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It is important to have a thorough understanding of the neuroepidemiology of central nervous system disorders to incorporate cultural diversity into the neurorehabilitation care of patients with these disorders. This chapter emphasizes traumatic brain injury and stroke two of the most common neurological disorders seen in neurorehabilitation facilities and services. It begins by reviewing existing neuroepidemiological studies that include representative samples of individuals from different cultures. The study of traumatic brain injury has seen a clear evolution in the sophistication, breadth, and depth of findings concerning neuroepidemiology as it affects racial and ethnic minorities. As large-scale epidemiological studies increasingly include and distinguish individuals of color and linguistic minorities together with religion, sexual orientation, physical disabilities, place of residence, and key socioeconomic variables that interact with race/ethnicity, more information will be available to make changes in policy, training, and clinical service delivery.
The multicultural movement in counseling and psychology has begun to provide scholars and practitioners with contextually relevant, systems-based ecological approaches to counseling as alternatives to the traditional theoretical models of human behavior and intervention that are based on Western dominant culture. This chapter provides awareness of the complexity of multicultural issues among individuals with disabilities and discusses culturally sensitive strategies to work with people with disabilities (PWDs). It reviews legislative mandates related to diversity and multiculturalism in rehabilitation and addresses the relationship between disability and culture in the scope of rehabilitation practice. The chapter introduces multiculturalism and multicultural counseling models as a therapeutic framework and provides guidelines to help psychologists increase their cultural sensitivity. It also provides strategies to work with individuals with disabilities from minority backgrounds.
- Go to chapter: Cultural Variables and the Process of Neuropsychological Assessment in the Neurorehabilitation Setting After Brain Injury
Cultural Variables and the Process of Neuropsychological Assessment in the Neurorehabilitation Setting After Brain Injury
Neuropsychological assessment involves the administration of a battery of tests that assess a variety of cognitive domains to obtain a clinical picture of brain behavior relationships. Within the inpatient rehabilitation setting, neuropsychologists often perform various functions, including neuropsychological assessment, psychotherapy, and assistance with adjustment issues for patients and their families. This chapter discusses some of the common cultural issues that impact neuropsychology in an inpatient rehabilitation setting. It focuses on potential sources of bias that can threaten the validity of neuropsychological tests. The chapter also examines the process of the neuropsychological evaluation within the inpatient setting when working with individuals from diverse cultural backgrounds. It deals with a complex composite of sociodemographic factors that include education, socioeconomic status (SES), race, ethnicity, language, and worldview, all of which interact with one another to influence brain-behavior relationships.
This chapter explores multicultural variables to consider when providing neurorehabilitation services to inpatients in an acute neurorehabilitation center. It presents case studies of inpatients who have recently suffered brain injuries, strokes, and other conditions that have led to acute and/or chronic disability and potential cognitive changes. The acute and/or chronic disability and potential cognitive changes are in need of physical, occupational, and speech therapy to address declines in functioning due to cognitive changes and physical disability, as well as medical treatment to manage secondary conditions. The chapter then looks at several cases that involve clinicians working with patients and families from diverse backgrounds and of varying English-speaking abilities. It examines how culture, education, religion, and language may affect the clinical evaluations of patients in acute neurorehabilitation settings and at a clinician’s experience in providing multicultural neurorehabilitation.
- Go to chapter: Layers of Culture: Its Influence in a Milieu-Oriented Holistic Neurorehabilitation Setting
Cultural beliefs have a tremendous influence on a person’s perception of disability. Viewing culture as a discrete system that encompasses interconnected components should enhance the cultural competence in rehabilitation centers. The manifold layers of culture include the: culture of origin, mainstream culture, brain injury culture, therapists’ culture, and the culture of the neurorehabilitation program. With the increased emphasis on cultural sensitivity, health care training programs have been focusing on enhancing the cultural sensitivity and competency of health care providers. These health care provider aspects also very much apply to the therapists in neurorehabilitation settings. The milieu-oriented neurorehabilitation program creates a unique culture that is different from other cultural influences encountered by an individual. Neuropsychologists in the Center for Transitional NeuroRehabilitation (CTN) milieu program play an important role in fostering a culturally sensitive and competent interdisciplinary team and in translating cultural considerations into concrete treatment approaches and goals.
- Go to chapter: The Effects of Acculturation on Neuropsychological Rehabilitation of Ethnically Diverse Persons
This chapter explores the impact of acculturation on three diverse U.S. populations: Hispanics, represented by a specific focus on Mexican immigrants; African Americans; and Native Hawaiians. It reviews relevant acculturation theories developed to explain cultural and psychological changes occurring in racial and ethnic populations in the United States as a result of interactions with the majority racial/ethnic population. The chapter presents Berry’s model of acculturation in particular, as a helpful theoretical model for clinicians working in neuropsychological rehabilitation to use for understanding psychological issues related to acculturation pressures. It also highlights the unique historical context of acculturation for each ethnic group and its effect on their acculturation experience as well as mental and physical health outcomes. The chapter provides rehabilitation psychologists and counselors with culturally relevant assessment and intervention recommendations for working with ethnically diverse clients.
This chapter examines disability identity as a unique area in which the clinician working with individuals with brain injuries must become culturally competent. It begins with an overview of the disability rights movement and its influence on disability identity as a construct. Legislative and regulatory scaffolding for societal responsiveness to and acceptance of individuals with disability exists, but it requires further refinement. Social agencies have been created to support the process of adaptation to disability culture and are attempting to foster development of disability identity through networking resources for employment and socialization. The chapter then discusses critical issues in cultural competence and how these intersect with ethical practice in working with individuals and families with neurorehabilitation needs. It concludes with suggestions regarding cultural competence that transcend individual diagnoses.
- Go to chapter: The Effective Use of Certified Medical Interpreters in the Neurorehabilitation Setting
This chapter explains the importance of using a certified medical interpreter and how to appropriately use this service in a hospital setting. An interpreter needs to understand cultural beliefs and be able to effectively communicate the information between two individuals who are likely from different cultures. The trained and culturally sensitive medical interpreter can communicate verbal information and serve as a cultural bridge between two individuals who could have very different beliefs about everyday interactions with others. Culturally competent medical translators pay close attention to both the verbal nuances of language and the nonverbal norms and customs that may be significant in a health care interaction. The chapter also discusses the importance of patient perception on follow-through of treatment, the idea of cultural competence, and how to appropriately communicate and use interpreter services. It provides some case examples of successful and unsuccessful interpretation.
Rehabilitation providers who work with service members and veterans face significant cultural challenges that may impact the rehabilitation process. Part of this challenge is maintaining an awareness that any individual engaged in rehabilitation could have had prior military service that could impact rehabilitation care. This chapter provides an overview of military culture, including specific aspects of this culture that may affect the rehabilitation process, the various co-occurring disorders that are common in military/veteran populations, and resources and programs that are particularly useful when working with service members and veterans. Service members and veterans face unique challenges and stressors that are over and above some of the routine sources of stress that others face in the workplace. Stress can come from participating in combat, including exposure to traumatic events, risk of injury, and fears about deployment.
This chapter explores the concept of microaggressions in neurorehabilitation settings, describes their potential impact on the rehabilitation process, and offers recommendations on how to address and potentially mitigate infractions when they do occur. It illustrates different types of microaggressions that might transpire in neurorehabilitation settings. Providers in these settings may benefit from cultural competency training to develop a greater appreciation for how microaggressions may impact the quality of their work with ethnic minorities, detract from the working alliance, and limit therapeutic success. Increased familiarity with factors that might contribute to microaggressions may help providers better identify them and intervene in a timely and therapeutically helpful manner. However, given that a defining feature of microaggressions is their unintended nature, neurorehabilitation and other clinical settings would be well advised to establish policies that encourage critical self-examination and dialogue regarding specific issues of race, ethnicity, and culture without fear of harsh reprimand.
This chapter describes spirituality, religiousness, and indigenous/folk belief systems in a multicultural context. The majority of religion and health research to date has primarily focused on persons with life-threatening diseases and conditions, as persons facing death may use religion to help them accept their condition, come to terms with unresolved life issues, and prepare for death. In contrast, rehabilitation patients who suffer acute injuries or chronic progressive disorders may live for decades after the onset of their condition and use religious and spiritual resources to help them cope with their disability, give new meaning to their lives based on their newly acquired disabilities, and help them to establish new goals. The chapter then explains the different ways rehabilitation psychologists can address religious and spiritual beliefs with individuals from different faith traditions.
Neurorehabilitation has become more of a global phenomenon and is not necessarily limited to industrialized or Westernized societies. Culture often connotes concepts of race and ethnicity when discussed in the context of health care disparities. Socioeconomic and other demographic variables make up the majority of the balance on discussion regarding culture in health care. Multicultural neurorehabilitation must emphasis “multiple”, and do so in a dynamic manner. In other words, at any given time, multiple cultures operate in each interaction and in each therapy delivered in the neurorehabilitation setting. Recently, there has been increased interest and research into the newly developing field of cultural neuroscience. Several models are available to conceptualize the influence of culture in human functioning. The most persuasive model is one that mirrors a dynamic, ecological system.
This chapter focuses on a snapshot of current immigration patterns and a profile of the US immigrant population. It discusses the impetus behind immigration. Immigration is not only a current national issue. Given the great diversity and myriad needs of the growing immigrant population, it is essential that social workers understand the legal and political as well as psychological and social issues surrounding immigration. Chain migration is a process of movement from immigrants’ homelands that builds on networks of familiar social relationships to construct neighborhoods or communities within the places of habitation, which reflect the cultural norms and societal expectations of the homelands. Social workers who work with immigrants need to understand the personal immigration history of their clients in order to best help them. At many schools of social work, students have learned to view immigrant issues through a human rights lens.
This chapter discusses legal methods that noncitizens can use to enter and stay in the United States (US) for a long term. US immigration law sets out a variety of ways in which noncitizens can enter the country legally. When confronted with a noncitizen client, service providers may want to ascertain how the person first entered and what immigration status the person is in now, as a way to later determine a legal remedy. However, knowing the legal classification and method of entry will help the service provider in understanding the legal as well as social service needs and aid the provider in making referrals to immigration specialists as well as other places that could help with the client’s needs. For noncitizens entering the US who are already recognized as refugees, the service provider’s role is perhaps most relevant in providing mental health counseling.
This chapter focuses on some culturally sensitive and competent ways to serve immigrant clients by examining what is meant by cultural competence in social work practice and how this applies to work with immigrant populations. It examines the institutional arrangements that contribute to ongoing racism and xenophobia and the kinds of responses needed to help integrate immigrants into the fabric of American society. Culturally competent social work practice (CCSWP) is an ethical responsibility for all social workers and an absolute necessity when working with immigrant populations. The social work profession has been very concerned about defining and preparing practitioners to engage in culturally competent practice. Learning to be culturally competent practitioners is not only important for professional social workers but also needs to be incorporated into the education of future social workers. Cultural competence begins with administrative support and encouragement, quality supervision and oversight, strong peer relationships, and manageable caseloads.
This chapter addresses theoretical and conceptual resources for practice with immigrant populations with the intention of identifying conceptual frameworks and ideas that can serve as guides to assist in the development of practice orientations and skills, which meet the multifaceted needs of immigrants and their communities. It discusses assumptions about the role of theory as well as implications for skills and interventions. The chapter discusses theories and concepts that can frame practice with immigrants, beginning with themes and issues currently discussed in the sociopolitical context and the American sensibility about how to respond to immigrant presence. Overreliance on factors related to individual behavior risks blaming the victim, which can result in social workers colluding with a largely unresponsive and unreceptive environment. Theories that promote an understanding of the sociopolitical context of immigrant populations, as well as linguistic and cultural competencies, are essential for effective social work practice.
This chapter deals with major health care issues that social workers need to be familiar with in working with immigrants. It provides an introduction to the many complex, interconnected issues that social workers and their immigrant clients face as they navigate the US health care system in an attempt to obtain quality health care. The chapter focuses on some of the implications for social work practice that arise from public health issues and provides discussion questions and several case studies. Social workers can and should be vigilant in advocating for increased translator and interpreter services at their agency or medical setting, not just for the convenience of the patient, but for his or her safety and improved health. Social workers in the field of health care must actively address the issues of language, culture, and income/health insurance status as well as legal status when working with immigrants.
This chapter explores the definition of mental health as a culturally prescribed concept with special emphasis on the topic of strength-based and resiliency-focused assessment. It discusses the complexities of psychological assessment with new immigrants as well as the determination of appropriate levels of intervention, including specialized treatment options. Culturally and linguistically appropriate therapeutic services and models will increase the effectiveness and efficaciousness of mental health treatment. A major mental health vulnerability in new immigrant populations is often the variety of traumatic experiences that has forced these individuals into the role of immigrants. Personal crisis, including any psychological/addictive symptoms experienced, should be addressed immediately by the mental health professional. The primary relationship between immigrant clients and mental health practitioners should be created and maintained. In initiating mental health interventions with immigrant children, it is ideal to engage the caretakers and complete family system in order to ensure treatment compliance and success.
- Go to chapter: Crimes and Immigration: Civil Advocacy for Noncitizens at the Intersection of Criminal and Immigration Law
Crimes and Immigration: Civil Advocacy for Noncitizens at the Intersection of Criminal and Immigration Law
Each year, the United States (US) Department of Homeland Security removes hundreds of thousands of people from the US. Increasingly, the federal agency tasked with removing noncitizens has prioritized removal of those who have had contact with the criminal justice system. Those who are not citizens of the US may face additional consequences related to their immigration status, such as ineligibility to adjust their status to that of lawful permanent residents, inability to travel abroad, ineligibility for US. citizenship, mandatory detention in an immigration facility, or removal. The three primary sections of immigration law affecting noncitizens charged with crimes are grounds of inadmissibility, grounds of deportability and good moral character. Further complicating matters for noncitizens, immigration consequences may be triggered absent a final disposition of guilt in a criminal court. Civil practitioners are invaluable advocates to immigrants and refugees who encounter the criminal justice system.
This chapter focuses on a profile of low-wage immigrant workers. It explains the rights and remedies available to immigrant workers under labor laws and explores the conditions and factors that lead to their abuse and exploitation. The chapter illustrates the barriers that prevent employers from enforcing labor and employment laws, including lax enforcement of laws by government agencies, the threat of deportation by immigration agents, and government programs that hinder workers from exercising their rights. Immigrant workers will be essential to keep the economy strong, to serve as caretakers for the aging population, to contribute to existing health care and Social Security systems, and to help shape the future of the Unites States. Despite government safeguards and nonprofit advocacy, the unfortunate reality for many immigrant workers is that violations of labor and employment laws by their employers are rampant, particularly in low-wage industries.
The children of immigrants can be today’s science competition winners and tomorrow’s entrepreneurs, nurses and doctors, teachers, homeowners, and taxpayers. This chapter discusses ways in which social workers can help families get their children into school and obtain the educational services they need. The main focus is on public elementary and secondary schools, although the chapter includes some discussion of other educational alternatives. Education laws and policies vary from state to state; policies, indeed, vary even from school district to school district. It is true that many important aspects of educational system, such as school age and attendance requirements, residency rules, course requirements, and graduation criteria, are governed by state and local laws, rules, and policies. Parents have important rights and responsibilities in the educational system of the United States. Yet it is well known that parental participation can make a tremendous difference to a child’s education.
This chapter examines violence against women in immigrant and refugee communities, including the particular dynamics, risk factors, and consequences of violence against immigrant women. Immigrant and refugee women experience domestic, sexual, and other forms of violence in ways that are both similar and dissimilar to that experienced by women who are born in the United States, including those from marginalized communities. Women fleeing abusive situations, from female genital mutilation to domestic violence, may be able to claim protection under the Refugee Act, claiming fear of persecution based on their social group their status as women. Social workers, in collaboration with other service providers and immigration attorneys, can assist women who have been victims by helping them put together the evidence required to prove a case of abuse that may ultimately result in lawful permanent residence.
This chapter reviews the history of how US immigration laws have treated lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) newcomers, why sponsorship by a same-sex partner may still not be an option for some, how LGBT people may be able to apply for asylum, issues related to transgender immigrants, challenges facing newcomers, and challenges facing social work providers. Anti-LGBT persecutors rarely have a nuanced understanding of how sexual orientation and gender identity are related. LGBT newcomers face unique challenges in accessing the social service system, beyond the universal hardships of language barrier and culture shock. The biggest challenges facing practitioners in social service settings include knowledge of the law and cultural competence. Social workers affiliated with religious or ethnic institutions may be viewed warily by LGBT people, especially if those communities perpetuated discrimination or persecution against them in their home country.
This chapter provides an overview of sociodemographics of older adult immigrants as well as the current social work scholarship on issues, assessments, and interventions related to older adult immigrants and their families. The sociodemographics of older adult immigrants in the United States (US), defined by the US Census Bureau as foreign born and 65 years of age and older, is shaped by immigration policy. The largest numbers of older immigrants who arrive in the US are female, many of whom are widowed, with low educational levels and impaired physical functioning. Understanding the eligibility of older adult immigrants for government benefits and services must go hand in hand with increasing the cultural competency of social workers and social service, physical health, and mental health agencies. Older adult immigrants who require nursing home services, as well as their families, may be concerned about the cultural sensitivity of the nursing home environment.
This chapter focuses on eligibility and other rules governing immigrants’ access to federal public benefits programs. The major federal public benefits programs have always prevented some non-US citizens from securing assistance. In determining an immigrant’s eligibility for benefits, it is necessary to understand not only the federal rules but also the rules of the state in which an immigrant resides. However, many federal agencies have not specified which of their programs provide federal public benefits. The confusion stems from the complex interaction of the immigration and welfare laws, differences in eligibility criteria for various state and federal programs, and a lack of adequate training on the rules as clarified by federal agencies. Immigrants’ rights advocates, health care providers, and state and local governments organized to persuade federal agencies to clarify the limits of the laws. Federal agencies have worked to reduce the chilling effect of status-related questions on benefits applications.
This chapter explores advocacy tools for the social worker community, whether acting as individuals, volunteers, and/or members of social service organizations. It discusses the importance of advocacy work for social workers engaged with immigrant clients. The chapter focuses on individual and micro advocacy strategies. It provides the advocacy tools for effecting long-lasting and systematic policy change around immigrants’ rights. Practicing social workers can invite local agencies and community members to train their chapters on everything from new ordinances or policies affecting local immigrants to react to events like raids, hate crimes, and civil rights violations. Advocacy organizations were realizing that systematic change at the government level could not occur without educating, organizing, and empowering the underrepresented to vote and elect good leaders. Whether acting as individuals, groups, or through advocacy organizations, social workers must rise up on behalf of their clients and the communities they serve.
This chapter explores vicarious trauma, compassion fatigue, and burnout and the potential impact on professionals who treat victims of military sexual trauma (
MST). Professionals who provide counseling to sexual trauma survivors will be affected by the exposure to the personal and, sometimes, graphic accounts of sexual victimization reported by their clients. Although brief exposure to extreme or shocking trauma material can have a significant impact on the helping professional, prolonged exposure to emotional pain and the explicit details of other people’s suffering can be more problematic. Psychologist Jacob Lindy pointed to this concern in his book on treating war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Burnout was originally used in the 1970s by psychoanalyst Hebert Freundenberger in reference to occupational exhaustion. Burnout may involve psychological, physical, or behavioral symptoms in both personal and professional settings.Source:
Establishing rapport, building therapeutic alliance, and establishing and maintaining healthy boundaries are all important therapeutic skills especially when working with victims of military sexual trauma (
MST). Along with being caring psychotherapists, clinicians may be called upon to play a key part in third-party issues, such as legal issues including custody battles or in reporting on clients for MST Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) service-connected disability benefits. This chapter reviews psychotherapeutic issues that arise when treating those with MST, specifically, barriers to treatment, establishing trust and rapport, boundaries, third-party issues, and documentation. The issues that prevent MST survivors from seeking mental health treatment mirror problems that service members may have had in reporting it, including fear of blame and stigma. To protect clients and therapists alike, it is also important to be mindful of other common boundary testing by trauma clients.Source:
This chapter provides an overview of the nonprofit organization in the United States, the main characteristics of nonprofit organizations, and the reality of the nonprofit sector today. It describes the differences between a nonprofit and a for-profit corporation. Nonprofit organizations have existed for many centuries, especially through religious groups or religious-based activities. The nongovernmental sector is growing throughout the world. Increasingly, these organizations are playing key roles in the economic and social contexts of their countries. Unlike private-sector organizations concerned primarily with making a profit, nonprofit organizations are focused on carrying out a specific public-service mission. Successful nonprofit organizations require substantial capability in key areas of management: developing strong boards of directors, recruiting and motivating talented staff and volunteers, creating plans to focus resources on relevant goals and innovative programs, winning the support of diverse stakeholders, raising funds, and wisely managing fiscal and human resources.
This chapter explores the dimensions of financial sustainability as well as the principles needed to manage a nonprofit organization that can generate continuous funding through diverse sources in order to support its vision and mission in a way that is socially and environmentally sustainable. Sustainability is the ability of a business, an organization, or a project to fulfill its vision and mission, meet its goals, and serve its stakeholders over time. The chapter discusses the inherent, collateral, and environmental factors of financial sustainability in nonprofit organizations. Inherent factors of financial sustainability include: Financial management, budget, financial statement analysis, financial sustainability plan, social enterprise, fund-raising, grant seeking, investment, and risk management. Collateral factors of financial sustainability include: Governance, leadership, and strategic planning. The chapter describes key indicators that can reveal whether an organization is financially sustainable or is on the path for financial sustainability.
This chapter discusses the legal and organizational roles of the board of directors and special committees in the governance and financial sustainability of a nonprofit organization. It describes the differences between governance and government, and identifies some common governance theories. Corporate governance is often analyzed around major theoretical frameworks. The most common are agency theories, stewardship theories, resource-dependence theories, and stakeholder theories. The chapter highlights the key governance structures and perspectives in nonprofit organizations and lists some key principles of nonprofit governance. Governance models or approaches are considered in an eclectic perspective that combines empirical observations and literature related to nonprofit and for-profit organizations as micro societies. Eclectic perspective considers nonprofit board governance through functionalism, structuralism, structuro-functionalism, and symbolic perspectives. The chapter explores conceptual and theoretical frameworks that explain governance in nonprofit organizations in the context of financial sustainability.
This chapter explains the concept of needs assessment and the relationship between the individual and the community. It identifies the different steps involved in conducting a needs assessment and shows how needs assessment can contribute to the financial sustainability of a nonprofit organization. The chapter emphasizes how financial sustainability is rooted in the investigation and analysis of the needs of a target community. It discusses the theories about the needs-assessment process, as well as action steps toward the development of a community needs-assessment report. The chapter explores facets of financial needs-assessment of a nonprofit that can help chart a course to further the vision and mission statements. It helps the readers to learn how to use primary and secondary data to conduct a targeted needs assessment that is linked to the financial sustainability of a nonprofit organization.
This chapter focuses on the asset-based approach to community development. It provides the different types of assets that create opportunities for a nonprofit organization, describes the asset-mapping process, and explains the relationship between asset mapping and financial sustainability. The chapter introduces the theories, concepts, and approaches of asset mapping as a strategy to help nonprofit organizations identify obvious and hidden assets within their communities, and mobilize them to connect issues and needs with assets, and foster the financial sustainability of a nonprofit organization. It examines the community context of nonprofit organizations in relation to community groups, neighborhoods, and larger social systems that influence quality of life. The chapter includes the concept and theory of community capacity, models of asset-based development for building community capacity, empowering individuals and groups, generating funding from new sources, and creating additional paths toward financial sustainability.
This chapter describes the key phases of the strategic-planning process and ‘strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats’ (SWOT) analysis. A generic strategic-planning process includes three key phases of assessing, visioning, and strategizing in order to further the mission and vision of an organization. The vision, mission, and values statements constitute the core identity of a nonprofit organization. In other words, a nonprofit organization justifies its social or community relevance through its vision, mission, and values, and the extent to which they are reflected in governance and program implementation. The chapter discusses the relationship of strategic management and program effectiveness, and the interrelationships between strategic planning and financial sustainability. It introduces various approaches to effective strategic planning geared to the financial sustainability of a nonprofit organization.
This chapter introduces the concept of financial sustainability in relation to the use of financial statements. It also introduces selected financial ratios to assess the profitability, liquidity, solvency, efficiency, and effectiveness of a nonprofit organization. Profitability is the surplus of revenue over expenses. Profitability used to be a forbidden word in the nonprofit world. Many nonprofit organizations are faced with the challenge of undercapitalization and do not have enough cash or liquidity to pay their regular bills. The liquidity of an organization can be measured by the current ratio, the net working capital, and the acid test or quick ratio or liquidity ratio. Solvency is different from liquidity because it deals with the long-term ability of an organization to continue to exist and expand. The debt ratio and the debt-to-equity ratio are two common measures of organizational solvency.
This chapter describes a financial sustainability plan and explains the importance of a financial sustainability plan for nonprofit organizations. It discusses the elements of a financial sustainability plan. A financial sustainability plan should include an executive summary, financial sustainability analysis, financial ratios analysis, strategic goals and objectives, action plan, benchmark and outcomes, continuing quality improvement strategies, and budget. Many nonprofit organizations are faced with a constant challenge to match financial sustainability with their vision and mission statements. Some of the challenge may have to do with how much money they can successfully raise. This aspect can be manipulated by greater fund-raising efficiency and effectiveness. The chapter suggests approaches and best practices in developing a financial sustainability plan for a nonprofit organization. It includes a step-by-step process to use to develop a financial sustainability plan.
The term “fund-raising” can be used for any activity whose primary purpose is to raise money to support the activity of a nonprofit organization. The meaning of the term “fund-raising” can change based on approaches used by a particular nonprofit organization. This chapter discusses why people donate to nonprofit organizations. The literature suggests that people donate to nonprofit organizations based on compassion, altruism, values, tax deductibility, corporate social responsibility, stewardship, and solicitation. The chapter identifies some common effective fund-raising strategies used by nonprofit organizations in the United States and describes the items in a fund-raising proposal. An effective fund-raising proposal requires effective planning. The planning of fund-raising activities should start with a fund-raising proposal that sets clear justification, goals, objectives, and overall approaches and strategies. Finally, the chapter provides conceptual frameworks and approaches to organize fund-raising activities that can generate alternative funding for financial sustainability.
This chapter describes the concept of social enterprise and explains the term ‘social entrepreneurship’. The term ‘social enterprise’ refers to a business activity intended to generate profit to finance a social, educational, cultural, religious, or charitable cause. A social enterprise is a for-profit business whose primary purpose is to reinvest its profits in not-for profit activities. There can be various types of social enterprises such as small-business entities, co-operative, social firm, credit union, trading arm to charity, and public sector spin-outs. The chapter explores the steps needed to develop a social enterprise and describes the key components of a business plan. The development of a social enterprise requires an investment, which implies some costs. The costs will be fixed and variable. The chapter emphasizes social entrepreneurship as a mission-driven enterprise and a strategy for financial sustainability in nonprofit organizations.