article: Adapting Dating Violence Prevention to Francophone Switzerland: A Story of Intra-Western Cultural Differences
Adapting Dating Violence Prevention to Francophone Switzerland: A Story of Intra-Western Cultural Differences
Dating violence prevention programs, which originated in the United States, are beginning to be implemented elsewhere. This article presents the first adaptation of a violence prevention program for a European culture, Francophone Switzerland. A U.S. dating violence prevention program, Safe Dates (Foshee & Langwick, 1994), was reviewed in 19 youth and 4 professional focus groups. The most fundamental program concepts—“dating” and “violence”—are not the same in Switzerland and the United States. Swiss youth were not very focused on establishing monogamous romantic relationships, and there is no ready translation for “dating.” Violence has not become the focus of a social movement in Switzerland to the same extent that it has in the United States, and distinctions among terms such as “dating violence” and “domestic violence” are not well known. Psychoeducational approaches are also less common in the Swiss context. As the movement to prevent violence extends worldwide, these issues need greater consideration.
This chapter builds on the concept of adaptive leadership first developed by Heifetz in 1994 and subsequently refined by others. The concept is further developed using the authors’ own leadership experiences to propose seven guiding pillars that can help advance adaptive leadership in healthcare and public health settings. To illustrate these seven guiding pillars, the authors examined contributions from the world of academic public health about adaptive leadership in the face of the
COVID-19pandemic as well as the institutions’ responses to other changes. The chapter discusses the importance of adaptive leadership and demonstrates the value of adaptive leadership as an approach to lead in public health and healthcare settings. It analyzes the seven foundational pillars of adaptive leadership and examines illustrative leadership case studies from academic public health including examples from the COVID-19pandemic. The chapter applies adaptive leadership concepts in different scenarios.
- Go to article: Added Cost and Time Spent by Patients With History of Abuse in Florida Emergency Departments
Interpersonal violence is known to lead to both short- and long-term health effects. Victims of sexual abuse tend to have higher healthcare costs and higher rates of physical and mental health issues than nonvictims. In this study, we investigate whether the comorbidity of mental illness and a personal history of adult physical and sexual abuse (HAPSA) results in higher healthcare costs and length of emergency department (ED) stay among Florida residents. A Negative Binomial and Log-Linear Regression Analysis suggest increased ED visit duration for those with a history of abuse, Hispanics, the uninsured, and those with multiple comorbidities. In addition, increased costs were found to be associated with White race, the uninsured, those with multiple comorbidities, and the facility type (for-profit hospitals).
- Go to article: Adding Insult to Injury: Development and Initial Validation of the Partner- Directed Insults Scale
Women who are verbally abused by their intimate male partners suffer serious mental health consequences and often experience physical violence in their relationship. Despite the importance of studying verbal abuse, no previous research has investigated the specific content of the insults men use to derogate their partners. We present the development and initial validation of a new measure designed to assess the specific content of insults used by men against their intimate partners. In a preliminary study, we used feedback from battered women, along with a review of the relevant literature, to identify specific insults for inclusion in the Partner-Directed Insults Scale (PDIS). We administered the PDIS to a sample of United States participants (Study 1) and a sample of New Zealand participants (Study 2), allowing for a cross-national investigation of the specific insults that men use to derogate their partners. The results demonstrate the practical need for such a scale and provide evidence for the discriminant validity of the PDIS by documenting that men’s use of insults predicts their use of controlling behaviors and physical violence.
Although mental health professionals embrace broad assessment protocols, which attempt to incorporate biopsychosocial, and, more recently, the cultural and spiritual identities of the individual, attention is rarely given to the individual's unique internal and external sources of strength and support. The limitations of traditional medical model diagnosis, particularly in the form of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders classification system, have been noted by many researchers and practitioners. At the same time, research has focused on predictive factors in treatment outcome, both in terms of client characteristics and in the utility of evidence-based treatment protocols applied to specific mental disorders. The cumulative themes in contemporary discussions of diagnostic systems and effective treatments, logically related to diagnosis, suggest the need for an additional core component of the diagnostic system, for which the authors advocate the Intersectionality/Resiliency Formulation.
- Go to chapter: Adding Value to Physical Therapy With Health Literacy Tools and the Explanatory Model
Individuals with lower health literacy tend to use health care services that are more costly. Because one-third to one-half of people has difficulty with health literacy, the best course may be to offer accessible health information and health services to everyone. According to the research on interventions to facilitate adherence, physical therapists should consider implementing self-management strategies, assessing learning style, discussing barriers and benefits to exercise, discussing health beliefs, and selecting activities that the patient finds enjoyable. This chapter reviews the Explanatory Model which can facilitate communication with the patient/client. The use of this model is essential for successfully managing the patient/client experience both in assessing and addressing health literacy as well as wellness. Physical therapists work to teach motor behavior and psychomotor skills frequently in their practice. The chapter addresses some of the key areas that should be considered when teaching motor behavior and skill translation.
- Go to chapter: Addressing Cardiovascular Health Disparities of Chinese Immigrants in New York City: A Case Study of the Chinese-American Healthy Heart Coalition
Addressing Cardiovascular Health Disparities of Chinese Immigrants in New York City: A Case Study of the Chinese-American Healthy Heart Coalition
This chapter describes how cardiovascular health disparities were addressed via the Chinese-American Healthy Heart Coalition, while distilling principles for effective collaborations that others may follow. It emphasizes the use of a community-wide multipronged integrated approach to providing culturally competent and linguistically appropriate health education and health care services for medically underserved Chinese immigrants, as well as use of an asset-based community development intervention approach focused on increasing social capital. It discusses innovative strategies used by the Healthy Heart Coalition in addressing cardiovascular diseases among Chinese Americans in New York City. In addition, the discussion covers the process involved in capacity building, sustaining and managing a coalition, as well as lessons learned through this collaborative venture. The chapter presents a case study, which illustrates the substantial resources, time, and effort required in forming such partnerships, and discusses strategies that the Healthy Heart Coalition used to counter some of the major challenges.
This chapter explains a set of guidelines to help mental health professionals and clients move away from the gender stereotypes that perpetuate inequality and illness. Identifying dominance requires conscious awareness and understanding of how gender mediates between mental health and relationship issues. An understanding of what limits equality is significantly increased when we examine how gendered power plays out in a particular relationship and consider how it intersects with other social positions such as socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation. To contextualize emotion, the therapist draws on knowledge of societal and cultural patterns, such as gendered power structures and ideals for masculinity and femininity that touch all people’s lives in a particular society. Therapists who seek to support women and men equally take an active position that allows the non-neutral aspects of gendered lives to become visible.
- Go to article: Addressing Intimate Partner Violence in Primary Care: Lessons From Chronic Illness Management
Though many studies have documented the high prevalence, morbidity, mortality and costs attributable to intimate partner violence (IPV), it is still unclear how our health care system should address this major public health problem. Many have advocated for routine screening, yet there is still insufficient evidence that routine IPV screening can lead to improved outcomes. Though recognition of IPV is very important, a screening paradigm may not be the optimal way to approach IPV within the health care system. For many patients, exposure to violence is a chronic condition, characterized by long-term abusive relationships, histories of childhood and community violence, multiple associated chronic symptoms, and extra barriers to addressing their other chronic illnesses. Thus, there may be important lessons to be learned from work being done in the area of chronic care. We explore how Wagner’s Chronic Care model may guide efforts to improve health care for IPV survivors and may serve as a framework for future research studies.
Substance users have substantially reduced rates of use of preventive health care services, and reduced rates of compliance with prescribed medical treatment. Primary care providers are frequently overwhelmed and may be reluctant to address substance-related problems given few resources. Direct collaboration with a behavioral health specialist (BHS) co-located within the primary care clinic results in increased efficiency and better treatment outcomes. There are excellent resources available for the BHS who will provide tobacco abuse interventions in the primary care setting. A number of behavioral factors should be considered in effectively addressing substance use and abuse in the primary care setting. Primary care providers should also be alert to unexplained vague symptoms, somatic complaints, difficulty with sleep, anxiousness, frequent life disruptions or chaotic lifestyle, and a family history of mental health problems or substance abuse.
- Go to article: Addressing the Intersections of Violence and HIV/AIDS: A Qualitative Study of Service Providers
This article examines what measures health care and social service providers take to address intersections between various forms of violence and HIV/AIDS in the delivery of services to their clients/patients. We operated within an organizational/interactional uncertainty theoretical framework and analyzed qualitative interview data from 30 providers offering services related to violence or HIV/AIDS in the San Francisco Bay Area. We found that providers used several strategies to mitigate crossover risk, but they enacted these measures on a case-by-case basis and tended not to follow a dedicated and complete protocol with every client/patient. We also identify nine factors that affected providers’ capacity to discern and effectively address violence–HIV/AIDS intersections, present providers’ descriptions of their needs in terms of addressing crossover risk, and discuss implications for interventions.
- Go to article: Addressing the Syndemic Effects of Incarceration: The Role of Rehabilitation Counselors in Public Health
Addressing the Syndemic Effects of Incarceration: The Role of Rehabilitation Counselors in Public Health
The role of rehabilitation counseling in addressing major public health issues is an emerging area in the field. Despite higher rates of disease burden among currently or formerly incarcerated people, the syndemic effects of incarceration has received little attention. This article outlines how to think of incarceration from a syndemic perspective.
The authors of this article draw upon syndemic theory to 1) describe the social determinants of health that lead to a greater risk of incarceration of people with substance use disorders (SUD), mental illness (MI), and infectious diseases (ID), 2) describe the syndemic impact of incarceration leading to more significant levels of disability for these populations, and 3) discuss implications for rehabilitation counseling professionals.
This article highlights that incarceration may interact synergistically in various syndemics, having an exacerbated health and economic effects on individuals who are/were incarcerated, their families, and communities.
By employing stigma reduction strategies, advocating for prevention and treatment services, and addressing social determinants of health, rehabilitation counseling professionals have a substantial role to play in mitigating the syndemic impact of incarceration on people with SUD, MI, and ID.
Life experiences affect the health and well-being of different groups of people. Groups that have less power or social status and those with low family income are more vulnerable to health inequities. Vulnerability, driven by lower income or less power and social status, makes it harder for people to be healthy, stay healthy, prevent illness, and have better outcomes when they become sick or ill. The United States, throughout the 20th century, as one of the wealthiest nations in the world, made strides toward increasing access to health care for populations experiencing vulnerability. Employer-based health insurance in the 1960s, the establishment of community health centers in the 1970s, and the creation of the Children’s Health Insurance Program in the 1990s all worked toward solving health issues. A shift to community-oriented policies and programs that address the social origins of vulnerability can lead to greater improvements in health outcomes.
This article explores the correlates of immediate and short-term psychological distress among victims of burglary, robbery, and nonsexual assault. A panel design was employed. Crime victims were interviewed within 1 month following the incident and again 3 months later. Four sets of predictors were examined: demographics, previctimization adjustment and stress, features of the crime incident, and victims’ perceptions. Measures of distress included a range of standard indices of adjustment and symptomatology. Demographic characteristics and victim perceptions accounted for the greatest proportions of variance in the outcome measures at Time 1 and Tune 2. The strongest predictors of psychological adjustment at the end of 3 months included adjustment after 1 month, education, victim injury, victims’ beliefs that their lives had been endangered during the crime episode, and victims’ appraisals of the world as meaningful. Implications for treatment and directions for future studies are discussed.
- Go to article: Adjustment and Needs of African-American Women Who Utilized a Domestic Violence Shelter
To better understand what environmental and contextual factors influence resource acquisition and subsequent adjustment for African-American women who have been battered, this article explores the experiences of 60 women from the 6 months prior to entering a shelter through a 10-week postshelter advocacy program. Results indicate that African-American battered women who use domestic violence shelters face an array of obstacles: Most had been severely abused, were likely to be living below the poverty line, were unemployed, and were in need of numerous resources. However, in spite of numerous obstacles and continued violence, African-American women overall felt confident in themselves and satisfied with their lives 10 weeks after shelter. Results also indicate that short-term advocacy services were beneficial to African-American women exiting a domestic violence shelter. Implications of these findings as they relate to formal community response and further research are discussed.
- Go to article: Administrators’ Perceptions of College Campus Protocols, Response, and Student Prevention Efforts for Sexual Assault
Administrators’ Perceptions of College Campus Protocols, Response, and Student Prevention Efforts for Sexual Assault
Background: Sexual assault disproportionately affects college students. Because most survivors do not report sexual assault, research has explored individual factors related to the reporting, with limited research exploring institutional-level factors related to victims’ decisions to report their experiences. Objective: The purpose of this research was to describe three key areas: (a) campus assault adjudication, (b) protocols and campus responses to assault, and (c) provision of student prevention education regarding sexual violence. Participants: A nationally representative sample of 1,067 campus administrators responded to a survey regarding institutional sexual assault policies and procedures. Conclusions: Findings suggest that although many institutions are responding adequately to sexual assault in these three areas, improvements are possible. Implications for improving campus responses and further research are discussed.
Adolescents have high rates of rape victimization and offending compared to other age groups, yet few studies have examined predictors of rape-supportive attitudes among adolescents. Drawing from Burl’s (1980) study of rape myth acceptance among adults, this study tests a path analytic model of adolescent attitudes about victim precipitation of rape, using a sample of 1393 cases from the National Youth Survey (NYS) (Elliott, Ageton, Huizinga, Knowles, & Cantor, 1983). LISREL (Jöreskeg & Sörbom, 1988) estimation procedures are applied. Results show direct effects of sociocultural influences on an individual’s level of rape myth acceptance, but demonstrate some interesting gender differences. Findings also reveal indirect effects of age, race, and socioeconomic status on attitudes toward rape, which operate through traditional gender role stereotyping. Educating young adolescents about the nature of rape and the rights and roles of women are logical points of intervention to decrease acceptance of rape myths that target the victim.
This chapter identifies the most robust conclusions and ideas about adolescent development and psychological functioning that have emerged since Petersen’s 1988 review. We begin with a discussion of topics that have dominated recent research, including adolescent problem behavior, parent-adolescent relations, puberty, the development of the self, and peer relations. We then identify and examine what seem to us to be the most important new directions that have come to the fore in the last decade, including research on diverse populations, contextual influences on development, behavioral genetics, and siblings. We conclude with a series of recommendations for future research on adolescence.
- Go to article: Adolescent Experience With Dating Violence in Relation to Virginity Status: Findings From a Jamaican Sample
Adolescent Experience With Dating Violence in Relation to Virginity Status: Findings From a Jamaican Sample
The association between adolescents’ involvement in sexual intercourse and their experiences with adolescent dating violence (ADV) is an understudied topic. This study examined this relationship for 178 Jamaican adolescents in Grades 9–11. The expectation that adolescents who reported having had sexual intercourse would report greater victimization and greater perpetration than adolescents who had not had intercourse was consistent only for sexual abuse. Analyses also showed that sexually experienced males perpetrated and experienced more psychological abuse compared to males who were not so experienced. These results suggest different experiences based on adolescents’ sex and so support others’ calls for ADV research to do more examinations by sex. Also, it endorses the importance of doing research on both victims and perpetrators of intimate abuse. Implications of these findings for sexual and relationship education of adolescents are discussed.
- Go to article: Adolescent School Bullying and Life Skills: A Systematic Review of the Recent Literature
The health consequences of being involved in bullying and cyberbullying are well described for adolescents, but many questions related to the role played by their life skills remain unanswered. Accordingly, this systematic review aims to provide a clear overview of research on the relationships between bullying involvement as a bully, victim, bully-victim or bystander, and adolescents' life skills. This article systematically reviewed 71 relevant empirical studies that met the inclusion criteria, extracted from the PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, Sage, Wiley, and SpringerLink databases. Their main findings were categorized according to the three types of life skills described by the World Health Organization: decision-making/problem-solving skills, interpersonal and communication skills, and self-management skills. Results showed relatively consensual outcomes for communication and interpersonal skills (empathy, moral disengagement) and skills for managing stress (coping strategies). Other decision-making or interpersonal skills, such as executive function or theory of mind, were poorly explored, and require further research, if we are to understand how life skills may be involved in bullying. Taken together, our findings highlight methodological heterogeneity and measurement problems in bullying studies that make their results difficult to interpret. Recommendations for prevention/education health researchers and professionals are provided, emphasizing the importance of considering the sociocognitive development of adolescents in bullying prevention.
- Go to article: Adolescents’ Development of New Skills for Prospective Cognition: Learning to Anticipate, Plan, and Think Strategically
Adolescents’ Development of New Skills for Prospective Cognition: Learning to Anticipate, Plan, and Think Strategically
Adolescence is an important age period for the development of prospective cognition. Teenagers become able to reason about the future, including anticipating events and formulating plans to reach goals. This article focuses on adolescents’ development of skills for strategic thinking: for anticipating possible scenarios in a plan and formulating flexible plans that take these into account. We have studied teens’ work on projects within youth programs (such as arts, leadership programs) because they provide real-world-like contexts for understanding development of these skills. Two case studies demonstrate the complexity of strategic skills and how they are learned. Effective strategic thinking requires learning to anticipate the particularities of the contexts and people involved in reaching a goal, for example, how to communicate effectively with a specific audience through a specific medium. It also requires learning general “meta” concepts and strategies that apply across situations, such as formulating plans that take uncertainties into account.
- Go to article: “Adolescent” South Africa (18 Years Since Democratization): Challenges for Universities to Optimize Wellness as a Prerequisite for Cognitive Development and Learning in a Diverse Society
“Adolescent” South Africa (18 Years Since Democratization): Challenges for Universities to Optimize Wellness as a Prerequisite for Cognitive Development and Learning in a Diverse Society
South Africa’s development since 1994 has been of interest to many people across the world as the diverse nature of our society, including the growing diversity of student populations at our universities, demands very special interventions and initiatives to help create a healthier society. Research at Stellenbosch University demonstrates a positive relationship between wellness (which includes its intellectual, social, emotional, physical, spiritual and occupational dimensions) and student success. The main focus of this article is on how a university can develop systemic-holistic strategies to enhance wellness. High levels of wellness in students contribute toward the formation of harmonious and healthy communities on campus, where diversity is regarded as an asset. Furthermore, these “well” students will one day enter the world of work as well-rounded professionals and global citizens who do not hesitate to continue contributing toward the creation of a better society. Academic (or cognitive) success is of vital importance; however, student success in our very diverse context requires a much wider spectrum of characteristics or graduate outcomes for them to flourish and contribute optimally.
The goal of this study was to examine behavioral norm effects in 2 peer contexts (classroom, school) on adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, cannabis) and aggressive behaviors (bullying, physical fighting). Participants were 5,642 adolescents (Mage = 14.29 years, SD = 1.26; 49% boys). There were 3 hypotheses. First, behavioral norms in both contexts affect individual behavior. Second, classroom norms have stronger effects on individual behavior than school norms. Third, classroom and school norms interact and exacerbate each other’s influence. Results indicated that classroom norms had stronger effects than school norms on individual tobacco and alcohol use. Furthermore, school norms had equal or stronger effects than classroom norms on the 2 indicators of aggressive behaviors. There was no evidence for an interaction between classroom and school norms for any dependent variable. This study demonstrates that the complexity of multiple (nested) peer contexts should be considered to fully understand peer influence processes.
- Go to article: Adolescents Who Assault Their Parents: A Different Family Profile of Young Offenders?
Some authors have proposed that the mechanisms underlying adolescent-to-parent abuse seem to be different from other forms of juvenile delinquency. Given that this aggression is exerted within the family setting, our study was aimed to explore if there was a differential family profile for those adolescents who commit a parent abuse offense compared to those who commit other types of offenses. Judicial files of 1,046 young offenders from the Juvenile Justice Service of Jaén (Spain) were examined. The final sample (654 young offenders) was divided into 2 groups: those who had committed offenses against a parent (parent abuse group) and those who had committed other types of offenses (other offenses group). Results showed that families with parent abuse have differential characteristics, especially regarding the family size, type of household, parenting styles, and the patterns of interactions between the family members.
This study explores the connection between violent victimization in adolescence and subsequent problem drinking. Using national data we estimate the effects of adolescent victimization on a 3-category problem drinking measure (Abstainers, Moderate, and Binge Drinkers). We also examine the differences in the social and personal consequences of drinking across victims and non-victims. These consequences include harm to friendships, health, outlook on life, marriage, work, studies, and financial position. Victims of adolescent violence are more likely to engage in subsequent binge drinking and experience negative drinking consequences, particularly negative financial consequences. The findings are consistent with the adolescent development literature, which has highlighted the importance of violent victimization in the transition to adult roles and responsibilities. Additional research, particularly longitudinal data on violent victimization and substance abuse on a nationally representative sample of young people and adults is needed to further explore the connection between violent victimization and subsequent problem drinking.
This chapter examines the challenges and opportunities of adoption as well as the lifelong issues of the adopted child. Adoption from child welfare agencies typically occurs after foster care placement, when it becomes apparent that birth parents will be unable to reunite with their children. Media attention can be given to children who are free for adoption. Race and ethnicity are among the most controversial issues in adoption practices and typically focus on whether it is preferable to place a child with a family of a different race/ethnicity if a family of the same race/ethnicity is unavailable. Religious beliefs and faith also play a role in adoption. Many adoptive families tout the importance and success of international adoption. Adoption from foster care and international adoption can be very positive experiences for children and families. Although adoption disruption and dissolution occur infrequently, it is a traumatic experience when it does occur.
This study investigates whether the criminological construct of attachment plays a role in the link between family violence victimization experiences in childhood and adult violent behavior. Data collected from undergraduate students was used to estimate the independent effect of adult attachment type on the victimization-violence link and it was used to examine main effects and interactions between family violence-adult attachment types on adult violent behavior. Consistent with past research, results revealed significant associations between direct experiences of victimization and violent behavior. Multivariate analyses using interaction terms also found significant interactions, indicating moderation effects, which were further investigated. Results revealed that social learning theory may be useful in explaining violence among those who have experienced high victimization, whereas social control theory may be useful in explaining adult violence for those who have experienced low or no levels of violence early in life. Given this study’s findings, further research to examine the means by which family violence victimization experiences develop into violent behavioral patterns is recommended.
Research on brain structure and function in white-collar criminals is a notable gap in the neurolaw literature, a gap that was addressed for the first time in one recent research report. Neuroscience is suggesting a link between brain abnormalities and some types of criminal behavior, but it is not yet clear exactly what those abnormalities are. Research on brain function and criminality focuses primarily on levels of hormones and neurotransmitters involved in neuronal communication. The findings regarding connections between the brain and adult criminal behavior, preliminary as they are, have implications for social work practice, including prevention of criminal behavior as well as intervention with offenders. The consistent finding that the likelihood of antisocial behavior is greatest when genetically based brain abnormalities encounter harsh environments has implications for social policy beyond the criminal justice system.
- Go to article: Adult Health and Relationship Outcomes Among Women With Abuse Experiences During Childhood
Associations between child abuse and/or witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) during childhood and women’s health, adult IPV exposure, and health care use were examined. Randomly sampled insured women ages 18–64 (N = 3,568) completed a phone interview assessing childhood exposure to abuse and witnessing IPV, current health, and adult IPV exposure. Women’s health care use was collected from automated health plan databases. Poor health status, higher prevalence of depression and IPV, and greater use of health care and mental health services were observed in women who had exposure to child abuse and witnessing IPV during childhood or child abuse alone, compared with women with no exposures. Women who had witnessed IPV without child abuse also had worse health and greater use of health services. Findings reveal adverse long-term and incremental effects of differing child abuse experiences on women’s health and relationships.
- Go to article: Adulthood Depression, Anxiety, and Trauma Symptoms: A Comparison of Women With Nonabusive, Abusive, and Absent Father Figures in Childhood
Adulthood Depression, Anxiety, and Trauma Symptoms: A Comparison of Women With Nonabusive, Abusive, and Absent Father Figures in Childhood
We collected data from 447 women (aged 18 or higher) from seven domestic violence programs and five substance use disorder treatment programs in a midwestern state. Women who reported a nonabusive natural/adoptive father or stepfather (N = 185), abusive natural/adoptive father or stepfather (N = 200), or absent father figure (N = 40) were compared on a series of mental health measures with multivariate analysis of variance and pairwise post hoc comparisons using the Bonferroni test. Women with absent father figures were found to have significantly lower mean scores on the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40) than women with abusive fathers. There were no significant differences between women with absent father figures and women with nonabusive father figures on the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and TSC-40. Implications for research, practice, and policy are discussed.
This chapter focuses on the role that Adult Protective Services (APS) and related service systems play in protecting vulnerable older adults and adults with disabilities from abuse, neglect, and exploitation. It articulates policy issues connected to elder justice. The chapter also explores human rights issues related to elder abuse, aging, and disabilities, particularly how to balance rights to self-determination and safety when working with abused, neglected, and exploited older adults. APS operate within a continuum of services that challenge social workers in their efforts to respond effectively to elder abuse. In addition to knowledge of aging, disabilities, the dynamics of family violence and care giving, and community resources and skills in capacity assessment, working in multidisciplinary teams, advocacy, and systems navigation, social workers need commitment to values of self-determination and empowerment to guide their work in this system.
Somatic preoccupation has been associated with a variety of comorbid psychiatric conditions including childhood trauma, personality disorder, and depression. The current study was undertaken to simultaneously explore the inter-relationship of these psychiatric variables as conceptualized in a path model. Participants (N = 120), both men and women, seen for nonemergent health care in a resident-staffed internal medicine clinic, were given questionnaires exploring the presence of childhood trauma, borderline personality symptomatology, current depression, worry, and somatic preoccupation. With one exception, all simple correlation coefficients among study variables were relatively substantial. By sequencing variables into an a priori model and using a path analytic approach, several indirect and direct relationships among variables were evident. Most important, childhood trauma exhibited a direct effect on somatic preoccupation as well as indirect effects through borderline personality disturbance and current depression. These data suggest that childhood trauma may be a precursor for somatic preoccupation during adulthood.
In the age of technology, numerous data sources beyond traditional medical/health data have been harnessed for disease control. The data sources available for epidemiologic surveillance range from survey apps and news websites, to search data, to wearable sensors and social media platforms. One of the potential advantages of digital data sources is early disease detection. There is growing potential to use machine learning and big data to forecast disease spread, and personalized medical and public health approaches to customize care and disease response. Applications of these technologies include improved data visualization and communication but these must be weighed with the protection of individual rights and challenges of combining data sets created for different purposes. This chapter enumerates the 21st century disease control advances and explains how social media, big data, and search tools are used to improve disease control. It demonstrates the role of the P-value and confidence intervals in data analysis.
Using Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory, this chapter highlights the unique strengths and challenges faced by gender and sexual minority (GSM) youth and highlights future directions for research that we believe hold promise in promoting the health and well-being of this special population. It presents a review of the research as applied to physical and mental health disparities that impact GSM youth and discusses the two dominant psychosocial models that explain the contributing factors to these disparities. Notably, public opinion has been shifting toward greater acceptance and inclusion of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community, and the 21st century has seen a large increase in the number of protections and rights afforded to GSM individuals. Future research should continue to examine and replicate the impact of minority stress in more recent cohorts of GSM adolescents to determine whether improvements in the social environment result in decreases in health disparities.
This chapter provides tangible suggestions and concrete resources for community health researchers interested in using the emerging methods in their current and future projects. A creation and adoption of an up-to-date national health agenda and the passing of the comprehensive Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) create a favorable climate for community health researchers. National Institutes of Health (NIH) has recognized the importance of addressing health in the context of communities and, has given increased support to the use of innovative research methods, including community-based participatory research, mobile health technologies, systems science and mixed-methods research. The development of leadership and engagement skills could complement methods-specific training and support community health researchers in their efforts to conduct community-engaged and contextually specific research. Partnering with other researchers and community members to learn and apply innovative research methods is a necessary steps toward more effectively addressing and improving the health of communities.
The past few decades have witnessed significant growth in the disability sector and the rehabilitation counseling profession has responded by broadening its scope of practice to serve a range of people who experience illness, injury, and social disadvantage. Despite the sector's growth and the profession's flexible response to it, the rehabilitation counseling profession in Australia continues to face challenges in relation to its professional identity. The purpose of this article is to identify these challenges and present solutions by reviewing literature and professionalization responses in Australia and the United States.
In this article, we examine ways of transcending the professional identity challenges faced by the Australian rehabilitation counseling community. This is achieved firstly by defining the characteristics of professions and their application to rehabilitation counseling and second, by suggesting possible actions to advance the profession.
The necessary responses identified include the need for stronger professional governance, further development of the evidence base, and strict professional membership regulations. These goals will require the input of professional bodies and members, universities, rehabilitation regulators, employers, people with disabilities, and their families.
Rehabilitation counseling is a valued allied health and human service profession in the Australian work injury and disability sectors. By drawing on the experience of the profession in the United States, the authors have identified issues and solutions to facilitate the sustainability and advancement of rehabilitation counseling in Australia.
- Go to article: Adverse Childhood Experiences, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, and Emotional Intelligence in Partner Aggression
Adverse Childhood Experiences, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, and Emotional Intelligence in Partner Aggression
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been linked to childhood abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and low emotional intelligence (EI). Relationships among adverse childhood experiences (ACE), PTSD symptoms, and partner aggression (i.e., generalized tendency to aggress toward one’s partner) were assessed in 108 male IPV offenders. It was hypothesized that ACE is positively correlated with partner aggression, PTSD mediates the ACE-aggression relationship, and the ACE-PTSD-aggression mediation varies by selected EI facets. Results indicate that ACE has an indirect effect on partner aggression via PTSD and PTSD mediates the ACE–aggression link when emotional self-regulation is low and when intuition (vs. reason) is high. Trauma-exposed IPV offenders may benefit from comprehensive treatments focusing on PTSD symptoms, emotional control, and reasoning skills to reduce aggression.
- Go to article: Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes and Sexual Violence Among Female Sex Workers Who Inject Drugs on the United States–Mexico Border
Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes and Sexual Violence Among Female Sex Workers Who Inject Drugs on the United States–Mexico Border
This study examines the prevalence of miscarriage/stillbirth among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) and measures its associations with physical and sexual violence. Baseline data from 582 FSW-IDUs enrolled in an HIV intervention study in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico were used for current analyses. 30% of participants had experienced at least one miscarriage/stillbirth, 51% had experienced sexual violence, and 49% had experienced physical violence. History of miscarriage/stillbirth was associated with sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.7, p = .02) but not physical violence. Additional reproductive risks associated with miscarriage/stillbirth included high numbers of male clients in the previous month (aOR = 1.1 per 30 clients, p = 0.04), history of abortion (aOR = 3.7, p < .001), and higher number of pregnancies (aOR = 1.4 per additional pregnancy, p < .001). Programs and research with this population should integrate reproductive health and consider gender-based violence.
- Go to article: Affective, Behavioral, and Social-Cognitive Dysregulation as Mechanisms for Sexual Abuse Revictimization
Affective, Behavioral, and Social-Cognitive Dysregulation as Mechanisms for Sexual Abuse Revictimization
Using a sample of 1,117 female college students, this study examined emotional, behavioral, and social-cognitive mechanisms of sexual abuse revictimization. It was hypothesized that numbing, alexithymia, alcohol problems, mistrust, and adult attachment dimensions would mediate the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual abuse (ASA). Aside from the close adult attachment dimension, the results indicated that all of the hypothesized mediators were associated with CSA. However, only alcohol problems and mistrust met the necessary conditions of mediation. The results with respect to mistrust are especially unique in that it is one of the first empirical demonstrations of a social-cognitive mechanism for sexual abuse revictimization. Thus, these results enhance our understanding of interpersonal mediators of the relationship between CSA and ASA and provide a new direction for future research.
This chapter explains the Affordable Care Act (
ACA), including its achievements, limitations, and major oppositions to the legislation. When Barack Obama became President in 2008, the U.S. health care system had been the object of intense scrutiny and criticism for some time. The Obama administration responded with passage of the ACAin 2010. The ACAbrought about comprehensive change that addressed many of the health care system’s problems. The ACAwas a huge step forward in providing access to health care, particularly for low-income families. Despite these improvements in the health care system, the ACAhas been opposed since its inception. From the beginning, the ACAwas generally hailed by Democrats, while most Republicans were critical. Instead, the Trump administration threats to the ACAhave come in the form of executive actions, federal legislation, and legal actions.