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- Go to article: Fortune Favors the Bold: Special Series of the Vocational Rehabilitation Technical Assistance Center for Quality Employment
Background: Although there is an increasing demand for workers in STEM fields, people with disabilities are underrepresented in STEM educational programs and related occupations. Among those who achieved competitive integrated employment after serving under an Individualized Plan for Employment (IPE) by the state-federal vocational rehabilitation (VR) system, only 5.3% of individuals with disabilities were engaged in STEM jobs/careers during the years 2017–2019. Of those with an employment outcome in STEM fields, 8,348 (40.9%) were transition-age youth aged 14–24.
Objective: Using Rehabilitation Service Administration (RSA-911) data for the fiscal years from 2017 to 2019, the current study investigated the characteristics of transition-age youth with disabilities aged 14–24 in the state-federal VR system that predicted employment outcomes in STEM fields.
Methods: A logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between individual characteristics and STEM career attainment.
Findings: Results illustrated that gender, race, living arrangement, and the receipt of general assistance/SSI/SSDI/TANF predicted employment outcomes in STEM fields.
Conclusions: The research findings provide support for the understanding of demographic characteristics of transition-age youth with disabilities successfully closed in STEM jobs/careers after serving under an IPE. A discussion of the strategies and interventions associated with promoting career development and decisions toward the STEM field for transition-age youth with disabilities is provided.
- Go to article: Employer Practices for Customized Training for Onboarding of People With Disabilities
Background: To improve employment outcome, systematic research that is based on demand-side needs is needed to clarify how employer practice factors can affect customized training efforts.
Objective: The purpose of this study is to report the results of a scoping review to identify the best employer practices that are used to improve customized training efforts and results for people with disabilities in the workplace.
Method: A scoping review of demand-side employment literature was conducted. Five databases were searched for articles published between 1985 and 2017. After filtering articles based on the search criteria, the final number of articles included in the analysis was 27.
Findings: We identified three key themes related to customized training efforts. These include: (a) employment support, (b) work values, and (c) employment temperature.
Conclusion: The findings of this scoping review provide valuable information for disability employment professionals and rehabilitation counselors to engage and assist employers in relation to customized training efforts.
- Go to article: Effective Vocational Rehabilitation Services for Transition-Aged Youth: Lessons From the Literature
Objective: The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the current literature regarding the vocational rehabilitation services found effective in promoting employment among transition-age youth with disabilities as well as identifying factors affecting the effectiveness of those services.
Methods: This study utilized the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines to theoretically and methodologically ground the systematic review. Through a three-stage filtering process, 35 studies were identified that helped identify common and effective vocational rehabilitation services for transition-aged youth.
Findings: Three major themes were observed in the review of literature: validated vocational rehabilitation services, vocational rehabilitation counselor factors, and demographic variables.
Conclusions: Additional research is needed in the role of disability severity as a variable of successful service provision. Further identifying successful vocational services for varying levels of disability severity will provide vocational rehabilitation consumers with more individualized options and has the potential to increase positive case closure rates. Lastly, research indicated a need for continued training of VR counselors to ensure they are meeting the needs of their consumers.
- Go to article: Employer Practices for Integrating People With Disabilities Into the Workplace: A Scoping Review
Background: Workplace inclusion contributes to job satisfaction and innovation. Integrating people with disabilities (PWDs) improves productivity, morale, creativity, problem-solving, and commitment. Previous evidence revealed that employers are ambivalent about integrating PWDs. There remains a paucity of literature that examines demand-side employment practices of integrating PWDs in the workplace.
Objective: The present study comprehensively reviewed the demand-side employment literature to identify existing practices used to improve the integrating PWDs in the workplace.
Methods: A scoping review was employed. Articles were retrieved from PsycInfo, Academic Search, Web-science, American Business Index, and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global and published in English from January 1985 to August 2017.
Findings: The scoping review yielded 19 articles. Three themes were identified as common and effective employer practices, including (a) policy and allegation, (b) internal and external partnerships, and (c) organizational top-down management diversity support.
Conclusion: The findings of this scoping review provide collective information for integrating PWDs in the workplace. Findings shed some light on employer and rehabilitation counselors to engage and assist employers in promoting an inclusive workplace climate.
- Go to article: Employment Outcomes for People With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Theory Mapping of the Evidence
Background: People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are three to four times less largely to be with employment compared to neurotypical others. Theory based studies may provide helpful indicators for the design and implementation of employment supports for people with ASD.
Objective: This critical review examined the extent of the evidence for theory in studies on employment outcomes for people with ASD and taking into account social inequality. For the evidence, 35 studies were selected for review if they were published in the period 2000–2016 and assessed for the association between work participation with ASD applying descriptive survey or quasi-experimental design.
Methods: Studies were examined for use of any theory, including four predetermined theory types: social liminality, psychosocial, behavioral, and structural-infrastructural. They were also content-analyzed to determine if they cited any evidence of social inequality influences on employment outcomes with ASD.
Findings: Results indicated that none of the studies explicitly applied and tested a theory on work participation with ASD. Rather, the majority of the studies were implicitly framed on predominantly behavioral type theory with minor elements of workplace psychosocial support theory-oriented interventions. Regard of structural-infrastructural type theory addressing social inequality is incidentally addressed by a few of the studies (n = 3) that examined family income status influences.
Conclusion: In conclusion, extant studies on the association between employment outcomes and ASD are seriously limited in their explanatory value by a lack of theoretical grounding. They also neglect influences of antecedent social inequality in employment outcomes with ASD. Future studies should apply specific theory to questions on employment outcomes with ASD to provide usable evidence to inform employment support policy instruments and interventions for people with ASD.
- Go to article: Reduced Posttraumatic Stress in Mothers Taking Part in Group Interventions for Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence
Reduced Posttraumatic Stress in Mothers Taking Part in Group Interventions for Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence
This study investigated whether interventions for children exposed to intimate partner violence combining parallel groups for children and mothers contribute to positive outcomes for partaking mothers. The study included 39 mothers in a long-term within-subject design without a control group in a Swedish naturalistic setting. Maternal psychological health was assessed pre- and posttreatment and at 6-month and 12-month follow-up. Mothers reported medium- to large-sized decrease in psychological symptoms, including symptoms of posttraumatic stress, postintervention (p = < .001 d = 0.45–0.96). During the follow-up period, sustained and further decrease of symptoms was reported (p = < .001 d = 0.58–1.60). Mothers also reported decreased exposure to violence. Results indicate that these child-focused programs have major and sustainable positive effects on mothers’ psychological health.
- Go to article: Associations Between Sexual Objectification and Bystander Efficacy: The Mediating Role of Barriers to Bystander Intervention
Associations Between Sexual Objectification and Bystander Efficacy: The Mediating Role of Barriers to Bystander Intervention
This study examined whether sexual objectification (i.e., reducing someone to a sex object via a disproportionate focus on appearance and sexual characteristics) was associated with decreased confidence in future bystander intervention to reduce the risk for sexual violence (i.e., bystander efficacy) through several barriers to intervention: failing to notice the event, failing to identify the situation as risky, and failing to take responsibility. Participants were 1,021 undergraduates (n = 309 men; n = 712 women) who completed self-report measures. Because men frequently perpetrate objectification, whereas women often experience objectification, complementary models were tested with objectification perpetration in men and objectification experiences in women. As expected, for men, each barrier mediated negative associations between objectification perpetration and bystander efficacy. Unexpectedly, for women, each barrier mediated positive associations between objectification experiences and bystander efficacy. Findings underscore important gender differences in associations between sexual objectification and bystander efficacy, as well as potential benefits of helping bystanders recognize the risk for sexual violence and assume responsibility for intervening.
- Go to article: Substance Use and Violence Victimization Among Women: A Review of Relevant Literature
A review of the recent scientific literature on the relationship between substance use and violence victimization among women in the United States is presented. Systematic review methodology adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses guidelines. In total, 15 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. There is substantial evidence suggesting substance use (e.g., severity of use, types of substances used) is associated with women’s violent victimization histories. Evidence suggests that women are uniquely situated in illicit drug markets and other illicit economies in a manner that increases their risk for violent victimization. The strengths and shortcomings of current theoretical explanations of substance use and violence victimization are discussed, as well as considerations for future research and interventions.
- Go to article: A Qualitative Investigation of Service Providers’ Experiences Supporting Raped and Sexually Abused Men
A Qualitative Investigation of Service Providers’ Experiences Supporting Raped and Sexually Abused Men
Substantial gaps remain in our understanding of the risks and barriers that exist for men affected by rape and sexual abuse. The present research utilized semi-structured interviews with 12 service providers from specialist organizations in the United Kingdom. An interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed three superordinate themes: (a) survivors’ needs for agency, safety, and control as functions of their masculinity; (b) the impact of rape myths and their challenge to therapeutic intervention; and (c) survivors’ expectations around reporting and the police. The role of masculinity and social stigma permeated participants’ accounts, with negative stereotypes and male rape myths influencing reporting, access to services, and survivors’ coping mechanisms. Results are discussed in relation to current service provision within the United Kingdom, and avenues for improvement are suggested.
- Go to article: Self-Reported Experience of Abuse During the Life Course Among Men Seeking General Psychiatric or Addiction Care—A Prevalence Study in a Swedish Context
Self-Reported Experience of Abuse During the Life Course Among Men Seeking General Psychiatric or Addiction Care—A Prevalence Study in a Swedish Context
A prevalence study was conducted using the NorVold Abuse Questionnaire for men (m-NorAQ) to estimate the prevalence of self-reported experience of life-course abuse and to identify the perpetrators of the abuse. This among men seeking general psychiatric and addiction care in a Swedish context. In total, 210 men completed the questionnaire, and were included in the study. The total prevalence of life-course abuse (i.e., any emotional, physical or sexual abuse during the life course) was 75% (n = 157). The results of this study indicate the importance of identifying experiences of life-course abuse among men in general psychiatric and addiction care settings.
Most research to date has focused on perpetrators of mass murder incidents. Hence, there is little information on victims. We examined 973 mass murders that occurred in the United States between 1900 and 2019 resulting in 5,273 total fatalities and 4,498 nonfatal injuries for a total of 9,771 victims (on average 10 victims per incident). Approximately 64% of victims of mass murder were White individuals, 13% were Black individuals, 6% were Asian individuals, and 14% were Latinx individuals. Given the higher number of nonfatal injuries per non-firearm mass murder event (11.0 vs. 2.8, p < .001), the total number of victims was only 50% higher for mass shootings (5,855 victims) vs. non-firearm mass murder events (3,916 victims). Among the 421 incidents of mass murder in the United States since 2000, Black, Asian, and Native American individuals were overrepresented among victims of mass shootings compared with their representation in the general U.S. population, and White individuals were underrepresented (all p ≤ .002). Findings of racial/ethnic differences were similar among victims of mass murder committed with means other than firearms for Black, Asian, and White individuals. These findings highlight different areas of victimology within the context of these incidents.
- Go to article: International and Domestic College Students: A Comparison of Campus Sexual Assault Victimization
Campus sexual assault (CSA) research predominately focuses on the victimization experiences of domestic college students. Therefore, there is little knowledge on, and understanding of, international student’s CSA victimization experiences. The present study analyzed results from a campus climate survey conducted in 2018 at a midsized Midwestern university. Twenty-three percent of international women and 18% of international men reported being a CSA victim. A series of analyses then compared CSA victimizations in relation to international victims vs. international nonvictims and international victims vs. domestic victims. Results showed international victims vs. international nonvictims were more likely to be a sexual minority and be a member of a sorority or fraternity. Compared with domestic women, international women were more likely to report being non-victims. Compared with domestic men, international men were more likely to report being CSA victims. Results are discussed in relation to research on CSA and propose future directions of study.
- Go to article: “Get Stuck and Can’t Walk Out”: Exploring the Needs for Support Among Chinese Immigrant Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence in the United States
“Get Stuck and Can’t Walk Out”: Exploring the Needs for Support Among Chinese Immigrant Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence in the United States
Chinese immigrant survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) in the United States have been overlooked and underserved. The purpose of this study was to explore their perceptions of resources for assistance as well as their priority needs. We conducted phone interviews with 20 Chinese immigrant women who had experienced IPV in the past year. The women expressed their needs for emotional support, culturally specific services, a variety of online resources to meet different demands, being empowered, raising the Chinese community’s awareness about IPV, and batterer intervention programs. These women’s testimonies shows that greater effort should be directed toward addressing those needs in order to reduce IPV and its impacts on health in this vulnerable group of women.
The firearm mortality rate in West Virginia (WV) increased over the past four years and is currently 50% higher than the national rate. These alarming statistics, combined with the urban-to-rural shift in firearm injuries, prompted this 10-year epidemiologic overview. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the current study stands alone as the only report of its kind on firearm injuries in the rural setting of southern WV. Firearm injuries were common in White males within the age range of 20–49 years. Assault, which is typically identified as an urban problem, was found to be the most common injury in the study population. In our data series, injury severity score was the strongest predictor of mortality, followed by self-inflicted cause of injury and trauma to the neck/head region.
Organization of care identifies the skills and behaviors involved in the organization. In the United States, health care services are delivered through a complex and multifaceted system of private and public institutions that operate in cooperation with, but largely independent of, each other. Clinical prevention services are often categorized as primary, secondary, or tertiary, based on the stages of the disease they target. Rehabilitative therapies help bridge the gap between hospital and home. Hospitals are subject to federal and state regulations and must be licensed to operate. The U.S. health care delivery system can look forward to many changes on the horizon. Innovative new forms of delivering health care will continue to emerge to meet the demands of both patients and purchasers of health care. Health care delivery organizations that fail to evolve and learn will face a difficult road. Those organizations that focus on innovation and knowledge creation will be well positioned for the future.
- Go to chapter: Caring for Older Adults: Financial, Community, and Health System Challenges and Opportunities
Providing older adults good care stops them from feeling isolated and depressed. As a group, older adults have contributed so much to our society, yet many face personal support and health care needs as they continue through the final stage of life. Neither older adults nor the aging process itself is a “burden,” but rather an opportunity that requires governmental payers, health care and long-term care systems, families, and communities to address the needs of older Americans in new and innovative ways. It is necessary to review current practice and new ideas for meeting the needs of an aging population while noting challenges that remain to be resolved by the next generation of policy makers as well as health care innovators. Older adults are volunteering more often than ever before to care for others. A greater appreciation of the aging process can push back on negative stereotypes, and culture change is possible.
Life experiences affect the health and well-being of different groups of people. Groups that have less power or social status and those with low family income are more vulnerable to health inequities. Vulnerability, driven by lower income or less power and social status, makes it harder for people to be healthy, stay healthy, prevent illness, and have better outcomes when they become sick or ill. The United States, throughout the 20th century, as one of the wealthiest nations in the world, made strides toward increasing access to health care for populations experiencing vulnerability. Employer-based health insurance in the 1960s, the establishment of community health centers in the 1970s, and the creation of the Children’s Health Insurance Program in the 1990s all worked toward solving health issues. A shift to community-oriented policies and programs that address the social origins of vulnerability can lead to greater improvements in health outcomes.
COVID-19 has taught us that even the most powerful nations of the world cannot declare that they are immune to disasters. Public health preparedness denotes the ability of a community or nation to recover from emergencies or disasters. The words “emergency” and “disaster” can seem overlapping, but a thin line separates them. An emergency is a serious event that needs immediate actions to preserve life or assets, whereas a disaster is a serious disruption at a large scale when the community is not capable to respond adequately. But even after implementing efforts to prevent or lessen damage from untoward events, emergencies and disasters will still occur. Across the United States, a standardized system for disaster incident management is used. Public health plays an important role in preventing, mitigating, detecting, responding to, and recovering from all types of disasters.
Public health is defined as the science of protecting the safety and improving the health of communities through education, policy making, and research for disease and injury prevention. The society plays an important role in assuring the conditions for people to be healthy. It emphasizes entire populations and the design of policies, systems, services, and environments to achieve not just the absence of disease but a collective sense of well-being by regulating and improving community sanitation, monitoring environmental hazards, and taking care of poor mothers and children. As a result of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (
ACA) in 2010, health departments began to reorganize and direct more resources to prevention, as more people received health insurance. It also established the Prevention and Public Health Fund, which enabled a shift to prevention. Maintaining public health infrastructure, similarly to maintaining roads and bridges, is important for betterment of the society.
This comprehensive textbook contains information on a wide array of topics, including the organization of care, population health, the fundamental challenges of health disparities, health care financing and economics, and health information technology’s role in improving care and protecting privacy. New chapters on public health preparedness and its role in mitigating effects on health and the health system and the medical and social challenges of caring for older adults provide insight into important, ongoing challenges and what those challenges reflect about our system of care.
With an increased emphasis on health disparities, population health, and health equity, this textbook includes a timely focus on how social and behavioral determinants influence health outcomes. Students will gain a deeper understanding of public health systems and their societal role and of the economic perspectives that drive health care managers and the system. Thorough coverage of the rapid changes that are reshaping our system, in addition to an evaluation of our nation’s achievement of health care value, will equip students with the critical knowledge they need to enter this dynamic and complex field. The book also includes cutting-edge, evidence-based information on preventive medicine, innovative approaches to control health care costs, initiatives to achieve high-quality and value-based care, and much more from prominent scholars, practitioners, and educators within health care management, public health, population health, health policy, medical care, and nursing.
Health care costs are a burden for families, government, and employers. The United States needs to balance affordability of health care with investments in life-enhancing treatments. Health care industry is one of the largest parts of the American economy, accounting for over 20% of our gross domestic product. Medical care restores health more than it ensures a population is healthy over its life span. The United States has developed an insurance system to overcome the obstacle of high costs and pay for services collectively. Public insurance programs, such as Medicare, Medicaid, and Children’s Health Insurance Program (
CHIP), and private insurance companies, such as UnitedHealthcare, Aetna, and Kaiser Permanente, work differently. A key question is how much should be spent on population health and how much on recovery-oriented medical care. Strategies and planning to keep people healthy could include public health initiatives, prevention initiatives, and social policies that make healthy choices possible and likely.
Most Americans have at least one chronic disease, for example, cancer, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, lung disease, or mental illness, which causes death. Modern medicine alone cannot reduce the high burden of chronic disease. Instead, prevention through healthy lifestyle behaviors is required to significantly reduce chronic disease burden. Lifestyle health behaviors, like tobacco use/smoking, use of illicit substances, diet, physical activity, sleep, and stress management, are linked with chronic disease and offer alternative strategies to reduce the problem. Adherence to these health behaviors is low and challenging due to several cognitive/psychological, social, environmental, and policy factors. There are associations between lifestyle health behaviors and chronic disease, and health behavior models and solutions improve adherence to healthy lifestyle behaviors. Changing health-related behavior is the only solution for improving national health and health care.
Health information technology (
HIT) is part of information systems of the health care industry and entails the collection, processing, storage, and exchange of health information in an electronic environment. HITreplaced paper medical records with electronic health records to document and maintain health information. The “dot-com” boom of the late 1990s and early 2000s marked the beginning of the digital era. The advancement of web technologies enabled the growth of web portals that elevated users’ expectations to receive personalized content. The electronic environment is most susceptible to cyberattacks. The Department of Health and Human Services ( DHHS) established the Health Care Industry Cybersecurity Task Force following the passage of the Cybersecurity Act of 2015. Mainstream use of technology in health care has led to a new era of digital health connecting with HIT.
Health care practices are directly associated with doctors or nurses, who generally care for sick people within hospitals and physician practices. However, two other important aspects of health care in the United States are the organizations that provide direct clinical care services and the professionals working in behind-the-scenes jobs. One of those jobs is the health care manager. The health care management profession contributes to organizations that deliver health care in the United States. In addition, it combines community-focused values of social care organizations with technical skills of business enterprises. Two main points discussed here are the management of health care delivery organizations (hospitals, pharmacies, and physician practices), and how goals vary between health care delivery organizations and other businesses within our health system. The health care management professional journey starts from developing technical skills to becoming leaders. The health care management profession has constructed a vision of health care as both a business and a social care organization.
New innovations and technologies are the future of the health care system. Artificial intelligence technology is the emerging technology being used to assist in diagnosing health conditions. Robots mark the beginning of the use of this technology in the future health care system. Some moral issues will also occur about what technologies can do; CRISPR, a DNA-editing technology, could be an example. Stem cell technologies also promise possible treatment improvements. Such new medical interventions that could shape the future health system will be a challenge for the U.S. health care financing system. Hard work, knowledge, self-motivation, and coordination of many individuals are the key features of any improved and successful system. So, it is every individual’s duty to come forward to lead as health professionals, as consumers and patients, as citizens, and as payers of health care to improve the system more and more.
Improving the quality and safety of America’s health care is of paramount importance. The current state of health care quality is not good enough. Leaders and health care systems must commit to promoting high-quality, safe care. One hopes that today’s status quo will be unrecognizable in a few short years, as quality improvement initiatives are linked to broad efforts aimed at promoting health, promoting equity, and reducing the need for high-intensity services. The public should expect no less. Achieving the safest, most equitable, and highest quality care is everyone’s responsibility. All players must not only prioritize but also understand their particular role in achieving quality health care outcomes. For health care organizations to drive quality, there must be a commitment from every leader, every member of the workforce, and every partner (payers, insurers, labor unions, patient advocacy groups) to plan for, support, and champion quality within their organizations and to support their partners and stakeholders.
Health care plays a central role in contributing to a population or society’s physical and mental health. This chapter discusses the differences between the medical and population health models of producing health, including the distinction between the concepts of health care and health, and explains how the two models lead to different policies and interventions for disease prevention and health equity. Other determinants, such as education, income, and behaviors, are responsible for population’s health or disease. The chapter examines the evidence for social, economic, and physical environmental influences on health outcomes; differences in health and life expectancy between counties and countries; and innovative approaches that integrate clinical and population models. To summarize, medical, governmental public health, and population health models would result in a more coherent national approach to health improvement as well as strategic and synergistic planning in improving the conditions necessary for all Americans to thrive.
The U.S. health care system has always invested mostly to learn how to keep people healthy and how to restore health when disease, injury, or illness occurs. In the 19th century, health experts from all over the world started believing in the role of germs in contributing to disease and the importance of basic public health practices, such as ensuring clean water and safe sanitation to maintain health. The 20th century was the time of inventions and experiments in the field of science to treat sick and injured people. The fast development of vaccines to address the
COVID-19 pandemic is a case in point. Nowadays, best practices are used to improve health care and health across a wide range of settings in the United States and worldwide. It is believed that the future U.S. health care delivery system will improve if committed and informed Americans choose to enter the field and engage effectively.
- Go to chapter: Policy and the Politics of Health Care: Policy Choices in a Divided Political Environment
Health care in the United States is a point of national pride (“finest in the world!”). Politics frequently has an impact on health care policy in terms of infrastructure and spending. This chapter focuses on three major aspects of the American health care system: America’s national health infrastructure, health insurance, and health disparities. The chapter emphasizes how the
COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated—and made more visible—disparities in health care access and outcomes. Disparities in providing equitable health services and personal health decisions have shown that policy decisions resulting from political battles and compromises have an impact on the diverse health care systems in the United States. Overall, the chapter investigates whether all the politicking has resulted in better health outcomes for most Americans. The discussions of financing, insurance, and obesity in both the U.S. and comparative contexts are intended to communicate how politics and policy shape the health system and how political scientists approach the topic of health care.
- Go to article: Identifying Attitudes Towards Violence in Intimate Partner Relationships People Living in Eastern Turkey: A Cross Sectional Study
Identifying Attitudes Towards Violence in Intimate Partner Relationships People Living in Eastern Turkey: A Cross Sectional Study
Since the rates of violence are high in patriarchal societies, determining the attitudes of people in these societies towards violence and the factors affecting these attitudes are of great importance. The researchers in the present study aimed to determine people’s attitudes towards violence who live in a region where patriarchal values still reign in Turkey and to investigate factors urging people to tend to perpetrate violence. The data was collected from 628 people at five family health centers in a province in the east of Turkey, providing health services to people of different socioeconomic levels. The Participant Information Form and Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale were used to collect the study data. In the present study, the participants displayed positive attitudes toward violence. In the present study, the following factors were determined to affect attitudes towards violence: Income status, occupation, sex, family type, alcohol use, and perception that violence cannot be prevented. Male-dominated patriarchal society has very negative effects on people in terms of perpetrating violence. In addition, to reduce the negative effects of living in extended families, people should be enabled to live independently of their families after getting married.
- Go to article: Comparing Abuse Profiles, Contexts, and Outcomes of Help-Seeking Victims of Domestic Violence: Part III—LGBT Clients
Comparing Abuse Profiles, Contexts, and Outcomes of Help-Seeking Victims of Domestic Violence: Part III—LGBT Clients
The present study represents the third part of an exploration into the demographic characteristics, context, and outcomes of abuse and outcomes of service engagement for users of specialist Domestic Violence and Abuse (DVA) services in the United Kingdom (UK; parts I and II respectively). It delivers on a commitment made in those parts to provide an examination of LGBT clients (including in comparison to the cisgender, heterosexual, or “cishet” clients examined in parts I & II, hereby known as “non-LGBT”). The current study utilized a large-scale quantitative data set of 35,882 clients presenting to specialist DVA services within the UK between 2007 and 2017, including 34,815 non-LGBT and 1,067 LGBT clients. Several areas of similarity between the two subsamples were identified, including some of the types of abuse reported, referral routes, and outcomes upon exit from services. Significant differences was also found. For example, the LGBT subsample was found to be significantly more likely to present to services with substance use and mental health issues (including self-harm) and was also more likely to have their case progressed by the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS). The findings are discussed along with recommendations for future research and practice, centered around the provision of gender and sexuality-inclusive provision, which acknowledges differential risks of LGBT clients, and how these reflect their experiences as a “minority” population (i.e., so-called “minority stress”).
- Go to article: Is Methodological Pluralism Improving Our Ability to Uncover the Causal Mechanisms Behind Men’s Violence Against Women?
Is Methodological Pluralism Improving Our Ability to Uncover the Causal Mechanisms Behind Men’s Violence Against Women?
This explorative article aims to take a step in the direction of a realist-oriented scientific design that extends our knowledge of the requirements of a methodology that improves our ability to uncover the causal mechanisms behind men’s violence against women. Despite the great advances that have been made in individual research disciplines, our understanding of the complex causes is still insufficient and suffers from our inability to grasp the larger whole of the collaborative processes. As a first step towards the objective, an integration attempt is implemented that aims to highlight methodological issues that we have to overcome to explain men's violence against women. The integration of psychological, social-psychological, and sociological theories aims to exemplify how contributing, and counteracting factors interact with each other and form a complex mechanism that influences whether violence against women will take place or not. To leave room for the methodological dimension, the depth of each perspective has been reduced. The results of the integration attempt show both opportunities and difficulties in investigating the mechanisms behind men’s violence against women. However, there is still untapped knowledge potential in the explorative integration of theories and the use of realist-oriented pluralistic research methodologies.
- Go to article: Abused and Rejected: The Link Between Intimate Partner Violence and Parental Alienation
Previous studies have demonstrated a connection between intimate partner violence (IPV) and a child’s alienation from the abused parent, but little is known about the relationships between the type of IPV, aspects, and severity of a child’s alienation, and the target parent’s gender. This study assessed the presence of an IPV history (verbal and physical aspects) among parents who identify as targets of their children’s unreasonable rejection. Also investigated were associations between the form of IPV and manifestations of a child’s alienated behavior, parent’s gender and type of IPV, and parents’ gender and degree of the child’s alienation. Self-identified alienated parents (n = 842) completed an online survey that included an IPV screening measurement (Hurts, Insults, Screams, Threatens screening tool) and a measure of the parent’s perception of their child’s alienated behaviors (Rowlands Parental Alienation Scale). The majority identified as IPV victims and reported a higher level of verbal than physical abuse. More mothers than fathers identified themselves as IPV victims. As a group, IPV victims rated their child as more severely alienated than did non-IPV alienated parents. Mothers were more likely than fathers to report physical aggression by the other parent and more likely than fathers to assess their child’s alienated behaviors as more severe. Victims of physical violence reported their children were less likely to withhold positive affection from them. This knowledge may assist in earlier identification of the alienation process and greater recognition, legitimacy, funding, and opportunities for enhanced collaboration among stakeholders. This, in turn, may lead to improvements in prevention, intervention, and accountability, thus helping to interrupt alienation processes.
Police respond to high volumes of domestic violence (DV) calls that can be time-consuming and often deal with repeat involved persons, regardless of whether or not charges are laid. This study extracts and examines three distinct cases of individuals/couples that involved almost 2% of 3,414 domestic violence calls to police that occurred over about a 3-year period for a small-sized urban community and its surrounding rural areas in Ontario, Canada. Most of the calls (86.2%) for these three cases did not result in any charges being laid. Each case represented a unique problem focus common in DV situations, and all three cases involved children. Key issues for one case included substance use and the cycle of violence; in another case, mental health problems and parenting challenges were prominent; and the third case pertained to child custody and access issues. Acceptance of offered support and services by the involved persons was minimal in all three cases. Implications for improved police responses involving collaboration with other service providers in smaller communities with limited resources are discussed.
Across many countries, the use of dating applications and websites (DAWs) has become increasingly popular over recent years; however, research examining the relationship between DAWs use and experience of dating violence and/or other harms is limited. This study aims to explore the use, motivations, and experiences of harm associated with using DAWs and meeting people in person via DAWs. An online convenience sample pilot survey was completed by adults (n = 217) aged 18+ years, living in the UK or the Republic of Ireland, who had used a DAW in the past two years. Differences were found in usage, motivations, and experiences of using DAWs in age and gender. Nearly half, 46.5% of respondents reported having been a victim of at least one harm as a result of meeting someone in person via DAWs in their lifetime; 33.2% reported experiencing sexual violence, 27.2% verbal abuse, 8.3% sexual activity in exchange for goods and 6.5% physical assault. Further to this, 41.9% of respondents reported being “Catfished” in the past two years (i.e., the other person looking different in person compared to their DAWs profile). In multivariate analysis, experiencing at least one harm was significantly associated with female gender (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.0; p < .001), being aged 40+ years (AOR 3.1; p < .01; reference category, 18–29 years) and being “Catfished” (AOR 3.3; p < .001). In multivariate analysis, sexual violence was significantly associated with being female (AOR 6.9; p < .001), being aged 40+ years (AOR 2.9; p = .013; reference category, 18–29 years) and being “Catfished” (AOR 2.9; p = .001). The study reinforces the importance of understanding the use of DAWs, exposure to harms on and offline, and risks associated with “Catfishing.”
- Go to article: Men’s Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence and Their Experiences With a Crisis Center in Denmark
Many countries are unable to offer men and their children a safe place to stay when exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). Denmark is an exception by having implemented a coordinated effort in 2016 of meeting the needs of male victims of IPV and their children. This presents an opportunity for in-depth exploration of the experiences of male victims of IPV. In this study we present a review of men’s exposure to IPV in Denmark, the experiences of 58 men who stayed in six crisis centers for men, and present results from a follow-up pilot study working with these men. Men staying in the crisis centers reported having been exposed to psychological, physical, economical, material violence, and stalking perpetrated predominantly by a female partner or ex-partner. In the follow-up, several men reported still being exposed to different types of violence and threats. The men experienced a number of adverse outcomes associated with their experiences but described a positive impact by the combination of help offered at the shelters. This study points to the importance of safe accommodation for male victims of IPV and includes recommendations for practice.
- Go to article: A Qualitative Analysis of Sex Trafficking Survivor-Advocates’ Barriers to Exiting “The Life”
Despite the recent expansion of sex trafficking awareness, prevention, and aftercare services, knowledge about sex trafficking remains limited by the systemic exclusion of survivors’ voices and strengths from sex trafficking epistemology. Notably, little research examines sex trafficking survivors’ experiences, their critiques of the counter-trafficking movement, nor their recommendations for how the counter-trafficking movement could be improved to better meet survivors’ needs. In this qualitative study, we adhered to an Intersectional-Standpoint Methodology (ISM) to explore sex trafficking survivors’ perceptions of the counter-trafficking movement and their barriers to sex trafficking exit. The results of this study suggest that survivors encounter numerous barriers to sex trafficking exit, including internal barriers, social barriers, and systemic-institutional barriers. Results point towards recommendations for improving service delivery systems by building upon sex trafficking survivors’ strengths and resilience and by reducing their many barriers to exit. By implementing these recommendations, counter-trafficking advocates at all levels of practice can increase sex trafficking survivors’ access to effective, survivor-informed aftercare services.
- Go to article: Bystander Opportunity, Actions, and Inaction in Suspected Intimate Partner Violence: Differences Between Graduate and Undergraduate Students
Bystander Opportunity, Actions, and Inaction in Suspected Intimate Partner Violence: Differences Between Graduate and Undergraduate Students
Limited research examines graduate student experiences with intimate partner violence (IPV) or bystander intervention. In this exploratory study, we compare the extent of opportunity to intervene in suspected IPV, how students tried to help, and barriers to intervention for undergraduate (n = 698) and graduate students (n = 967) at one university using data from stratified random samples of students. Graduate students indicated significantly less opportunity to intervene than undergraduate students (16.2% vs. 35.5%). Among students with the opportunity, however, similar proportions of undergraduate and graduate students tried to help, with most confronting the situation directly. Among those who did not try to help, graduate students commonly endorsed “not knowing what to do,” suggesting an opportunity to enhance prosocial intervention skills among this population through targeted bystander-based training initiatives.
The present study, conducted in Taiwan, sought to link some elementary and middle school students’ bullying to factors in their social status, social support, direct and indirect bullying victimization, and positive and negative affect. We obtained the secondary dataset from the Survey Research Data Archive, Academia Sinica. Survey data were collected during 2012 from students in grades 5, 7, 8, and 9; of 853 students who filled out the questionnaire, 711 were included in our study’s final sample. Our study found a strong relationship between bullying victimization and bullying perpetration. Therefore, intervention programs seeking to interrupt the implied cycle of bullying could boost their effectiveness by focusing on school children’s capacity to feel empathy for victims of bullying and by developing ways to reduce children’s vengeful feelings toward bullies.
- Go to article: An Analysis of the Relationship Between Self-Compassion, Psychological Inflexibility, Psychological Health, and PTSD Severity in a Partial Hospitalization Program
An Analysis of the Relationship Between Self-Compassion, Psychological Inflexibility, Psychological Health, and PTSD Severity in a Partial Hospitalization Program
PTSD symptoms and psychological inflexibility have been linked to a lack of self-compassion and poor psychological health. Prior work has explored these relationships in a trauma-exposed undergraduate population and found that, while self-compassion was correlated with PTSD symptom severity at the bivariate level, this relationship was no longer significant when accounting for psychological inflexibility. Additionally, self-compassion and psychological inflexibility predicted psychological health. The present study sought to test these findings in PTSD patients enrolled in an exposure-based partial hospitalization program. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)-consistent measures (i.e., Valued Living Questionnaire, Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale [Short Form], Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire [Short Form]) were used to assess psychological health. The PTSD checklist for DSM-5 and the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (II) were used to measure PTSD symptoms and Psychological Inflexibility, respectively. Our results were largely consistent with previous investigations. We found a negative relationship between psychological inflexibility and psychological health, as well as a positive relationship between psychological inflexibility and PTSD symptom severity. Future research should measure these constructs across different time points to explore the benefit of viewing self-compassion and other related constructs (e.g., courage and love) as values in an ACT model for PTSD treatment.
- Go to article: Sexual Agreements, Substance Use, Binge Drinking, and Bidirectional Physical Intimate Partner Violence Among Male Couples in the United States
Sexual Agreements, Substance Use, Binge Drinking, and Bidirectional Physical Intimate Partner Violence Among Male Couples in the United States
Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) experience intimate partner violence (IPV) at rates comparable to heterosexual women. Previous studies have identified that having a sexual agreement—an explicit agreement around sex permitted outside of the relationship—is associated with reductions in IPV. This article uses data from a sample of 967 partnered GBMSM to examine associations between individual use of substances and alcohol, discordant partner reports of sexual agreements, and the self-reporting of bidirectional IPV. Men who reported different sexual agreements than their partners and recently engaged in substance use or binge drinking had significantly increased odds of IPV. Dyadic interventions are necessary to assist couples in developing the communication skills to successfully navigate both their substance use and discussions around sexual agreements.
- Go to article: Assessing Knowledge and Acceptability of a Trauma-Informed Training Model to Strengthen Response to Conflict and Gender-Based Violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Assessing Knowledge and Acceptability of a Trauma-Informed Training Model to Strengthen Response to Conflict and Gender-Based Violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Conflict-related sexual and gender-based violence is common in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, but there are few evaluations of multisectoral training interventions in conflict settings. We conducted high-quality, trauma-informed medicolegal trainings amongst multisectoral professionals and sought to describe changes in knowledge after training and perceived training acceptability. Participants were health, law enforcement, and legal professionals who completed training at one of four sites from January 2012 to December 2018. Twelve trainings were randomly selected for evaluation. We conducted pre- and post-training assessments and semi-structured interviews of participants within 12 months of index training. Forty-six trainings of 1,060 individuals were conducted during the study period. Of the randomly selected trainings, 368 questionnaires were included in the analysis (36% health, 31% legal, 12% law enforcement, 21% other). The mean knowledge scores (standard deviation) significantly improved after training: 77.9 (22.9) vs. 70.4 (20.8) (p <0.001). Four key benefits were identified: 1) improved cross-sector coordination; 2) enhanced survivor-centered care; 3) increased standardization of forensic practices; and 4) higher quality evidence collection. Participants completing the training had improved knowledge scores and perceived several key benefits, suggesting the multisectoral training was acceptable in this under-resourced, conflict region.
- Go to article: A Comprehensive Study of Public, Family, and Felony Mass Shootings in the United States, 2006–2020
This study provides a comprehensive examination of mass shootings in America (2006–2020). Specifically, this work identifies offender, victim, and incident characteristics, incidence rates, and differences between public, family, and felony mass shootings. Findings indicate consistent characteristics across all mass shootings include male offenders and the use of handguns. Family mass shootings had the highest incidence rate. Family and the felony mass shootings largely involved close offender-victim relationships, no victim injuries, and private locations. Oft-considered public mass shootings involving stranger victims, higher victim counts, and public locations do not reflect the overall phenomenon. Implications offer insight for understanding and addressing the mass shooting problem.
- Go to article: Design and Assessment of Service-Learning and Community Site Visits in an Undergraduate Introductory Rehabilitation and Human Services Course
Design and Assessment of Service-Learning and Community Site Visits in an Undergraduate Introductory Rehabilitation and Human Services Course
Purpose: This mixed-methods study assesses an innovative course design model that integrates community site visits and service-learning at the introductory level for Undergraduate Rehabilitation Education (URE) students (n = 44).
Method: The authors used a survey design to analyze service-learning outcomes and civic attitudes to evaluate the course design. A panel of three independent raters analyzed student weekly papers based on research rubrics of the course objectives created by the authors.
Results: The results demonstrate that the model is effective in altering student cognitive schemes about human service populations and encouraging students to synthesize academic knowledge and immersive experiences.
Conclusions: The study provides evidence for the design of integrating service-learning and site visits throughout the entire semester of an introductory course. This design is what we theorize specifically allowed for the two outcomes of primary importance, altered cognitive schemes about human services populations and synthesis of academic and experiential knowledge.
- Go to article: Determining Factors of Psychosocial Wellbeing Among People With Disabilities During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Mediating Role of Social Support
Determining Factors of Psychosocial Wellbeing Among People With Disabilities During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Mediating Role of Social Support
This study aimed to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the stress levels and life satisfaction of individuals with disabilities and what role social support plays in mitigating these impacts. Data from individuals with disabilities (n = 600) were extracted from a larger international cross-sectional survey study. Regression analyses were conducted to examine how personal and environmental factors contributed to stress levels and life satisfaction changes during the pandemic. Mediation analyses were used to test whether social support mediated the association between stress level and life satisfaction. The negative impact of the pandemic, having a psychiatric disability, being a female, and being younger significantly predicted stress levels. Moreover, the negative impact of the pandemic and stress levels significantly predicted life satisfaction. The relationship between stress levels and life satisfaction was mediated by social support from significant others and friends. There is an urgent need to provide training and education for healthcare professionals, families, and caregivers on the basic aspects of mental health care, developing time-limited and culturally-sensitive mental health interventions, and strategies for expanding the social support system for the population. Broad dissemination of effective therapeutic strategies is crucial in mitigating the negative psychosocial impact of the pandemic.
- Go to article: Promoting Well-Being in Individuals With Autism: Applying Positive Psychology in Rehabilitation Counseling
Promoting Well-Being in Individuals With Autism: Applying Positive Psychology in Rehabilitation Counseling
Positive psychology is a subdomain that addresses the importance of human strengths and personal assets in individuals’ well-being. The principles of positive psychology align with the philosophy of rehabilitation counseling by emphasizing individuals’ strengths to promote psychosocial adjustment to disability. Considering the intersection between positive psychology and rehabilitation counseling, applying the positive psychology framework to rehabilitation counseling will be a promising foundation for improvement in services and outcomes. As the number of individuals on the autism spectrum increases, more innovative services are needed to keep abreast of their needs. This article discusses how positive psychology can be applied to the population of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explores possible practices that can be replicated by practitioners to provide quality services for this emerging disability population. Implications for education and research are also discussed.
Purpose: People living with chronic illness face significant challenges with employment. This study explores the impact of participating in the Career Construction Interview (CCI) on the career exploration of individuals facing a forced career transition due to the onset or exacerbation of a chronic illness.
Method: An instrumental multiple case study design was used in this qualitative study. A purposeful, homogeneous sample of three female adults was used to gain multiple perspective of forced career transitions. The participants were within 2 years of their diagnosis or exacerbation of one or more chronic health conditions and had to change their career because of the impact of their condition(s).
Results: Eight open codes and five axial codes were discovered through the process of constant comparative analysis. For this study one open code (CCI experience) and five axial codes will be discussed.
Conclusions: This study found patterns related to chronic illness and career and that the Career Construction Interview was helpful to the participants in assisting them with making decisions about potential careers and options for employment. Implications for rehabilitation counseling practice and suggestions for future research.
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to address an emerging issue in rehabilitation counseling: The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with aphasia (PWA).
Method: Based upon a review of the literature this article provides an overview of (a) COVID-19 and emergent aphasia-related disability, (b) COVID-19 effects on stroke and aphasia services, (c) COVID-19 effects on mental health and employment of PWA.
Results: This review of the impact of COVID-19 on PWA highlights the increased and emerging needs for rehabilitation counseling services related to an anticipated increase in incidence of aphasia related to COVID-19 illness and secondary impact of medical care for this population.
Conclusion: The impact of COVID-19 on aphasia care in rehabilitation settings underscores the need for increased interprofessional education and collaboration to address the many gaps in aphasia care. Likewise, interdisciplinary research focused on rehabilitation outcomes in aphasia is needed to provide a foundation for evidence-based practice that conforms to the WHO-ICF framework.
- Go to article: Community Resident Voices Empowered: Exploring Public Housing Resident Needs and Assets Through a Qualitative Lens
Community Resident Voices Empowered: Exploring Public Housing Resident Needs and Assets Through a Qualitative Lens
Incorporating residents’ voices in needs assessments and decision-making activities affecting public housing initiatives is supported by various research. This approach of increasing communal empowerment and growth informed a needs and assets assessment to support an urban community center servicing ethnically and culturally diverse public housing residents. This study employed qualitative methods to gather insights from focus group participants about their perceived needs of the community. The data gathered from the focus groups provided an opportunity for community voices to expand on understanding the assets and needs of the community. The five themes that emerged in the focus group discussion were: (1) Yearning for home and community; (2) Appreciation for diversity; (3) Conditions supporting human dignity; (4) Continual growth of programs & affordability; and (5) Emphasis on trust. These insights support the importance of including community voice for future programming, policies, and research.
- Go to article: Barriers to the Delivery of Teen Dating Violence Programs in Urban School and After-School Settings Serving Mexican-Heritage Youth
Barriers to the Delivery of Teen Dating Violence Programs in Urban School and After-School Settings Serving Mexican-Heritage Youth
Teen dating violence (TDV) is increasingly recognized as a national health priority, impacting overall well-being and school success. However, there are overlooked barriers to TDV program delivery in schools and youth-serving organizations and these are ideal settings to reach youth universally. In this study, we conducted 10 focus groups with school (e.g., administrators, social workers, nurses) and after-school personnel regarding barriers to TDV programming within a large urban community serving predominantly Mexican-heritage youth. Findings offer practice-driven considerations for the implementation of programs within urban communities. These include attention to limited resources, inhibitive and non-existent policies, competing demands, a lack of training, and demand for culturally competent curricula and wrap-around services.
- Go to article: Helping Older African Americans Thrive in Urban Communities: Empowering Lessons From Detroit
Urban-dwelling African American older adults are disproportionately victimized by systems, which relegate them to disparities in health, education, and economic security as well as inequitable access to resources that support overall wellness (Brown, 2010; Jackson et al., 2004; Kahn & Pearlin, 2006; Zhang et al., 2016). The COVID-19 pandemic of 2020–2021 revealed poorer outcomes and a “double jeopardy” for African American older adults who suffered poor health outcomes (Chatters et al., 2020). As a result, avenues to promote healthy aging through health and wellness literacy, self-empowerment, and social-community connections are critical (Chatters et al., 2020; Pourrazavi et al., 2020; Waites, 2013). A qualitative study was conducted with African American older adults in Detroit to understand how to promote health literacy and overall wellness for those who are aging in place. An empowerment-oriented wellness framework (Dunn, 1961; Dunn, 1977; Hettler, 1976) was employed. Findings indicated that these African American older adults aging in the urban communities strived to maintain their independence while recognizing that they may need some assistance as they age in place. While some elders defined themselves by their disability and expressed feelings of being pushed aside by family and society, many rejected stereotypes associated with aging and reinforced a sense of pride and empowerment. They called for programs to: 1) assist older adults with health literacy and a comprehensive understanding of overall wellness; and, 2) provide activities and tools to support proactive overall wellness; and 3) employ strategies that actively encourage social engagement as well as outreach to their less engaged peers. Participants also suggested that a strategy to enlighten younger generations about the “senior world,” and aging is also crucial.
- Go to article: Justice-Involved Individuals and Admission Into Urban Undergraduate Social Work Programs
Research on the effect of arrests or convictions on college admissions decisions, while limited, suggests that college admission is a major hurdle for applicants with criminal histories. The purpose of this study was to examine admission application policies and practices at undergraduate social work programs in the South for justice-involved individuals or persons with criminal backgrounds. The qualitative study design recruited program directors through professional relationships for interviews and selected programs in urban cities in the South using the Council on Social Work Education’s Accredited Program Directory. The surveys consisted of three questions and the interviews consisted of eleven semi-structured questions focusing on the policies and practices associated with the application process. Study results reveal that slightly more than one half of all programs asked questions about criminal backgrounds, firm policies are not in place, and practices vary from institution to institution.
Globally, food-borne disease is the cause of about 600 million cases, resulting in 420,000 deaths, approximately 30% of which occur among children under 5 years old. It is preventable by simple things like handwashing, improved sanitation, access to clean water, and, when available, vaccination. The challenge is that those important public health measures have been known since the 1850s, yet 3.6 billion (nearly 50%) global citizens still do not have access to basic sanitation and two billion do not have safe water in their homes. However, increased testing and data sharing will help to quickly and efficiently find areas for improvement to aid in controlling and preventing food-borne disease. This chapter describes the effect of food-borne disease on health. It discusses the unique epidemiologic approaches to assess a food-borne exposure, describes the proven preventive measures to prevent food-borne disease, and explains the effect of climate change on food security.
Persistent infectious disease public health threats mandate clear and standardized outbreak response and surveillance systems. Epidemiologic expertise is needed from the design of data systems, to using a variety of types of health information and data sources, to analyzing, interpreting, and communicating complex data. Responses also require coordinated multidisciplinary efforts with all levels of public health working together to protect the population’s health. The single word ‘surveillance’ encompasses a variety of ways in which surveillance data are collected and collated. Evaluating surveillance systems requires both qualitative and quantitative approaches. This chapter describes the steps responsible for an outbreak, practices that have contributed to the outbreak, and how to monitor and track disease outbreaks over time. It explains how disease surveillance and reporting are conducted. The chapter also describes the mechanisms to monitor and evaluate surveillance systems and discusses the differences between sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value.
Immunization and sanitation are the greatest, most efficient, and cost-effective public health achievements. Each generation brings new susceptible individuals who need to be protected and, even among those fully vaccinated, immunity wanes with age and previously protected individuals may become susceptible as the pathogen evolves or as our immune system changes. Vaccination is an active prevention strategy at the community or population level, it is ongoing and must be maintained. The goals of vaccination are twofold: to protect the individual from the disease and its devastating side effects, and to reduce the spread of disease, thereby protecting the community. The benefits of vaccination go beyond illnesses or deaths averted to include education and economic attainment through wellness. This chapter discusses how vaccines work, including how they stimulate the immune system. It also discusses the epidemiology of vaccination including the effect of the effective reproductive number and herd immunity.
Epidemiology has many tools to analyze infectious disease transmission dynamics. More sophisticated modeling efforts like estimating the basic reproduction number (R0) and using compartmental susceptible-infected-recovered models further our understanding and allow for the comparison of interventions and diseases across time and place. An immense amount of work goes into finding, cleaning, and compiling the data necessary to graph or parameterize these models. This is achieved by hard working, interdisciplinary teams often involving epidemiologists working with mathematical modelers and ecologists on the estimation side, virologists, immunologists and entomologists for laboratory experiments, and health care workers and public health for the disease data and interventions. Together, these are powerful tools that help us to better understand disease transmission dynamics and, thereby, open avenues for disease control. This chapter provides information about reproductive number and different types of epidemics, and describes how diseases are transmitted and how transmission mechanisms can be quantified.
This chapter explains the distinctions between zoonotic and vector-borne illnesses and other infectious diseases, as well as how a disease is transmitted. It describes how zoonotic and vector-borne disease control strategies are comparable to those used for other types of disease and justifies the reasons for and ways in which zoonotic and vector-borne diseases depend on eco-epidemiologic techniques. The chapter also discusses how to prevent the spread of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases. Understanding and preventing zoonotic and vector-borne disease requires a holistic view that improves health by considering the interactions of humans, animals, and environment through a collaborative and multidisciplinary approach. Science and epidemiology work to estimate where those interactions are likely to occur and to quickly identify them once they do. The One Health approach leads to a more robust understanding of the interactions that may lead to disease transmission and opens the ingenuity of potential solutions.
Environmental factors influence the incidence, seasonality, and distribution of infectious diseases. While the association may be stronger for some diseases compared with others, because of this environmental influence infectious diseases are particularly vulnerable to the effects of a changing climate. Frameworks like the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Building Resilience Against Climate Effects framework guide the development of adaptation strategies which will hopefully help to ameliorate the health effects of climate change. This chapter lists how environmental factors predict continuing disease incidence and transmission. It describes how infectious diseases have changed in a changing climate. The chapter explains the concept of One Health and how it interfaces with infectious disease epidemiology. One Health’s transdisciplinary approach supports the understanding of the complex interactions between the environment, humans, and animals, and facilitates innovative and sustainable solutions to improving health.
A biocultural approach to infectious disease work provides for a perspective on how culture and behavior shape disease dynamics. This approach emphasizes the importance of health outcomes in relation to societal and individual factors. Approaches to conducting health research in this area vary from qualitative to heavily quantitative big data methods that utilize new technologies to assess individual behavior patterns. A socio-behavioral/cultural lens to understand disease transmission is critical to developing sustainable and implementable interventions to prevent disease spread. While human behaviors and traditions can result in greater disease transmission, they may also play a positive role in controlling infections. This chapter describes the influence of culture and behavior on the distribution and transmission of infectious disease. It examines the role of culture and behavior on disease control. The chapter explains the social mechanisms of disease transmission and indicates how ecological study designs are used to study health outcomes.
In the age of technology, numerous data sources beyond traditional medical/health data have been harnessed for disease control. The data sources available for epidemiologic surveillance range from survey apps and news websites, to search data, to wearable sensors and social media platforms. One of the potential advantages of digital data sources is early disease detection. There is growing potential to use machine learning and big data to forecast disease spread, and personalized medical and public health approaches to customize care and disease response. Applications of these technologies include improved data visualization and communication but these must be weighed with the protection of individual rights and challenges of combining data sets created for different purposes. This chapter enumerates the 21st century disease control advances and explains how social media, big data, and search tools are used to improve disease control. It demonstrates the role of the P-value and confidence intervals in data analysis.
The field of infectious disease epidemiology has been front-and-center for the past few years. It has its own unique culture and set of tools and rules. This book offers a whole new vocabulary, from how to consider transmission—with the idea of a disease reproductive rate—to how disease is dispersed or clustered, and how to design a study. It presents the key concepts and principles underlying infectious disease epidemiology in an organized manner, and describes important activities such as disease surveillance and outbreak investigation. The book is valuable to those beginning their study of infectious disease epidemiology, as well as those working to train the next generation of prevention and control experts. It provides a unique introduction and perspective to the field of infectious disease epidemiology, utilizing a combination of intuitive case studies, popular media examples, and didactic exercises. The chapters introduce learners to major conceptual approaches in the field, as well as key factors that enable us to mitigate disease spread. Each chapter is structured to include key terms, a helpful narrative, “Heads Up” sections that help to allay conceptual confusion, highlights on a key figure in history, and a section with lessons learned from the classroom and questions to foster further investigation. The book is structured into four parts that walk learners through the world of infectious disease epidemiology, first covering disease emergence and basics, moving on to modes of transmission and types of diseases, then proceeding to infectious diseases in context, and finally disease control, eradication, and emergence. The authors hope that both the integrated approach and content of the book provide an exciting entrée into a field that is rich in its complexity, dynamicism, and multidisciplinary leanings.
Sexually transmitted infections (
STI) are infections that are transmitted between individuals through anal, oral, or vaginal sex. Occasionally they are also transmitted through intimate physical contact or via other modes of transmission–for example, STIswhich enter the bloodstream and then are transmitted through injection drug use or blood transfusions. While any medical facility should be supportive to their population, improving medical provider knowledge as well as gender-inclusive and trauma-guided healthcare are particularly important for STIwork. One underutilized strategy in STI prevention, testing, and treatment, is the use of existing social networks to not only collect data, but to disseminate information about STIprevention, testing and treatment. This chapter describes how STIs affect health, what has to be done to lessen STIburden, how to identify critical risk factors and affected populations, and why sound research procedures are crucial for STIresearch.
Respiratory diseases can take on multiple modes of transmission, including contact, droplet, and airborne. Key methods for preventing respiratory transmission in community and clinical settings may include hand hygiene, prompt isolation precautions, and vaccination. Importantly, in hospital settings, administrative and engineering controls, in addition to individual measures such as use of personal protective equipment, can minimize transmission. Contact patterns allow epidemiologists to investigate transmission of respiratory diseases through implementation of contact investigations. The randomized controlled trial is a powerful study design that can be used to conduct experiments in respiratory and other diseases and to understand whether new interventions or approaches are more effective than others. This chapter discusses the different types of respiratory transmission. It provides a list of preventive measures to stop respiratory transmission, as well as information on how randomized controlled trials can be used to study diseases.
Infectious disease epidemiologists face numerous challenges in their work. Beyond the heterogeneity of organisms and conditions, identification of appropriate frameworks and measures for studying diseases is very important. How does one study and make predictions regarding an asymptomatic infection? How does one decide on the target population of interest for a study? How does one handle new infectious disease outbreaks and agents and communicate findings with policymakers and the public? To successfully do this, epidemiologists engage with multiple disciplines from colleagues in basic science laboratories to government officials working to implement public health policy. This chapter examines the work of epidemiologists, assesses how to distinguish between the disease caused by an infectious agent and that not affected by it, and considers infectious disease trends and reasons for re-emergence. It illustrates major infectious disease classification systems, and examines the characteristics of the host, agent, and environment that might enable disease transmission.
Social factors are the key to understand how infectious diseases arise and how to reduce future morbidity and mortality. The broader conditions in which people live are critical in determining health and longevity, sometimes due to actual quality and availability of healthcare received, but often also through direct relationships to health. Working in conjunction with more traditional biomedical approaches such as vaccination and therapy, more explicit targeting of interventions to social causes, through reducing poverty, improving living standards and nutrition, and lowering stress, can lead to an era of both greater health equity and infectious disease elimination. This chapter enables readers to determine the various factors responsible for infectious disease health disparities and inequities, and identify key social determinants of infectious diseases. It discusses whether social or biomedical determinants are more important in infection and transmission of disease. The chapter also reviews the role of causality in infectious diseases.
Infectious diseases have their own unique modes of transmission and natural histories. These disease progressions also mark important points for potential public health intervention. The spectrum of disease allows us to quantify several outcomes as a disease progresses, as well as how many individuals in a population may have these outcomes. Infectious diseases are heterogeneous, with recent evidence pointing to a major role in the etiology of chronic diseases. This chapter aids readers in making the distinction between predominant modes of transmission. It helps them understand the chain of infection, the implications for public health control strategies, and the natural history of disease. Additionally, it explains how infectious causes of cancer and other diseases blur the chronic/infectious divide and how to determine whether an exposure is linked to a particular outcome.
- Go to article: Stressful Events During Last Year, Violence and Anxiety and Depression: A Moderated Mediation Model by Sex
Stressful Events During Last Year, Violence and Anxiety and Depression: A Moderated Mediation Model by Sex
The literature suggests that being subject to a stressful life and victimization may negatively affect mental health, and that women and men seem to differ in these variables. Nevertheless, neither the mediating role of victimization experiences in the relationship between stress and mental health, nor the moderated role of sex have been explored. A sample of 826 adults, aged from 18 to 77 years old, completed a set of self-reported questionnaires (69.4% women). Results revealed significant mediation effects of psychological violence on the relationship between stress, depression and anxiety. Participants who reported more stressful life events in the previous year, also reported higher psychological abuse, which in turn predicted higher depression and anxiety. Furthermore, the moderating effects of sex were found to be statistically significant. Results suggest that interventions should be tailored to individual needs in order to prevent secondary victimization derived from biased beliefs related to stress, violence and gender in professional practice.
- Go to article: Family Violence, Personality Traits, and Risk Behaviors: Links to Dating Violence Victimization and Perpetration Among College Students
Family Violence, Personality Traits, and Risk Behaviors: Links to Dating Violence Victimization and Perpetration Among College Students
Though dating violence (DV) is prevalent on college campuses, few studies have examined a multitude of risk factors that may better explain this process. As such, we examined the role of family violence (i.e., childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence), personality traits (i.e., entitlement, antisocial personality [ASP] and borderline personality [BP]) and risk behaviors (i.e., risky sexual behaviors, heavy drinking, marijuana use, illicit drug use) on DV victimization and perpetration among 783 college students. Path analysis revealed that witnessing parental violence was linked to DV perpetration while experiencing more physical abuse was positively correlated with entitlement (females only), ASP traits, and BP traits. ASP traits (both males and females) and entitlement (females only) were directly associated with high-risk behaviors. Among females, entitlement was also indirectly associated with DV victimization and perpetration through sexual risk behaviors. Findings highlight the importance of histories of physical abuse and personality traits in understanding DV.
- Go to article: Prosecution as a “Soul Crushing” Job: Emotional Labor and Secondary Trauma in Working Sexual Assault Cases
Prosecution as a “Soul Crushing” Job: Emotional Labor and Secondary Trauma in Working Sexual Assault Cases
Prosecutors who work sex crimes face considerable legal constraints, for example, the need for corroborating evidence to prove their case, as well as extra-legal factors including biases that influence decision-making across the criminal justice system. Beyond these factors, sexual assault cases, especially those involving college students, present significant emotional trauma not only for victims, but also for prosecutors. This inductive study explores the ways prosecutors handle system constraints and how they experience and manage their response to emotionally difficult cases. Qualitative interview data revealed strategies that prosecutors use to mitigate the psychological impacts of participation in the courtroom experience on survivors of sexual assault and indicators of secondary trauma. In combination, this study’s examination of legal and extra-legal factors, secondary and vicarious trauma, and emotional labor contribute to a theory of how prosecutors work campus sex crime cases, expanding our understanding of both prosecutors’ roles and emotional labor, with implications for research, policy and practice.
- Go to article: Examining the Influence of Gender, Child Abuse, and Narcissism on Four Forms of Interpersonal Violence Among Men and Women College Students
Examining the Influence of Gender, Child Abuse, and Narcissism on Four Forms of Interpersonal Violence Among Men and Women College Students
This study examines the moderating effects of gender, child abuse, and pathological narcissism on self-reported stalking, sexual harassment, intimate partner violence, and sexual aggression in undergraduate men and women. Child abuse was positively associated with engaging in all forms of interpersonal violence for both genders. For women, pathological narcissism moderated this association such that higher levels of pathological narcissism reduced the association between child abuse and engaging in stalking, sexual harassment, sexual aggression. For men. pathological narcissism exhibited independent positive associations with engagement in sexual harassment and sexual aggression and a negative association with engagement in intimate partner violence, but no moderating effects. These gender differences have important implications for the assessment of women’s violence, and university violence prevention and advocacy programs.
- Go to article: In and Out of “The Lifestyle”: Theoretical Explanations for Female Offending and Desistance From Crime
In and Out of “The Lifestyle”: Theoretical Explanations for Female Offending and Desistance From Crime
This qualitative study of theoretical frameworks was conducted to explain criminal offending and attitudes towards desistance from crime for a sample of 26 women reintegrating back into society after incarceration. Theoretical pathways and desistance theories were used to provide themes for analyzing in depth interviews, journal entries written by the study’s participants, and halfway house records. Pathways and desistance perspectives suggest that gendered pathways can explain how women are led into criminal lifestyles, as well as how their criminality may come to an end. Distinct gender-specific policy implications and programs, as well as directions for future research, are also discussed.
- Go to article: Adolescent Experience With Dating Violence in Relation to Virginity Status: Findings From a Jamaican Sample
Adolescent Experience With Dating Violence in Relation to Virginity Status: Findings From a Jamaican Sample
The association between adolescents’ involvement in sexual intercourse and their experiences with adolescent dating violence (ADV) is an understudied topic. This study examined this relationship for 178 Jamaican adolescents in Grades 9–11. The expectation that adolescents who reported having had sexual intercourse would report greater victimization and greater perpetration than adolescents who had not had intercourse was consistent only for sexual abuse. Analyses also showed that sexually experienced males perpetrated and experienced more psychological abuse compared to males who were not so experienced. These results suggest different experiences based on adolescents’ sex and so support others’ calls for ADV research to do more examinations by sex. Also, it endorses the importance of doing research on both victims and perpetrators of intimate abuse. Implications of these findings for sexual and relationship education of adolescents are discussed.
- Go to article: The Effects of a Multi-Family Group Trauma Intervention on Caregiver Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Clusters
The Effects of a Multi-Family Group Trauma Intervention on Caregiver Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Clusters
Strengthening Family Coping Resources (SFCR), a multi-family group intervention tailored to families experiencing traumatic stress, is associated with improved post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and family functioning. To further SFCR research, we examined (1) SFCR’s effects on caregiver PTSD symptom clusters (intrusions, avoidance, negative alterations in cognitions and mood [NACM], alterations in arousal and reactivity); and (2) whether effects differed by caregiver trauma type (interpersonal versus non-interpersonal; intrafamilial versus extrafamilial). Forty-two caregivers of primarily low socioeconomic status reporting trauma histories completed SFCR treatment. Significant decreases in PTSD intrusion, avoidance, and NACM subscale scores emerged from pre- to post-SFCR; there were no differences in subscale score changes by trauma type categorization. Findings support SFCR as a promising treatment for reducing PTSD severity among caregivers reporting diverse traumas.
- Go to article: The Impact of Bullying Victimization and Sexual Orientation on the Severity of Suicidal Behavior
Background: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth face a disproportionate risk of suicidal ideation and attempt compared to heterosexual counterparts. Escalation from ideation to attempt can occur quickly, and youth who survive suicide attempts are likely to pursue subsequent, riskier attempts. This study examines the effects of bullying and sexual orientation on suicidal outcomes. Methods: Data came from the national, school-administered 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 14,765). Bivariate associations, binomial logistic regressions, and ordinal logistic regressions were performed. Results: Lesbian/gay, bisexual, and unsure youth reported greater odds of ideation and attempts compared to heterosexual youth. For ideation, increased effects were inconsistent across bullying types and significant interactions were found for bisexual youth who were bullied in school, and for lesbian/gay youth who were cyberbullied. Conclusion: These results underscore the need to understand bullying victimization for lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Awareness of increasing cyberbullying and creating school environments of no-bullying tolerance in the post-pandemic era are among the challenges ahead.
The purpose of this study was to identify the therapeutic landscapes of immigrant Latina survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). The rate of IPV among Latinas is alarming and research has documented the effects of IPV on the survivor’s mental health. Immigrant Latina women possess vulnerability factors that compound their ability to receive treatment. Notably, therapeutic landscapes serve to foster recovery yet research has not identified these places for immigrant Latinas. Our qualitative study aimed to fill this gap. Our findings include four themes: Places of worship, places of social support, places of empowerment, places of freedom. Implications for practice within a cultural context are discussed.
- Go to article: Measurement Invariance in the Assessment of Intimate Partner Abuse Among Sexual Minority and Non-Sexual Minority Individuals
Measurement Invariance in the Assessment of Intimate Partner Abuse Among Sexual Minority and Non-Sexual Minority Individuals
Research suggests that sexual minorities (SMs) experience a higher risk of IPA than their heterosexual counterparts. The extent of this problem is likely underestimated and not fully understood due to limitations in our assessment of ways IPA uniquely manifests among SMs. Three forms of IPA that have been discussed in the literature are physical aggression, psychological aggression, and controlling behaviors. In the current study, we assessed the measure invariance of the assessment of these forms of IPA between SM and non-SMs. Participants were recruited using Amazon Mechanical Turk Crowdsourcing Platform. We recruited 338 participants between the ages of 18–59 years old. Of those, 47.3% (n = 160) described their sexual orientation as straight/heterosexual, 28.1% (n = 95) bisexual, 10.1% (n = 34) gay, 4.7% (n = 16) lesbian, 3.0% (n = 10) as asexual, 3.8% (n = 13) as pansexual, 3.0% (n = 10) as queer. Similar to previous research, fits for the overall model for both SMs and non-SMs were poor. However, measurement weights, structural covariances, and measurement residuals models were all significantly different from the unconstrained model, exhibiting a meaningful difference in assessment of IPA between the two groups. Results suggest that experiences of IPA may not be adequately captured by this measure, particularly for SM individuals. Future research should examine the unique and shared experiences of SM and non-SM IPA survivors.
- Go to article: Toxic Masculinity and Patriarchy: Barriers to Connecting Biopsychosocial Risk for Male Violence to Policy and Practice
Toxic Masculinity and Patriarchy: Barriers to Connecting Biopsychosocial Risk for Male Violence to Policy and Practice
Effective policies and programs for addressing and reducing male violence including intimate partner violence must be informed by an in-depth understanding of biopsychosocial theory. This understanding needs to proceed from the substantial empirical research in the early life development of boys, taking into account the unique vulnerabilities of males and considering the complex inter-mixing of biological, psychological, and sociological factors. Simplistic explanations encoded in the constructs “patriarchy” and “toxic masculinity” have been facilely accepted to explain male violence without rigorous efforts to confirm their validity. The public perception and the policy framing of violence and violent crime maybe influenced by these sorts of constructs. When believed to be either a matter of macro-sociocultural influences or ideologically or ethically aberrant choice, violent behavior is the behavior of men who then deserve only punishment or re-education. Biopsychosocial theory appears to have been broadly resisted or even intentionally misconstrued, with reference to misconceptions about the etiology of violence, the emphasis on punishment over treatment, an ideological reluctance to address empirically established differences between the two sexes, and notably, in policies and programs that address domestic violence perpetration. Several aspects of male development are highlighted which are seldom identified in the underlying biological, psychological, and sociological vulnerabilities of males with regard to violence perpetration. These susceptibilities lie at the base of male violence and must be better understood to effectively address the issue and to design effective interventions.
- Go to article: Intimate Partner Violence: The Relationship Between Age, Relationship Type, and the Nature of Assaultive Violence Across Diverse Relationships
Intimate Partner Violence: The Relationship Between Age, Relationship Type, and the Nature of Assaultive Violence Across Diverse Relationships
Intimate partner violence (IPV) occurs across the lifespan, yet younger partners are targeted with greater frequency than older adults. Additionally, involvement in increasingly intimate relationships corresponds with more frequent and serious forms of assault. The current study examined rates and seriousness of IPV assaults as a function of age and type of relationship. Data were obtained from the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation’s online incident-based reporting system (N = 86,755). Logistic regression analyses confirmed that younger individuals demonstrated higher rates of IPV overall, and the majority of IPV sexual assaults occurred among those under 18. Boyfriend/girlfriend relationships demonstrated high rates of several assault categories, stranger, and acquaintance relationships illustrated more serious assaults than hypothesized, and LGBTQIA relationships illustrated relatively low reporting rates. Thus, IPV risk does vary across different age cohorts and relationship types. Possible legal implications and prevention strategies are discussed.
- Go to article: Attachment Insecurity, Hazardous Alcohol Use, and Intimate Partner Violence: A Dyadic Analysis
According to the I3 model, intimate partner violence (IPV) results from an interaction of instigating, impelling, and inhibiting factors. Attachment insecurity is a well-established risk factor for IPV perpetration, but few studies have focused on its role as an impellor within an I3 framework. The current study investigated the independent and interactive effects of attachment insecurity (in impelling factor) and hazardous alcohol use (a disinhibiting factor) on IPV perpetration. It was hypothesized that hazardous alcohol use would moderate the relationship between attachment insecurity and IPV perpetration, such that this relationship would be stronger at higher levels of hazardous alcohol use. Couples (N = 133 dyads) ages 18–40 who had been involved in a committed inti-mate partner relationship for at least 90 days and had consumed alcohol within the past 90 days were recruited online through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk and a university recruitment system. Structural equation models were estimated using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to evaluate actor and partner effects of each risk factor on IPV perpetration. The hypothesized interaction was not significant; however, both hazardous alcohol use and attachment insecurity uniquely predicted different forms of IPV. Results suggest that impelling and inhibiting processes may differentially influence psychological aggression and physical assault, providing further support for varying thresholds for perpetration as posited by the I3 model. Partner effects for both predictors were observed, such that attachment insecurity and hazardous alcohol use of one partner predicted IPV perpetrated by the other partner. These findings also highlight the importance of considering dyadic processes when conceptualizing the etiological and perpetuating factors of IPV.
- Go to article: Comparative Study of Executive Functions in Bilingual TD and SLD Children From Grade 2 to Grade 4
The development of executive functions (EF) in bilingual children with a specific learning disorder (SLD) is a growing area of research interest. Our objective is to study the development of EF in Lebanese children with typical development (TD) and presenting SLD, in the primary grades (Grades 2, 3, and 4). Ninety TD and ninety SLD children, in Grade 2, 3, and 4, were recruited in Lebanese public and private schools. Inhibition, working memory (WM), flexibility and planning were evaluated through the following tests: Image matching test, Numbers retention test in backward order, Corsi block tapping test, Opposite Worlds test, Categorization test (Animal Sorting), and LABY 5–12 test. When comparing the two groups of children in terms of inhibition and WM, the statistical tests show significantly that SLD children are more impulsive than TD children and have a lower visuospatial and verbal WM. SLD children are also slower than TD children in the Opposite Worlds test that assesses flexibility. Similarly, the planning capacity is lower in SLD children compared to TD children. All results improved across grades. This work can explain the cognitive components related to learning, for a better management of specific learning disorders.
This article discusses the role of the three components of executive functions (EF) in geometric understanding. Discussing several examples of geometry problems, this article shows how EF are actively employed to solve geometry problems. Inhibition as the first component of EF helps the individual to suppress contextually irrelevant information. This strengthen the degree of focus on what is relevant to the problem being solved. In some geometry problems, the individual needs to rotate or manipulate shapes in her/his mind. Working memory as the second component of EF keeps a mental image of various positions of the rotating shape before rotation, after rotation, and during rotation. Keeping a clear mental image of these positions and comparing them with each other could facilitate the process of relating inferences to each other throughout the process of solving a geometry problem. Cognitive flexibility as the third component of EF helps the individual in the process of shift of attention between various parts of geometric shapes. Finally, it is suggested that the components of EF are in active collaboration with other cognitive resources such as the motor system in the process of solving geometry problems.
This qualitative study aimed to examine: 1) the manner in which kindergarten children and first graders make sense of the term “area” regarding optimization problems; 2) how this manner is manifested in their decision-making and “STEAM” (science, technology, engineering, art and math) skills; 3) how kindergarten children and first graders comprehend the concept of “cover maximal area.” Six kindergarten children and six first graders participated in the study.
To investigate the children’s knowledge objectification, a multi-semiotic data analysis was conducted; to investigate the children’s decision making an optimal model of a metacognitive process for individuals served us. Our findings indicate that all the children’s knowledge objectification process included three stages: visual, contextual, and symbolic. In the visual stage, children focused on gathering data while demonstrating basic “STEAM” skills. In the contextual stage, they focused on ergotic gestures, planned how they would cover the area using strategies of symmetry and overlapping, and demonstrated engineering and mathematics skills. The symbolic stage was demonstrated by symbolic gestures, self-evaluation, self-feedback, and mathematical skills.
The findings indicate that numeracy and geometric intuition underlie kindergarten children’s and first graders’ perception of the term “cover maximal area” and that this can and should be developed by providing geometry-based optimization activities particularly in kindergarten both when teaching mathematics in general and for STEAM subjects in particular.
- Go to article: Metaphor Literacy: Varying Levels of Relational-Structure Consistency in Interpretations by Indonesian Native Speakers
Metaphor Literacy: Varying Levels of Relational-Structure Consistency in Interpretations by Indonesian Native Speakers
One major view as to the mechanism underlying metaphor interpretation is that it is based on relational-structure consistency (a.k.a. analogy) between target and vehicle. This entails a possibility of varying levels of stringency of analogical processing by individuals. This can be viewed as metaphor literacy. The study, involving 77 Indonesian college students, investigates the extent to which metaphor interpretations made by early-adult native speakers are analogically grounded. The study used eight metaphors selected through a familiarity-rating survey of 37 metaphoric expressions taken from printed media sources. The results showed that, for each metaphor, there was an average of 12.1 different suggestions (S.D. ranging from 4.2 to 9.7) and that 72.2% of the interpretations were categorized as not being strongly grounded on relational-structure consistency. The study suggests that the looseness of the interpretations can be accounted to either the subjects’ preference for not being stringent in observing analogical processing or their being unaccustomed to an analogical manner of metaphor interpretation.
- Go to article: A Novel Proposal to Use Thinking Maps to Embed Blooms’ Taxonomy Within Teaching, Learning, and Assessment
A Novel Proposal to Use Thinking Maps to Embed Blooms’ Taxonomy Within Teaching, Learning, and Assessment
In this article, a methodology for utilizing eight Thinking Maps that are linked to a cognitive taxonomy will be explored. Firstly, the various taxonomies focusing on cognitive processes will be elaborated upon, namely Bloom’s Taxonomy as well as Barret’s Taxonomy that is used in the education system. Following this, the article will explore the questioning strategy that links questions to either taxonomy and how this strategy is currently employed in classrooms worldwide. A section then elucidates the eight Thinking Maps and what types of thought processes are associated with each map. A methodology will be discussed that links the eight Thinking Maps to verbs that are all associated with the previously mentioned taxonomies. Finally, an adaptive systematic methodology will be elaborated upon, linking to the information processing theory.
How much people believe that they understand information, so-called metacomprehension, is important for education. This ability to discriminate between well-learned versus not well-learned information is important to allow the student to decide which areas need further understanding. Feedback can affect metacomprehension and is important for guiding student self-regulated learning. The effects of taking an assessment and finding out the score on self-rated understanding, interest, and knowledge were measured. Participants sampled via MTurk were randomly allocated to one of three groups using Qualtrics in-built randomizer, with the restriction of equal numbers in conditions. The three groups were asked metacomprehension questions: a) after reading a passage but before taking an assessment (Pre-Test group); b) after taking an assessment but before being told their score (Post-Test group); and c) after hearing their score (Post-Feedback group). Responses for understanding and interest substantially decreased between those asked these questions before receiving the feedback versus those asked after receiving the feedback. These self-ratings were also used to predict scores on a later assessment and were similar in their diagnostic value for all conditions.
- Go to article: A Modest Proposal: Towards a Theory and Practice of Teaching Using Vygotsky’s N + 1 Principle in Dialogic Learning
A Modest Proposal: Towards a Theory and Practice of Teaching Using Vygotsky’s N + 1 Principle in Dialogic Learning
This article addresses the problem of “education for all,” and offers a research proposal that replaces procedural learning by a learning practice whereby all are engaged. Although educational research since 1990 of dialogical learning (DL) and collaborative learning (CL) have shown that it is possible to promote the learning practices that they focus on, little evidence is available on long-term effects of school achievement. Teachers also face pressure from both the UK and USA governments having produced policy documents favouring procedural teaching. An exception is CASE, Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education (1984 onwards), and a 2-year course for 12–14 year-olds. This functioned by collaborative learning placed in highly structured theory-based science lessons based on Piagetian models of difficulty. Students consistently performed higher in National exams in science, maths and English at 16 (Shayer, 1999b). It is argued that a better way of changing teaching practice would be to place it in teachers’ initial training. By assisting trainee science teachers, in designing their science curriculum lessons—assisted by DL and CL literature—to extract and use the same theory-base that had been used by CA staff for constructing CASE lessons, they would possess a valid theory and practice of teaching.
- Go to article: The Importance of Metacognitive Strategies in Reading Literacy—Results of the PISA Testing in Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Importance of Metacognitive Strategies in Reading Literacy—Results of the PISA Testing in Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a large-scale assessment of 15-year-old students’ achievements in three broad areas: Reading, science, and mathematics. PISA results are widely used in discussions on various educational aspects, such as educational policy, quality of education, and teaching methods. Although PISA started in 2000, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH) participated for the first time in 2018. The core subject for the 2018 circle of testing was reading. Thus, the goal of the present article was to examine the effects of metacognitive strategies on the reading achievement of students in BIH. The sample for this analysis was composed of 5,482 students (2,701 female and 2,781 male students). The results showed that metacognitive strategies had a significant effect on reading achievement. We conclude the article with some remarks on how teachers can employ metacognitive strategies in their everyday practice and thus increase their students’ reading achievement.
- Go to article: Developing Career and Counseling Self-Efficacy: Evaluating a Self-Efficacy Enhancement Approach to Counselor Education
Developing Career and Counseling Self-Efficacy: Evaluating a Self-Efficacy Enhancement Approach to Counselor Education
We applied Barnes’s self-efficacy enhancement approach (e.g., mastery experiences, vicarious learning, verbal persuasion, and perceptions of psychological states) to two separate evaluation studies focused on teaching career counseling to master’s level rehabilitation counselors-in-training and doctoral level counselor educators-in-training.
Study 1 employed a pre/post, single group design with 24 master’s level rehabilitation counselors-in-training. Study 2 employed a longitudinal, single group design with 13 counselor education doctoral students. Students in each study participated in a 14-week semester-length career counseling course designed using Barnes’s self-efficacy enhancement approach. In both studies, students participated in a mini-practicum, completed several measures of self-efficacy and perceived competence during multiple time points across the semester.
Findings from Study 1 indicated an increase in career counseling self-efficacy and helping skills self-efficacy. Findings from Study 2 indicated an increase in career counseling self-efficacy and perceived counseling skills when working with people with disabilities.
Findings from Study 1 and Study 2 support Barnes’s self-efficacy enhancement approach when teaching career counseling to rehabilitation counselors-in-training and doctoral students in counselor education.
- Go to article: Factors Influencing the Career Decision Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations of College Students With Disabilities
Factors Influencing the Career Decision Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations of College Students With Disabilities
Understanding the career decision self-efficacy and outcome expectations of college students with disabilities (CSWD) are important to ensure their career-related activities participation and transition into the workforce. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the influences of disability identity, ethnic identity, perceptions of career barriers, and social supports on the career decision self-efficacy and outcome expectations of CSWD.
The study utilized a cross-sectional survey design and the sample consisted of 312 CSWD recruited at two 4-year universities in Midwestern and Southeastern areas. A series of hierarchical regression analyses was used to examine the factors, including disability identity, ethnic identity, social support, perceived career barriers, ethnicity, gender, and disability types affect career decision self-efficacy, and career outcome expectations of CSWD.
The results showed that 30.1% of variability, F(7, 248) = 15.272, p < .001, in career decision self-efficacy was explained by disability identity, ethnic identity, social support, perceived career barriers, ethnicity, gender, and disability type. Social support was the largest contributor to career decision self-efficacy. In addition, 56.1% of variability, F(8, 247) = 39.433, p < .001, in career outcome expectations was explained by disability identity, ethnic identity, social support, perceived career barriers, career decision self-efficacy, ethnicity and gender. Career decision self-efficacy was the largest contributor to career outcome expectations.
Several implications for rehabilitation professionals, educators, and researchers are provided.
First, the intersection of social identities (i.e., disability identity and ethnicity identity) requires increased attention in the rehabilitation fields. Sociocultural backgrounds and diverse identities are factors that have been identified as influencing career development of CSWD. Rehabilitation counselors and relevant professionals can play critical roles in supporting and empowering CSWD to develop positive disability and ethnic identities within the postsecondary education environments. Second, appropriate social support from family, peers, faculty, and disability service specialists, inclusive campus climate, and career-related development support in postsecondary education are essential for positive career outcomes of CSWD. Lastly, the effective career services could assist underrepresented CSWD building a sense of identity, confidence, and beliefs of competencies for career decisions and career outcomes, also, eliminate perceptions of career barriers attributing to intersecting multiple identities.
- Go to article: A Case Study of Effective Employment Practices for Persons With Disabilities in a Large Multi-Site Health Care Organization
A Case Study of Effective Employment Practices for Persons With Disabilities in a Large Multi-Site Health Care Organization
The purpose of this in-depth case study was to better understand how practices, policies, and structures contributed to a large health care organization’s track record of hiring, training, and retaining persons with disabilities (PWDs).
We conducted in-depth interviews with 63 key informants across four hospitals in the hospital system. Within each site, we recruited participants from multiple-levels of the organization to understand the complexity of employment practices. Content analysis was used to analyze participant response to open-ended questions.
Providing appropriate supports, including clearly defined job roles that are aligned with employee abilities, ongoing coaching and support, and purposeful efforts to integrate PWDs into the broader organization, are important elements of ongoing success. Invested leadership, alignment across organizational structures, and building partnerships with organizations with knowledge and skill in supporting PWDs are additional critical success factors.
Findings indicate that it is imperative for organizations wishing to strengthen their hiring practices for PWDs to develop a culture that embraces a person-first approach. As evidenced here, in an environment where all employees feel supported, valued, and as if there is room for growth, there is opportunity for employees with disabilities to be viewed through a positive, developmental, and generous lens.
The present article provides a narrative review of Australia’s approach toward acquired brain injury (ABI) and proposes how Australia and the United States can collaborate to improve service delivery for persons with ABI and their families with epidemiology, healthcare, prevention, research, and training.
A narrative review of journal articles, government documents, and websites was completed to present a broad overview of Australia’s approach toward meeting the needs of persons with ABI.
The narrative review and synthesis of publications were summarized into the following categories: a) overview of ABI in Australia, b) long-term care government programs, c) services and advocacy, d) research and training, and e) recommendations for Australian-U.S. collaborations.
The current time presents an opportunity for Australia and the United States to collaboratively address areas of common ABI need by dialogue, collaboration, and academic engagement, which may lead to better outcomes for persons with ABI by the sharing of research findings, service approaches, advocacy efforts, and rehabilitation counselor training. Rehabilitation counselors in Australia and the United States should lead the process of collaboration and engagement around common areas of ABI need.
Little is known about victims’ experiences with the perpetrator after they report a sexual assault. This study examined harassment of sexual assault victims during the prosecution process utilizing case notes from a large, southern District Attorney’s office. Specifically, harassment cases were compared to cases where no harassment was reported by the victim. We found that approximately 15% of victims vocalized harassment by the defendant, his family, or friends. The results detail characteristics and factors related to how harassment was carried out in these cases. These findings unveil the importance of communicating with victims during the prosecution process and suggest control balance theory to be an appropriate lens through which to view harassing behavior.
- Go to article: MMPI-2-RF Differences Between Violent Offending and Institutional Violence Among Incarcerated Women
The examination of violence perpetrated by female offenders remains an understudied topic, as research typically focuses on male offender samples. As such, it remains unclear what personality characteristics may be associated with the perpetration of violence among female offenders. This study sought to examine the relationship between personality characteristics, as assessed by the MMPI-2-RF, and engagement in violence, within a sample of 228 incarcerated women. Results indicated that women serving time for a violent offense obtained higher mean scores on MMPI-2-RF scales related to underreporting, atypical thoughts/experiences, and paranoia. Women who obtained disciplinary reports for violence within the institution obtained higher mean scores on MMPI-2-RF scales related to behavior/externalizing dysfunction, overactivation, and aggression. Taken together, violence was most strongly associated with the MMPI-2-RF scales related to paranoia and atypical thoughts/experiences (e.g., THD, PSYC-r). This study provides new data on the viability of the MMPI-2-RF to provide critical insights into violent and aggression behavior in female inmates, an understudied population and demonstrate the instrument’s efficacy in assessing characteristics associated with violent behavior.
- Go to article: The Relationship Between College Student Characteristics and Reporting Sexual Assault Experiences on Two Different Scales
The Relationship Between College Student Characteristics and Reporting Sexual Assault Experiences on Two Different Scales
Though high rates of sexual assault are found on college campuses, prevalence rates between studies can vary considerable by gender, sexual orientation, and other student characteristics. Thus, it is unknown whether these are “true” differences for such characteristics or if there are methodological differences to consider. As such the current study examined whether student characteristics including gender, race, sexual orientation, sexual attraction, Greek affiliation, and relationship status are uniquely associated with reporting on two different sexual assault scales. Data were gathered from 783 college students in 2019–2020 at a large Midwestern university. Results revealed that the two different scales consistently provided different prevalence rates of sexual assault. Moreover, for each type of sexual assault (e.g., coercion, incapacitation, and physical force), there were also significant differences with students consistently reporting higher prevalence rates on one scale over the other. Finally, significant differences were found in prevalence rates across gender, sexual attraction, and Greek affiliated status.
- Go to article: The Associations Between Gang Membership and Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking: Findings From a Nationally Representative Study
The Associations Between Gang Membership and Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking: Findings From a Nationally Representative Study
Adolescent gang membership has been proposed as a risk factor that creates individual-level vulnerability for domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) and/or a context in which DMST may occur. This study investigates the gang membership-DMST association using data from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States (n = 12,605). Bivariate results found gang-involved minors had 4.39 greater odds of experiencing DMST compared to non-gang-involved peers. Multivariable results found gang membership, violence victimization, delinquency, and certain demographic characteristics to be significantly associated with DMST. These findings emphasize the need to consider the context in an adolescent’s life beyond DMST when designing policies and programs, and highlight the need for additional research into the gang membership-DMST association.
- Go to article: Domestic Violence Risk Assessment Research to Real-World Practice: The Devil Is in the Implementation
Domestic Violence Risk Assessment Research to Real-World Practice: The Devil Is in the Implementation
Assessing risk in domestic violence situations is foundational to ensuring safety. Although there is growing information about the reliability and validity of a variety of risk assessment tools across different practice contexts, there is a paucity of research on the feasibility and application of these tools in real world settings. The present qualitative study examined current practices in domestic violence risk assessment in Canada through a survey of professionals working across diverse sectors. Utilizing a thematic analysis of 255 open-text responses, this study presents several themes related to challenges identified at the systemic, organizational, and individual levels. Themes related to promising practices and the practical implication of risk assessment strategies are also explored.
- Go to article: Always at the Ready: Fears, Threats, and Unsafe Gun Storage in Households With Children
Guns are present in many households in the U.S., including those with children. Safe storage of guns at home can mitigate the increased risks of both the unintentional and intentional injury that in-home gun access presents; yet estimates suggest fewer than half of gun owners store their weapon(s) safely. Unsafe storage in homes with children is especially problematic given that gun-owning parents make incorrect assumptions about both children’s awareness of firearm storage locations, and their actions upon encountering an unsecured gun. There is limited identification and understanding of why some parents do not engage in safe storage practices. Using 2019 survey data from an internet-based sample of gun-owning adults with children at home, this study explores various potential correlates of unsafe storage. Findings suggest that unsafe storage occurs not in response to crime/victimization fears, but from broader, group- and status-based threats. Understanding the complex factors preventing gun-owning parents from implementing safe storage practices has important implications for both victimization scholarship and public health/injury prevention efforts.
- Go to article: Exploring Correlates of Social Reactions to Disclosure Among Latina Sexual Assault Survivors
Social reactions to sexual assault (SA) disclosure are well-documented in the literature, but less is known about disclosure and reactions received by Latina survivors. The current study analyzed correlates of positive and negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosure in a community sample of Latina survivors (n = 239). Compared to White survivors, Latina survivors were more likely to report turning against and acknowledgement without support reactions. Among Latina survivors, contrary to hypotheses, both “stereotypical” (e.g. more violent assaults) and “non-stereotypical” (e.g. pre-assault substance use) assault characteristics were associated with acknowledgement without support negative social reactions. Furthermore, total number of sources Latina survivors disclosed to were associated with turning against social reactions. Implications for future research on disclosure/social reactions and Latina survivors are discussed.