College counseling has entered an era that promises to be radically different than any time in its previous 100-year history. College students in this 21st century are more technologically advanced than previous generations and more likely to take virtual classes than previous generations of college students. Traditional services provided by the college counseling center are: individual and group counseling, psychoeducational groups, evaluation and assessment, career counseling, consultation to faculty and staff, medication management and resident advisor (RA) training. Nontraditional services are defined as virtual counseling, advising, and related services offered via distance technology. College counseling centers have long offered types of self-instructional services. They will need to address social media in ways that are both ethically sound and also able to effectively engage college students in seeking counseling services. The counselor can administer the Dimensions of a Healthy Lifestyle Scale (DHLS) to the client and then discuss the findings.
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As best friends in a small Midwestern town, Jon and Stephen, both extremely bright and inquisitive, often talked with each other about their dreams of jobs they would have as adults. Throughout childhood, made alive through imaginative play, their wide-ranging ideas about careers were inspired largely by television and movie characters. They were enthralled with the idea of “special powers” to save the universe, but soon realized that “superhero” wasn’t a career. A few years later, they considered becoming crime scene investigators, lawyers, emergency room doctors, and, briefly, even astronauts. Jon and Stephen were inseparable and were regarded by the elementary school’s Gifted and Talented (G/T) coordinator as the most academically advanced students in her memory. They loved to learn, had vivid imaginations, and inspired their classmates and each other to “dream big” about the future. They were big fish in a little pond (e.g., Marsh, 1987; Salchegger, 2016).
Then Jon’s family relocated to an affluent suburban neighborhood on the West Coast after his father took a position in Silicon Valley. Jon, in middle school, had to adjust to a new set of expectations and found the adjustment quite challenging—in fact, far more so than he had imagined. Surrounded by a large group of intense and extremely driven students, who all seemed to aspire to top-tier universities, and struck by the harsh realization that he was no longer one of the very best students, Jon now felt as if he were a fish out of water. He was plagued with self-doubt about his abilities and future educational and career prospects. Compared to the other students, who had long positioned themselves to earn coveted spots in the local
STEM-oriented magnet high school, Jon felt inadequately prepared to compete and felt his excitement for learning fading quickly. Once a confident and enthusiastic student, Jon was immobilized by his fear of making mistakes, especially in the presence of his new peers, and he began to retreat from others both at school and at home. He had difficulty dealing with even minor setbacks and grew to resent the students who seemed ambitious and competitive. Adopting a defensive posture, Jon downplayed the importance of thinking about future goals; in his own words, it was “stupid” to worry too much about college and career. Although he generally maintained respectable grades (mainly to make his parents happy and to keep their anxieties at bay), he refused to take the most challenging courses at school and stopped taking academic risks. Since he was getting mostly As and Bs and an occasional C on his report card, Jon’s parents were not alarmed by the changes in his behavior and failed to notice that he had turned away from learning. His academic self-concept had taken a major hit.
In contrast to Jon, Stephen remained in the same small Midwestern school district for the remainder of his precollege years and continued to feel passionate—about everything! Stephen’s parents encouraged him to indulge his intellectual curiosity and explore every subject that captured his interest. But Stephen had difficulty narrowing his interests for the sake of establishing career direction. When he was first exposed to chemistry, for instance, he quickly memorized the periodic table and spent many nights at the dinner table teaching his younger brother everything he had learned about each element. Later, when introduced to physics, he could hardly contain his excitement about quantum field theory, cosmic inflation, fluid dynamics, and a host of other topics. Of course, he also loved math and was eager to learn computer languages. Adept not only in
STEMsubjects, Stephen also excelled in and enjoyed writing, history, and politics. However, because the school district was small and lacked resources, he often learned advanced content on his own by reading books and searching the Internet. The local public high school he attended offered few Advanced Placement ( AP) courses, and school officials believed they could not justify offering additional APcourses just for him. Without his friend Jon, he had no intellectual peer with whom he could share ideas and interact meaningfully. As his precollege years progressed, Stephen did not gain sufficient clarity about educational and career direction to focus his efforts on developing any particular interest to a high level outside of the classroom.
Alcohol and other drugs (AOD)/substance use on college campuses has been an ongoing challenge for campus administrations, health services and health promotion, housing, and counseling centers. The misuse of substances by college students has a significant physiological, emotional, economic, and academic cost. Students are frequently unaware of the impact marijuana use may have on academic performance and motivation. Brief intervention (BI) and treatment have been shown to be effective treatment modalities at reducing high-risk substance abuse behaviors. Counseling centers may consider allowing for at least one session of motivational interviewing to increase the likelihood of clients following through on referrals to comprehensive substance use assessment, self-help groups, or treatment. Counseling center staff, even those with limited AOD treatment experience, can feel empowered to use the screening, brief intervention, referral to treatment (SBIRT) model. Group therapy is one of the most widely used treatment modalities for substance use.
This chapter presents an overview of intrapsychic theories, cognitive theories, behavioral and environmental theories, biological theories, and integrative theories. Past ideas about the nature of adolescent development serve as foundations for current adolescent developmental theories. In many ways, the adolescent years are the culmination of childhood; hence, in order to truly understand adolescence a review of what happens in the years leading up to adolescence can help clarify the nature of adolescents. Although the early biological process of puberty begins to develop several years before adolescence, in Freud’s theory puberty and adolescence are considered roughly equivalent. Adolescents experience a reawakening of and an obsession with sexuality. Studies indicate that occurrences of eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive patterns, and self-reports of same-sex attraction surface during the adolescent years as a result of the reawakening of the underlying subconscious conflicts.
Many clinicians and researchers who work with adolescents classify the adolescent problems into two general categories of difficulties: externalizing problems and internalizing problems. Externalizing problems are difficulties that affect the external world of adolescents, such as drug abuse, delinquency, and engaging in risky behaviors. The adolescent who is abusing drugs is likely to also be engaged in risky sexual behaviors and delinquency. The discovery of and experimentation with drugs are common for adolescents and vary primarily from socially acceptable and legal drugs such as caffeine, cigarettes, and alcohol to socially rejected and illegal drugs, ranging from marijuana to heroin and cocaine. Unfortunately, adolescents often do not think that drug abuse is harmful, despite the fact that both alcohol consumption and marijuana use have short-term and long-term negative effects. However, sexuality during adolescence has the potential to become a serious health concern.
This chapter presents several strategies, analogies, and metaphors to address dissociation from different angles and perspectives. Clinicians will have a wide range of methods of introducing and explaining dissociation to children. Analogies and stories that help children understand the multiplicity of the self may be presented during the preparation phase of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy. A good way of introducing the concept of dissociation is by using the dissociation kit for kids. Stimulating interoceptive awareness is a fundamental aspect of the work needed during the preparation phase of EMDR therapy with dissociative children. Visceral, proprioceptive, as well as kinesthetic-muscle awareness should be stimulated. The installation of present resolution (IPR) was inspired by an exercise developed by Steele and Raider. In this exercise, the child is asked to draw a picture of the past traumatic event followed by a picture of the child in the present.
This chapter addresses gender and identity issues in
PK–12 education, including gender fluidity, students who identify as transgender and the transitioning process, students who identify as LGBTQ+, and general school-based advocacy and safety issues. This chapter offers ways to create safe and affirming spaces for LGBTQ+ students in schools. It serves as a foundation for seeking more knowledge to best serve these affinity groups. Scholarly support and practitioner recommendations for school-based support including student-led groups, staff training, parent education, and safe school culture curriculum are presented.
Tosha and Erik are the two school counselors in a large suburban elementary school. For 5 years, they have worked to create a school counseling program aligned with their state’s framework, which was developed with the
ASCANational Model in mind. This year, they are hosting a school counseling intern, Tony, from a program in the school of education at a local university. Although the school counselors are grateful to have an intern with fresh eyes and new ideas, they wonder whether the supervision will require too much time and divert their attention from the report they must write prior to a visit by the state department of education later in the year. At the initial interview, Tosha and Erik learn that because Tony had already had several education classes, his program advisor suggested that he take some electives in areas of interest. During his student-teaching experience, he had been intrigued by creative and artistic students and therefore opted to take a few courses in gifted education. He is excited to be working with Tosha and Eric and wants to know if he might work with gifted students and find out how the gifted-education program is currently serving them.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) presents one of the most urgent health care issues of our time. AD is a disease of the brain and mind, and as such, neuropsychology has an essential and evolving role to play in addressing this growing public health concern. Measurement of key cognitive functions, such as delayed recall of recently presented information, is crucial in the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. In addition to the importance of advancing scientifically informed disease-specific measurement of cognition, neuropsychology has a growing role to play in the design and implementation of nonpharmacological interventions for AD. The neuropathological hallmarks of AD are senile plaques (SP), neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), and cell and synapse loss in multiple brain areas. Granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD) has long been recognized to be present in the brains of AD patients.
This chapter helps the reader to understand the history of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), specific components of the ADA and how the ADA provides resources to older adults and people with disabilities. The ADA, while groundbreaking, was not initially intended for people with disabilities rather than for older adults. As time progressed, however, the benefits of the ADA were much more far-reaching than originally intended, especially for aging adults with disabilities. The individual titles of the ADA have had some dramatically positive and specific impact for older adults wishing to remain in their homes or in their communities as long as possible. Although the ADA is still in its young adulthood, the benefits of the ADA have only grown as new and further linkages, such as the ADRCs, have developed in all regions of the United States.
Meeting academic demands, getting along with roommates, dealing with new social pressures, questioning career choices, managing finances, and other new responsibilities of the college experience can give rise to unexpected and undesired stress and anxiety. While event-related stress does not cause anxiety disorders on its own, it can worsen symptoms of a preexisting anxiety disorder or trigger an anxiety disorder in someone who may be predisposed. The symptoms of anxiety disorders generally involve disturbances in mood, thinking, and behavior. This chapter assesses the different classifications of anxiety disorders. Types of anxiety disorder includes generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), social anxiety disorder, and specific phobias. The chapter evaluates effective treatment and intervention strategies for college student population. Among other psychotherapy approaches, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), relaxation therapy (RT), and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) have received considerable empirical support in the treatment of anxiety disorders.
The chapter will serve as an overview of the
ASCANational Model and provide a clear connection with the translation from an aspirational ideal of school counseling to the reality of school counseling practice. The four main components of the National Model will be presented, including define, manage, deliver, and assess. This chapter will address and provide examples as to how these components are often offered in current models of PK–12 education—both in brick-and-mortar schools and online academies.
International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation (ISSTD)’s professional training institute offers comprehensive courses on childhood dissociation that are taught internationally and online. This chapter briefly cites some of the theories that have emerged in the dissociative field. One system, the apparently normal personality (ANP) enables an individual to perform necessary functions, such as work. The emotional personality (EP) is action system fixated at the time of the trauma to defend from threats. As with the Adaptive Information Processing Model (AIP) in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), each phase brings reassessment of the client’s ability to move forward to effectively process trauma. There are many overlapping symptoms with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) and dissociation that often mask the dissociation. The rate of diagnosis of pediatric bipolar disorder has increased 40 times in the last ten years.
- Go to chapter: Assessing the Development, Implementation, and Management of Your Comprehensive School Counseling Program
- Go to chapter: Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment Planning in Psychotherapy With Children and Adolescents
This chapter reviews the types of assessment tools that cover all phases of development, including emotional, social, developmental, educational, and psychological. In developmentally grounded psychotherapy, a multimodal approach to assessment is necessary. A multimodal approach covers direct interviews of parents and children, interviews of parents and other caregivers, observations in the office and in the child’s natural environment, and the implementation of standardized measures. Child and adolescent personality assessment tools are more likely than adult tools to look at emotional, social, and behavioral functioning because personality disorders are not diagnosed until at least age 18, when children reach adulthood. Ultimately, assessment tools are used to verify the therapist’s clinical impressions to guide diagnosis and treatment planning. The diagnosis only benefits the clinical process because it guides treatment planning and clinical interventions.
- Go to chapter: Background and Demographic Profile of People Growing Older and/or People With Disabilities
This chapter highlights some of the current health programs and policies in place and changes in demographic trends for older adults living within American society. In addition, substantial changes within the social, political, and cultural expectations of communities over the past century pose challenges for policies and programs serving older adults. The chapter presents several issues emerge as realities within the context of policy development and program planning for older adults. These issues include changes in living arrangements, education levels, economic well-being, and rural population settings; trends in morbidity and mortality; and changes within the social, political, and cultural expectations of communities. Despite the availability of programs and services resulting from health policies, many programs have focused upon “medically necessary” services and have lacked a health promotion, health education, or community-based focus.
- Go to chapter: Barriers and Applications of Medication Therapy Management in the Homeless Population
Medication therapy management (MTM) remains a challenging endeavor to optimally implement in the homeless population. Working in various settings in collaboration with other health professionals, pharmacists are spearheading patient-centered efforts to optimize MTM and assist the homeless with attaining health insurance and continuity of care. In the case of MTM, homeless persons may face significant hardship in not only procuring and using effective drug therapy, but also in following-up with their providers and establishing provider–patient relationships that will help them to meet their target therapeutic goals. This chapter enumerates a review of the more common barriers to MTM in the homeless population, followed by a number of practical applications of MTM in optimizing the health of the homeless. In order to appreciate the value and role that stable MTM can offer the homeless, the chapter briefly discusses perspectives on homeless health and the concept of MTM.
Child psychotherapy is different than any other type of adult-child relationship. A trained mental health professional is using clinical skills to help a child find the answers to the problems he or she has encountered. This chapter outlines the most common symptoms in child psychotherapy. Anxiety is one of the most common symptoms of childhood, but the etiology and manifestation of anxiety varies. Anxiety is a symptom of many other disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), separation anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social phobia and other specific phobias, selective mutism, mood disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Gifted children tend to have higher levels of anxiety because they can think about things they are not yet emotionally prepared to manage. The chapter discusses clinical interventions for common issues of childhood, along with resources for children, directions for parents, and references for parents, caregivers, educators, and therapists alike.
Women are very familiar with the experience of being evaluated by their physical attractiveness. This socialization intersects across all stages of a woman’s development beginning in early childhood. Too often, college women’s beliefs about their own attractiveness influence their self-worth. This chapter provides an overview of the “beauty pageant effect”, a phenomenon in which college women compete against one another based on their physical appearance. In addition, exploration of the beauty pageant effect suggests that social comparison theory, evolutionary psychology, and realistic comparison theory play a significant role in the interactions of college women. The chapter presents negative impacts of this type of competition and discusses a brief overview of clinical implications. Prevention work needs to target all women on campus and especially any at-risk populations, such as women with a history of mood disorder, socially isolated students, and those with a personal or family history of eating disorders.
This chapter focuses on the racial identity development of Black or African American college students and of students who identity as biracial or multiracial. Although racial identity development theories do not support biological distinction between racial groups in the United States, they recognize how different conditions of domination or oppression of various groups have influenced their construction of self. In this chapter Black is used to refer to the racial identity of U.S.-born persons of African descent who may categorize themselves as Black, Black American, African American, or Afro Caribbean. The term biracial is used to describe persons with two parents of differing monoracial or multiracial descents. It is worth noting that some individuals may claim Black racial identity although neither of their parents identify as Black, such as the case of civil rights activist Rachel Dolezal. This chapter goes in depth into such alternative experiences of Black identity development.
This chapter describes the external and internal physical changes and the brain. The hormonal changes of puberty initiate drastic growth in the body and organs of adolescents. Recent advances in brain-imaging technologies such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans have contributed greatly to understanding of brain development in adolescence. Similar to what happens during infancy, the early adolescent’s brain begins a process of overproduction, which is an increase in neural connections in the brain’s gray matter. The development of gray matter follows a pattern of maturation from the back of the brain to the front of the brain. By eliminating unused synapses the adolescent brain becomes more efficient and is able to process mental functioning at an accelerated speed. The amygdala is a small, almond-shaped structure in the midbrain charged with emotional expression.
This chapter presents a case study of a 16-year-old high school student who was identified as biracial and a product of divorce. He reported living with his White mother, stepfather, and younger half-sibling, and frequently visited with his Hispanic father and stepmother. The patient was an academically gifted student with a keen interest in science and math, and informed his interest in pursuing medical school in the future. He reported that beyond his family, his biracial identity did not influence him much. The patient was diagnosed with social anxiety, which appeared to be a more appropriate diagnosis. To accomplish the therapeutic goals, the author utilized a mixture of cognitive behavioral and humanistic strategies along with mindfulness with the patient. The mix of strategies was useful for the patient as he enjoyed the cognitive behavioral strategies that reminded him of his areas of strength.
Student developmental models that can be used to understand various students in groups and their development include identity models, such as Chickering and Reisser’s model, as well as Levinson’s model; psychosocial models, such as Erikson’s model; intellectual and ethical developmental models, such as Perry’s model; moral developmental models, such as Kohlberg’s model; cognitive models, such as Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s models; and experiential models, such as Kolb’s model. For a broad and universal understanding, these and other student developmental theories are integrated into the group theory. This chapter provides a discussion of group theory in relation to various salient student development theories. It addresses a brief introduction about the need for inclusion and multicultural awareness for students and student groups. The chapter discusses aspects for understanding successful student group development regarding group types, group leader guidelines, group processes, and learning reflection of student groups through a multicultural lens.
This chapter presents a case study of a 14-year-old African American female. She had strong beliefs in the family system and felt protective of her children. She was in trouble at school due to bullying other students through social media comments. Her suspension from school for texting inappropriate pictures prompted her mother to bring her to counseling. The author’s initial concerns focused on addressing the patient’s feelings of sadness and hopelessness related to her low self-esteem. The therapeutic alliance is the foundation for counseling effectiveness. The counseling goal centered on increasing the patient’s self-esteem and decreasing her reliance on approval by friends via social media. Using brief solution-focused therapy with her was a good choice. By coming to terms with her feelings of sadness and hopelessness and recognizing the effect of her sexualized behaviors, the patient made positive changes in her lifestyle.
Many adults understand the pressures of having multiple responsibilities that require attention in a variety of life circumstances. Whether giving attention to work, friends, school, religious activities, romantic relationships, family, or even recreation, adulthood requires the ongoing ability to multitask a variety of expectations and responsibilities. Before reaching adulthood, each person has experienced influences that affect how we think, feel, and react to life’s circumstances. This chapter offers professionals and educators one model for understanding these influences and their impact on college students who oftentimes are transitioning to a new world of adult responsibilities for the first time. Ecological theory originally developed out of the work of Urie Bronfenbrenner (1977) within the field of developmental psychology. The concepts described in Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory offer a number of important implications for supporting students in a college setting.
This chapter presents a case study of a Caucasian high school student, who came to counseling because of her anxiety about school, music, family, and relationships. Based on the initial interactions, the patient appeared to be an introvert with adequate social skills. Her hyperawareness of others’ opinions of her, her avoidance of criticism, her unrealistic expectations of herself, and her fear of not performing well contributed to an almost constant state of anxiety. She continued to process the anxiety she experienced when multiple stresses started piling up in her life. The patient agreed she needed to be honest with her mom about her stress. By counseling, she developed skills for managing anxiety, lessened her dependence, and strengthened her internal locus of control. The most effective strategy involved role-playing, because she needed concrete interventions, and it helped her build confidence in her ability to implement what one practiced.
This chapter serves as an introduction to building a comprehensive school counseling program (
CSCP). In a CSCP, school counselors serve as collaborative leaders advocating for systemic change using data and incorporating an equity lens with every decision made. CSCPs are developed, delivered, and maintained to promote student success in academic, career, and social/emotional domains. Examples of how varying school districts throughout the United States approach school counseling programs are included. This chapter also provides guidance for school counselors through the process of developing a CSCP. Scholarly support for the benefits of a CSCPare presented, and practical application of the model, including the benefits of a CSCPfor multiple stakeholders, are discussed.
This chapter focuses on helping children to further develop their skills in self-reflection, mindfulness, and somatic awareness, along with managing triggers and learning calming techniques. It discusses contracting with self-states for new responses or roles that enhance mastery of daily skills. Empowerment and learning calming techniques will improve the child’s overall functioning-an integral step toward stabilizing the child for trauma processing. Building somatic literacy is needed with dissociative children so they can begin to understand and express what they are feeling. Incorporating physical exercise to build affect regulation, increase mind-fullness, and also expand window of tolerance is essential for calming down the overactive stress-response system. The chapter examines how to help dissociative children to increase their capacity to manage traumatic triggers. The key to healing dissociative children is seeing beyond the triggers and acting-out behavior and discovering the true source of the child’s impairment-the fractured mind that drives the behavior.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in older homeless people. Traditional CV risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and hyperlipidemia, and nontraditional CV risk factors, such as substance abuse, psychological stress, and lack of diagnostic and preventative medical care, contribute to CVD in this population. Barriers to CV prevention and treatment in homeless individuals include their environment, lack of access to care, substance dependence, mental illness, food insecurity, and medication non-adherence. Healthcare models that provide Housing First and just-in-time care by non-judgmental multidisciplinary teams have been shown to improve the CV health of people who are homeless. CV health requires prevention, as well as prompt intervention, and close follow-up. CV healthcare practice adaptations for homeless clients include ascertaining living conditions, improvising the physical exam, scheduling longer clinic appointments with frequent follow-up, prioritization of the plan of care, and simplification of the medication regimen.
This chapter provides basic career counseling and advising information for college counselors, advisors, and student affairs professionals. Career counseling services include career counseling, testing, career planning and development interventions, cooperative education and experiential career education, and job placement and employment services. Career interest inventories may be inappropriate for students with severe mental or emotional disturbances. The chapter discusses several most popular inventories used for career and academic planning. The self-directed search (SDS) classifies an individual into six different personality-work typologies. A number of computer-based programs have been developed to assist clients and students in career exploration. Career planning resources have become very popular and can play a helpful role in providing additional information regarding career choice. The career functioning assessment (CFA) provides a conceptual framework to assess a client’s current occupational functioning and serves as a starting point for assessing future career success.
This third edition provides a review of developmental, ecosystemic, and career theories to inform relevant P–12 career and college readiness interventions. It reviews numerous developmental theories and assists readers in using them as a foundation to design sequential and developmentally appropriate career and college readiness curricula and interventions. The book help readers understand the ecosystemic influences (e.g., family, school, community, society) on career development and college readiness, and discusses both why it is important to involve various stakeholders in career and college readiness initiatives and how to involve them. It starts with six foundational chapters in which it reviews (a) current data and issues related to college and career readiness, (b) information to assist with postsecondary planning and career and college advising, (c) professional preparation standards for individuals who will provide career and college readiness interventions, (d) cultural considerations in career and college readiness, (e) career and college readiness assessment, and (f) career and college readiness curriculum development. It addresses career development and college readiness needs by grade level. The focus in each grade level chapter is to identify common tasks that occur at that level and to help readers apply knowledge of ecosystems, developmental theories, and career theories, and identify ways that multiple stakeholders can become involved in career and college readiness interventions. This third edition has been revised and includes: updated workforce statistics; work-based learning opportunities for secondary students; the impact of social media on student development; career and technical education pathways; gap year information; enhanced instructor's manual, including project-based activities, discussion prompts, and related online activities, games, and apps. This book helps both preserves and practicing school counselors to identify career and college readiness needs and design developmentally appropriate interventions that are grounded in theory and research.
Eighth grade is a time of distinct change and transition. In this chapter, we discuss the significant decisions eighth graders are asked to make regarding careers and how they can be supported to make these choices. Information on high school secondary track options, how to work with parents, and examples from a school counselor and district leaders are provided.
Ninth grade is a critical transition year where students’ academic habits and choices set the stage for future possibilities. In this chapter we address the importance of career and college advising as well as assisting students in developing individual learning plans to map how they will approach preparing for their future. Interventions focus on self and career exploration as well as the development of strong academic habits and dispositions.
In this chapter, we focus on career development and environmental influences for 10th graders and we highlight how Super’s Life-Span Life-Space theory and Social Cognitive Career Theory can be useful for conceptualizing these students. We also discuss factors that influence students’ career and postsecondary decision-making and goal-setting. Finally, we offer suggestions for addressing many of the internal and external factors that can negatively affect career and college readiness.
- Go to chapter: Career and College Readiness for Grade 11: Beginning the Career and College Transition
In this chapter, we focus on helping students narrow down their future plans and engage in exploratory activities to more concretely prepare for their postsecondary transitions. We review Social Cognitive Career Theory and the Theory of Career Construction as frameworks for designing career and college readiness interventions. Finally, we highlight interventions to help students identify and hone in on strengths as well as to gather more information about themselves and details associated with potential future options.
In this chapter, we discuss interventions to help students take the final steps needed for their postsecondary transitions. Also, we reference the Theory of Career Construction in conceptualizing the career developmental needs of 12th-grade students in addition to focusing on the importance of values clarification. Interventions we highlight target summer opportunities, self-advocacy, and final career and college preparation.
In this chapter, we discuss second and third grade students with emphasis on the development of career and college readiness capital. We explore the importance of social emotional learning for the development of prosocial behavior and employability skills and the benefits of service learning. Parent involvement in career readiness is included with strategies for assisting parents to build skills for helping their children explore careers.
- Go to chapter: Career and College Readiness for Grades 4 and 5: Preparing for the Middle School Transition
Late childhood is a pivotal time in career and college readiness. We examine the role and influence of cognitive development as well as peer support and gender identity development. We also explore the development of efficacy, self-regulation, and executive functioning and discuss their connection to career and college readiness. Finally, this chapter culminates with a discussion of how to support students during the fifth- to sixth-grade transition.
Middle school students love to learn about themselves including their interests, values, and aptitudes. In this chapter, we review developmental milestones occurring in middle school, the impact of social media use, middle school career interventions, and the integration of technology in the career counseling curriculum. In addition, we explore ways to engage parents and faculty and introduce career and technical education.
In this chapter, we review career development strategies specific to PreK–first grade. Special attention is given to students psychosocial, cognitive, and gender development related to career. We focus on play therapy techniques in classroom lessons and innovative content integration such as the use of problem-based learning and design model thinking to promote career efficacy. Finally, we highlight techniques for helping teachers develop career strategies for the classroom and for parents to begin to develop career and college mindsets in the home.
This book offers chapters with case vignettes in which creative career interventions are applied. Each of these chapters provides a thorough exploration of the career-related challenges and needs of each unique group. The book provides an overview of the unique needs of several populations including high school and community college students; dual-career couples; stay-at-home mothers; working parents; midlife and older adults; caregivers; unwed and teen mothers; formerly incarcerated individuals; lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals; veterans; culturally diverse men and women such as African American, Asian American and Latino persons; and other populations. Each population chapter opens with a case vignette in which a client’s story is presented for readers to consider. These cases highlight the diverse array of career and lifestyle-related concerns that clients may bring to counseling. The vignettes are revisited at the close of the chapter to illustrate potential ways of helping clients resolve their concerns. The book contains more than 50 innovative career interventions that are located at the end of the book. These interventions can help one to have greater insight into how creativity can be used when working with clients facing career changes and challenges.
Caregiving is the act of tending to the needs of children, elderly adults, or sick or disabled individuals. Caregivers may perform duties such as cleaning, shopping, cooking, managing household finances, administering medication and other health care-related duties, and helping with activities of daily living. For those who have mostly or only performed unpaid caretaking duties, career transitions can be difficult to navigate. Caregivers who have to work outside of the home and maintain caretaking responsibilities are often perplexed by the logistics of balancing the two sets of competing responsibilities. Some caretakers may be at greater psychological risk due to the factors that triggered the need to seek employment along with the interruption this change may have on their identity. Career counselors are in a position to help caregivers traverse this new and unfamiliar occupational terrain.
This chapter briefly discusses the history of the Caregiver Support Act and its specific components and explains how the Caregiver Support Act provides resources to older adults and people with disabilities. It provides an overview of the current status of family members serving as caregivers, with special attention to grandparents raising grandchildren. It then discusses a current profile of relative caregivers raising children in the United States; reasons for the increase in relative caregiving; and issues facing grandparents raising grandchildren. It also provides some background into the literature and promotes an awareness of issues that grandparents face as primary caregivers. A literature review examines some of the current issues and services needed. The chapter discusses resources and services designed to meet the needs of grandparents raising grandchildren, and reviews programmatic responses through the national resources. Finally, the chapter outlines some best practice interventions for review in the text.
- Go to chapter: Challenges for Policy and Program Planning for the Future: Realities and Visions for the Future
This chapter address a number of areas that will affect the lives of people as they age or people who are older adults. Philosophical paradigms, statistics, evidence-based approaches, dealing with the media, making people aware of new technologies, and preparing for communities to best deal with issues of aging are all major issues of concern. It provides a range of issues; however, the chapter provides an overview of the most significant ones to be addressed or to require intervention. It cites 10 major challenges that the future will bring, in reality, policy advocates will have to be prepared to address and deal with these challenges by using innovative strategies for policy development and policy change. The chapter addresses policy development and program design to meet the needs of an aging and ability-challenged society are unique challenges.
Thomas (pseudonym for a composite student profile), in his final K–12 year, participates in five components of a multidimensional program for gifted students in a large school: Future Problem Solving (
FPS), Advanced Placement ( AP) courses, a noon-hour philosophy course taught by a retired professor, after-school lectures by community members, and small discussion groups focused on nonacademic development. He has an extremely high IQ, is known as an excellent musician, and recently was named a semifinalist in the Preliminary SAT( PSAT) merit-scholar competition. However, his only-average academic record has long frustrated teachers, who seem offended by his seemingly limp investment and who see an “attitude problem” in his lack of oral engagement and absent homework. Thomas has a quiet personality, typically avoids eye contact, and seems older than his age. He has taken no steps toward postsecondary education, and he will need financial aid if that is his direction. One of his teachers asks the school counselor to meet with him to assess needs and concerns, including those related to college applications. Before she meets with Thomas, the counselor arranges conversations with his current teachers, his single-parent mother, the orchestra teacher/conductor, and the gifted-education program coordinator. Only the one teacher has ever referred Thomas to the counselor.
APAmerican Literature and APAmerican History teachers both focus mostly on the missed assignments but note his serious alertness during class and brilliant insights on the papers he has submitted. The chemistry teacher expresses concern about Thomas’s sad demeanor but notes that he pays attention in class and does “ OK” academically. The orchestra director, who has worked with Thomas since elementary grades, calls him one of the most gifted and highly invested musicians he has known. He reacts emotionally when he listens to classical music.
The gifted-education teacher has learned that Thomas struggles with perfectionism—with essays stalled after he has discarded several eloquent thesis statements. He has told her that he doubts he can follow through worthily. About eye contact, Thomas once said he could not hear peers’ comments when distracted by the visual stimuli of faces. He despairs over circumstances in distressed countries. Nevertheless, he is a quiet leader on his
FPSteam. His mother describes her acrimonious divorce and the depression Thomas has struggled with since middle school. She worries about him, especially now, with his inertia about applications. She hopes, given the PSATresults, that he will now invest in the process, securing a scholarship. She feels incapable of helping him.
Concurrent with the release of Education and Identity in 1969, the United States was at the nexus of social unrest and expanding funding and support for educational initiatives. The decades of the 1950s and 1960s saw a great increase in research and practice focused on developmental theorists working in the area of higher education. At the forefront of this work was theorist Arthur Chickering. The primary construct of Chickering’s (1969) work is the Seven Vectors of Development. The vectors are: (a) developing competence, (b) managing emotions, (c) moving through autonomy toward interdependence, (d) developing mature interpersonal relationships, (e) establishing identity, (f) developing purpose, and (g) developing integrity. This vector addresses competence across three domains: intellectual, physical and manual, and interpersonal. This chapter briefly outlines Chickering’s life work, and ways in which practitioners can apply his theory to their daily interactions with college students.
Child and Adolescent Counseling Case Studies:Developmental, Relational, Multicultural, and Systemic Perspectives
This book aids counselor educators, supervisors, and counselors-in-training in assisting children, adolescents, and their families to foster coping methods and strategies while navigating contemporary issues. It promotes the essence of counselor growth, and deals with conceptualization of the client’s presenting problems along with personal and client goals, step-by-step accounts of the happenings in counseling sessions, and counseling outcome. Case studies were written in contexts that reflect the fact that children and adolescents are part of larger systems family, school, peer, and community. Systemic context, developmental and relational considerations, multicultural perspectives, and creative interventions were infused in the cases. Time-efficient methods, such as brief counseling, were used in some of the cases. The case studies selected highlight contemporary issues and relevant themes that are prevalent in the lives of youths (i.e., abuse, anxiety, giftedness, disability, social media and pop culture, social deficits and relationships, trauma, bullying, changing families, body image, substance abuse, incarcerated family members, race and ethnicity, and sexual identity and orientation). These themes capture both the child and adolescent perspectives and are designed to provide breadth and depth during classroom discussions and debriefing.
This book focuses on the practice of child psychotherapy, the theories and treatment practice. The book is divided into three parts. The first part dwells on the need for developmentally grounded child psychotherapy. It explores theories of human development, also referred to as developmental psychology and educational theory in order to understand how children are challenged to learn, and reviews theories that speculate how love and our earliest relationships impact health and well-being. Part II assimilates the developmental theory into the pragmatics of child psychotherapy. It discusses the pragmatics of providing child psychotherapy with considerations for therapists, focuses on the legal and ethical challenges that arise when providing child psychotherapy, and reviews the types of assessment tools that cover all phases of development, including emotional, social, developmental, educational, and psychological. The third part presents the best practices in child psychotherapy. Here, models of evidence-based practice in child psychotherapy are reviewed with examples of what each model offers to the treatment process. These theories also describe what the therapist brings to psychotherapy based on the therapist’s belief of what therapy looks like and the therapist’s role in the relationship with the client. One of the chapters guides the therapist through case conceptualization that integrates the most efficacious treatment interventions into the eight-phase template of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Basic issues such as sleeping, feeding, emotional dysregulation, and learning issues are also discussed with common responses and references to provide to parents through a developmentally grounded practice.