In this study, we highlight the importance of methodological creativity when researching existential phenomena in caring science. Our intention is to provide epistemological and methodological support that would encourage researchers to be creative when collecting data. One fruitful way to approach creativity involves basing one’s research on the epistemological and methodological ideas of lifeworld research. We will illustrate the usefulness of lifeworld research via examples from empirical caring science research and show how creativity may contribute to a profound understanding of patients’ experiences. Hopefully, this article will help other researchers be creative without losing epistemological foundations and scientific validity.
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- Go to article: Creativity During Data Collection When Researching Existential Phenomena in Caring Science
- Go to article: Interrelatedness of African Care Concept of Ubuntu and Caring in Nursing: The Perceptions of Student-Nurses
Interrelatedness of African Care Concept of Ubuntu and Caring in Nursing: The Perceptions of Student-Nurses
Ubuntu philosophy emphasizes the value of caring for one another. Caring is an integral part of the nursing profession. The purpose of the study was to explore perceptions of student-nurses on the interconnectedness of Ubuntu and caring in nursing. Focus group interviews were conducted on Zoom and Google meeting platforms with 49 fourth-year student-nurses. Data were analyzed thematically using Tesch’s eight-step coding process. Ubuntu and caring in nursing emphasize caring for others. Ubuntu is interrelated to caring through its shared values. The incorporation of Ubuntu into the nursing curriculum has the potential to improve the quality of care in nursing.
Caring is a foundational concept for professional nursing. Because a hospital may be an unfamiliar environment for patients, feeling safe is vital. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the importance of caring behaviors for making patients feel safe and their relationship with patient characteristics. Data analysis (n = 324) indicated “being listened to” was the most important caring practice, while having your nurses and doctors demonstrate professional knowledge and skill was the most important behavior for feeling safe. In today’s hospital environment, nurses need to provide patient care that patients consider caring and that helps patients feel safe.
- Go to article: Reflection on Caring, Truth, Bias, Evidence, and Media Literacy During Current Events: An Invited Editorial for the International Journal for Human Caring
Reflection on Caring, Truth, Bias, Evidence, and Media Literacy During Current Events: An Invited Editorial for the International Journal for Human Caring
In the abstract for “Editorial Reflection on Caring, Truth, Bias, Evidence, and Media Literacy During Current Events,” the editorial focuses on the current state of divided truth in issues facing today’s global citizens, such as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination, historical bias, implicit bias, gender identity, and disparity. Recognizing of the challenges faced in addressing truth, bias, and the influence of media literacy raises questions for caring scholars to contemplate advancing of caring science.
- Go to article: “I’m Here for You”: Understanding the Caring Role of Nurse Preceptor in Patient Safety
Nurse preceptors assume many responsibilities, including facilitating the learning experience of novice nurses while ensuring safe practices. Understanding the nurse preceptors’ experience will provide a baseline for raising safety awareness among nurses. Methods: A directed content analysis design was used. The initial categories were based on predetermined categories of Roach’s six C’s. Results: Analysis of the data led to the following six categories: recognizing the uniqueness of others, Building Competence for Patient Safety, establishing relationships, preceptor intentionality, promoting collaboration, and being a role model. Conclusion: The results of the study demonstrate the preceptors’ ability to balance their roles in delivering safe care while precepting new staff. They efficiently used their experience and caring attributes to facilitate the learning process.
- Go to article: The Caring Experience of Fetal Loss and Termination of Pregnancy Through the Eyes of Gynecological Medical and Surgical Nurses
The Caring Experience of Fetal Loss and Termination of Pregnancy Through the Eyes of Gynecological Medical and Surgical Nurses
Nurses care for women experiencing fetal loss as a result of elective or therapeutic termination of pregnancy or unexpected delivery of a nonviable infant. It is an emotional experience for the family and nurses. Investigators aimed to illuminate the experience of nurses caring for women experiencing a fetal loss and/or termination of pregnancy on a gynecological medical/surgical unit. The study used a qualitative, descriptive design approved by the Institutional Review Board. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine registered nurses, and transcripts were analyzed using constant comparison methods resulting in codes and themes by three investigators. The experience of nurses caring for women and infants during fetal loss and termination of pregnancy occurs throughout a continuum before, during, and after work. The experience is one of the layers, starting with emotions, sadness, and remorse in the center, followed by layers of attitude (respect and comfort) and action (communication). The foundation for these layers is teamwork, faith, and coping, surrounded by a box of uncomfortableness and distress. Nurses care for both the woman and infant during the termination of pregnancy and fetal loss, treating each with respect and comfort by communicating in both words and physical presence. Support between nurses with similar experiences provides a strong foundation that buffers the uncomfortable and distressing experience.
Phlebotomy collection is one of the most frequently experienced phenomena for patients in the hospital setting universally. Patients transferred from smaller hospitals to tertiary care hospitals are likely to experience repeat laboratory testing at the receiving facility. Unnecessary laboratory blood work can lead to several adverse events. The purpose of this hermeneutic phenomenological study was to discover and understand the lived experience of transferred patients who received repeat laboratory testing. Five essential themes were found through the process of selective thematic analysis. The Conceptual Model of Transferred Patients was designed and offered valuable insight from the patient’s perspective.
- Go to article: Nursing Students’ Perceptions Following an Ostomy Experiential Activity: A Qualitative Study
The study aimed to describe nursing students’ perception after an experiential learning activity of wearing an ostomy device. A qualitative research design to determine themes was used. Students enrolled in a nursing skills course, wore an ostomy appliance for a four-hour lab. After completion of the lab, students submitted a written reflection assignment describing their perception of wearing an ostomy appliance. Results from the thematic analysis revealed three distinct recurring themes: student affective response, student perceptions of the patient experience, and student perceived outcomes. Student comments indicated the affective domain and empathy for the patient was reached.
- Go to article: Reduced Posttraumatic Stress in Mothers Taking Part in Group Interventions for Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence
Reduced Posttraumatic Stress in Mothers Taking Part in Group Interventions for Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence
This study investigated whether interventions for children exposed to intimate partner violence combining parallel groups for children and mothers contribute to positive outcomes for partaking mothers. The study included 39 mothers in a long-term within-subject design without a control group in a Swedish naturalistic setting. Maternal psychological health was assessed pre- and posttreatment and at 6-month and 12-month follow-up. Mothers reported medium- to large-sized decrease in psychological symptoms, including symptoms of posttraumatic stress, postintervention (p = < .001 d = 0.45–0.96). During the follow-up period, sustained and further decrease of symptoms was reported (p = < .001 d = 0.58–1.60). Mothers also reported decreased exposure to violence. Results indicate that these child-focused programs have major and sustainable positive effects on mothers’ psychological health.
- Go to article: Associations Between Sexual Objectification and Bystander Efficacy: The Mediating Role of Barriers to Bystander Intervention
Associations Between Sexual Objectification and Bystander Efficacy: The Mediating Role of Barriers to Bystander Intervention
This study examined whether sexual objectification (i.e., reducing someone to a sex object via a disproportionate focus on appearance and sexual characteristics) was associated with decreased confidence in future bystander intervention to reduce the risk for sexual violence (i.e., bystander efficacy) through several barriers to intervention: failing to notice the event, failing to identify the situation as risky, and failing to take responsibility. Participants were 1,021 undergraduates (n = 309 men; n = 712 women) who completed self-report measures. Because men frequently perpetrate objectification, whereas women often experience objectification, complementary models were tested with objectification perpetration in men and objectification experiences in women. As expected, for men, each barrier mediated negative associations between objectification perpetration and bystander efficacy. Unexpectedly, for women, each barrier mediated positive associations between objectification experiences and bystander efficacy. Findings underscore important gender differences in associations between sexual objectification and bystander efficacy, as well as potential benefits of helping bystanders recognize the risk for sexual violence and assume responsibility for intervening.
- Go to article: Substance Use and Violence Victimization Among Women: A Review of Relevant Literature
A review of the recent scientific literature on the relationship between substance use and violence victimization among women in the United States is presented. Systematic review methodology adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses guidelines. In total, 15 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. There is substantial evidence suggesting substance use (e.g., severity of use, types of substances used) is associated with women’s violent victimization histories. Evidence suggests that women are uniquely situated in illicit drug markets and other illicit economies in a manner that increases their risk for violent victimization. The strengths and shortcomings of current theoretical explanations of substance use and violence victimization are discussed, as well as considerations for future research and interventions.
- Go to article: A Qualitative Investigation of Service Providers’ Experiences Supporting Raped and Sexually Abused Men
A Qualitative Investigation of Service Providers’ Experiences Supporting Raped and Sexually Abused Men
Substantial gaps remain in our understanding of the risks and barriers that exist for men affected by rape and sexual abuse. The present research utilized semi-structured interviews with 12 service providers from specialist organizations in the United Kingdom. An interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed three superordinate themes: (a) survivors’ needs for agency, safety, and control as functions of their masculinity; (b) the impact of rape myths and their challenge to therapeutic intervention; and (c) survivors’ expectations around reporting and the police. The role of masculinity and social stigma permeated participants’ accounts, with negative stereotypes and male rape myths influencing reporting, access to services, and survivors’ coping mechanisms. Results are discussed in relation to current service provision within the United Kingdom, and avenues for improvement are suggested.
- Go to article: Self-Reported Experience of Abuse During the Life Course Among Men Seeking General Psychiatric or Addiction Care—A Prevalence Study in a Swedish Context
Self-Reported Experience of Abuse During the Life Course Among Men Seeking General Psychiatric or Addiction Care—A Prevalence Study in a Swedish Context
A prevalence study was conducted using the NorVold Abuse Questionnaire for men (m-NorAQ) to estimate the prevalence of self-reported experience of life-course abuse and to identify the perpetrators of the abuse. This among men seeking general psychiatric and addiction care in a Swedish context. In total, 210 men completed the questionnaire, and were included in the study. The total prevalence of life-course abuse (i.e., any emotional, physical or sexual abuse during the life course) was 75% (n = 157). The results of this study indicate the importance of identifying experiences of life-course abuse among men in general psychiatric and addiction care settings.
Most research to date has focused on perpetrators of mass murder incidents. Hence, there is little information on victims. We examined 973 mass murders that occurred in the United States between 1900 and 2019 resulting in 5,273 total fatalities and 4,498 nonfatal injuries for a total of 9,771 victims (on average 10 victims per incident). Approximately 64% of victims of mass murder were White individuals, 13% were Black individuals, 6% were Asian individuals, and 14% were Latinx individuals. Given the higher number of nonfatal injuries per non-firearm mass murder event (11.0 vs. 2.8, p < .001), the total number of victims was only 50% higher for mass shootings (5,855 victims) vs. non-firearm mass murder events (3,916 victims). Among the 421 incidents of mass murder in the United States since 2000, Black, Asian, and Native American individuals were overrepresented among victims of mass shootings compared with their representation in the general U.S. population, and White individuals were underrepresented (all p ≤ .002). Findings of racial/ethnic differences were similar among victims of mass murder committed with means other than firearms for Black, Asian, and White individuals. These findings highlight different areas of victimology within the context of these incidents.
- Go to article: International and Domestic College Students: A Comparison of Campus Sexual Assault Victimization
Campus sexual assault (CSA) research predominately focuses on the victimization experiences of domestic college students. Therefore, there is little knowledge on, and understanding of, international student’s CSA victimization experiences. The present study analyzed results from a campus climate survey conducted in 2018 at a midsized Midwestern university. Twenty-three percent of international women and 18% of international men reported being a CSA victim. A series of analyses then compared CSA victimizations in relation to international victims vs. international nonvictims and international victims vs. domestic victims. Results showed international victims vs. international nonvictims were more likely to be a sexual minority and be a member of a sorority or fraternity. Compared with domestic women, international women were more likely to report being non-victims. Compared with domestic men, international men were more likely to report being CSA victims. Results are discussed in relation to research on CSA and propose future directions of study.
- Go to article: “Get Stuck and Can’t Walk Out”: Exploring the Needs for Support Among Chinese Immigrant Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence in the United States
“Get Stuck and Can’t Walk Out”: Exploring the Needs for Support Among Chinese Immigrant Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence in the United States
Chinese immigrant survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) in the United States have been overlooked and underserved. The purpose of this study was to explore their perceptions of resources for assistance as well as their priority needs. We conducted phone interviews with 20 Chinese immigrant women who had experienced IPV in the past year. The women expressed their needs for emotional support, culturally specific services, a variety of online resources to meet different demands, being empowered, raising the Chinese community’s awareness about IPV, and batterer intervention programs. These women’s testimonies shows that greater effort should be directed toward addressing those needs in order to reduce IPV and its impacts on health in this vulnerable group of women.
The firearm mortality rate in West Virginia (WV) increased over the past four years and is currently 50% higher than the national rate. These alarming statistics, combined with the urban-to-rural shift in firearm injuries, prompted this 10-year epidemiologic overview. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the current study stands alone as the only report of its kind on firearm injuries in the rural setting of southern WV. Firearm injuries were common in White males within the age range of 20–49 years. Assault, which is typically identified as an urban problem, was found to be the most common injury in the study population. In our data series, injury severity score was the strongest predictor of mortality, followed by self-inflicted cause of injury and trauma to the neck/head region.
- Go to article: Maximizing Outcomes by Harnessing Patient Values: A Call for Increased Collaboration With Clergy in the Treatment of Scrupulosity-Themed Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Objectives: the availability of smartphone-based mindfulness training applications (apps) may circumvent many barriers to receiving in-person help, but little controlled research has been conducted on them. This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of a widely used mindfulness training app, Headspace, at reducing anxiety and worry. Methods: this study used a randomized-controlled design to examine the app using a 3 (Time; baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks) × 2 (Access; immediate, delayed for 4 weeks) design. Participants who reported moderate to high anxiety or worry were randomly assigned to receive either immediate access or delayed access to the app. For null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), analyses of variance were used to test the hypotheses that app access for 4 and 8 weeks would reduce anxiety and worry as compared to waitlist or baseline and that app access for 8 weeks would reduce anxiety and worry as compared to 4 weeks. Bayes estimates were used to determine the level of evidence for the hypothesis that app access reduces anxiety and worry. Results: four weeks of app access significantly reduced anxiety symptoms, as did 8 weeks, but NHST indicated there were no significant difference between 4 and 8 weeks of access. We failed to reject the null for the analysis of variance on worry, but Bayesian estimates indicated substantial evidence for the hypothesis that the mindfulness training app reduces worry. Conclusions: this research shows that using Headspace can reduce anxiety and worry, but that there does not appear to be a consistent dose relation.
- Go to article: The Contribution of Psychological Inflexibility and Metacognitive Processes to Emotional Distress
Process-based cognitive behavior therapy (PB-CBT) may be informed by identifying shared mechanisms of disorder linked to shared processes of therapeutic change. Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a molar pathogenic process common to both generalized anxiety disorder and depression. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and metacognitive therapy (MCT) offer separate models of the relationship between RNT and emotional distress. In a pair of related studies, the relative degree to which processes specific to the two models accounted for variability in levels of generalized anxiety and depression in college student samples was evaluated. Across both studies, processes of cognitive fusion and obstructed valued living within the ACT model and beliefs about the negative consequences of RNT within the MCT model were most predictive of variability in levels of emotional distress. Limitations of this project as well as implications for further research and practice of PB-CBT for disorders of emotional distress are discussed.
- Go to article: Neuroimaging Correlates of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I): A Systematic Literature Review
Neuroimaging Correlates of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I): A Systematic Literature Review
Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is the gold-standard non-pharmacological treatment for insomnia, a complex disorder that comprises psychological, behavioral, and physiological components. This systematic literature review aimed to evaluate a growing body of exploratory studies that have examined CBT-I treatment effects using neuroimaging assessment. Nine studies met current review selection criteria, of which six studies compared insomnia groups with good sleepers, waitlist, and/or control groups. CBT-I administration varied in treatment length and duration across the studies, as did neuroimaging assessment, which included task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Functional connectivity abnormalities were observed in participants, including reduced engagement in task-related brain regions and apparent difficulties in regulating default mode brain areas that appeared to reverse following CBT-I treatment. Taken together, the neuroimaging results complement behavioral measures of treatment efficacy, indicating support for the effectiveness of CBT-I treatment in the recovery of brain function and structure.
- Go to article: Incremental Validity of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Mechanisms for Anxiety and Panic Symptomology
Incremental Validity of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Mechanisms for Anxiety and Panic Symptomology
Background: acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are empirically supported treatments for anxiety and panic disorder (PD), though they differ in their putative vulnerability and maintenance processes. The present study examined the incremental validity of several of these models’ proposed core processes, including anxiety sensitivity (AS), dispositional avoidance, experiential avoidance (EA), cognitive fusion (CF), and mindfulness, as well as the interaction of the processes within each model, in the prediction of anxiety and panic symptomology. Methods: a sample of US adults (n = 316) completed self-report measures of AS, dispositional avoidance, EA, CF, mindfulness, anxiety, and PD symptoms. A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. Results: hierarchical regression analyses indicated that AS, dispositional avoidance, and EA predicted anxiety and panic symptoms even after controlling for one another, CF, mindfulness, and demographic variables. Although mindfulness and CF was correlated with anxiety and panic at the univariate level, they did not predict either outcome above and beyond AS, dispositional avoidance, and EA. When interaction terms were added to the models, the interaction between AS and dispositional avoidance was a significant predictor of panic and anxiety symptoms, whereas the interaction between EA and CF only predicted panic symptoms. None of the interactions that included mindfulness were significant predictors. Conclusions: these findings provide support the independent and interactive predictive value of traditional CBT (AS, dispositional avoidance, and AS-dispositional avoidance) and ACT (EA) processes for anxiety and panic symptoms, but raise questions about the incremental predictive utility of CF and mindfulness.
- Go to article: Stepping Together in Stepped Care Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Case Report of Core Components
Stepping Together in Stepped Care Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Case Report of Core Components
New service delivery systems are needed to expand the reach of evidence-based practices for childhood trauma. Cognitive behavioral therapy is an effective approach for treating childhood trauma, yet treatment barriers remain. Stepped care models that incorporate parent-led treatment with therapist assistance may be one approach to improve access. This case study highlights the core components of a parent-led therapist-assisted treatment called Stepping Together that serves as a Step 1 treatment within a stepped care model. The components and structure of Stepping Together are described, along with excerpts from therapy sessions to illustrate the therapist’s implementation of the model. Results of the case, in which improvements occurred, are presented. Stepping Together, a parent-led therapist-assisted first-line treatment within stepped care trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, may be an effective treatment for some children after trauma and their caregivers, although more research is needed.
- Go to article: Acceptance-Based Behavioral Therapy: Treating Anxiety and Related Challenges. Lizabeth Roemer and Susan M. Orsillo. The Guilford Press, 2020, 318 pages.
This chapter reviews important contemporary issues, theories, and skills centered on working with underrepresented couples and families. The following family-based contemporary issues are reviewed: discrimination and racism, ethnic microaggression and macroaggressions, racial and ethnic socialization, homophobia, issues relevant to
LGBTQIA+ couples, and key factors related to working with interracial families. This chapter showcases sections entitled Voices From the Field. These sections include quotes from four helping professionals representing a wide range of contextual and cultural backgrounds. The information provided will actualize the multicultural, intersectionality, and sociopolitical information detailed in the chapter and provide emerging systemic therapists with pertinent skills and interventions.
Comprehending the skills, interventions, and assessments for helping families experiencing contemporary issues is a key knowledge for emerging systemically oriented clinicians. This chapter provides theoretical conceptualization, concise skill-based descriptions, relevant assessment measures, and examples so readers have a comprehensive understanding of how to clinically assist families. Contemporary issues that are reviewed include family cohesion and adaptability, blended and stepfamilies, multiracial families, contemporary parenting issues, obesity, the internet, child abuse and neglect, grandparents raising grandchildren, and parental grief after the death of a child. The chapter concludes by reviewing relevant assessment measures related to the contemporary family issues described within the chapter.
Becoming familiar with the nuances of professional issues within couple, marriage, and family therapy is important for practitioners’ growth and understanding. Practitioners who employ a systemic approach to their clinical work understand the similarities and differences between their approach and various theoretical movements in the applied behavioral sciences. In addition to comparing theories, this chapter reviews the major ethical, legal, technological, multicultural, and intersectional issues that are unique to couple and family counseling. The chapter concludes by reviewing the distinctive elements of working with individuals in a systemic manner and the details associated with verbal and nonverbal messages in couple and family counseling.
This chapter is centered on reviewing the contemporary issues related to family therapy. This information will be derived from the recent and classic scholarly literature. Topics explored within this chapter include racism and intersectionality, family cohesion and flexibility, blended and stepfamilies, multiracial families, contemporary parenting practice and issues, obesity, various issues regarding the internet, child abuse and neglect, grandparents raising grandchildren, and parental grief after the death of a child. Throughout the chapter, readers are provided with contemporary examples, key information, and in-depth conceptualizations that accentuate the powerful effect the contemporary issue has on families.
Understanding the professional identity of couple, marriage, and family practitioners is essential knowledge for emerging systemically oriented clinicians. This chapter describes the identity of couple, marriage, and family practitioners; traces the history of couple, marriage, and family professional associations; discusses relevant accreditation organizations and pertinent specializations; explores the nuances of professional practice, including scholarly trends, telebehavioral health and therapeutic technology, understanding wellness, and interventions used during times of crisis, trauma, and disaster; and introduces the concepts of context, diversity, multiculturalism, and intersectionality. This chapter serves as a guide for the remainder of the book. Specifically, every topic introduced within this chapter will set the stage for additional theoretical, skill-based, and contemporary issues covered within the remaining chapters of this textbook.
Understanding the contemporary issues and frequently used skills and interventions for helping children and adolescents is essential knowledge for emerging couple and family practitioners. This chapter provides theoretical conceptualization, concise skill-based descriptions, and examples to provide readers with pertinent information related to treating a variety of child and adolescent contemporary issues. The contemporary issues that are reviewed include child and adolescent resistance to therapy, issues related to childhood attachment, sibling abuse, bullying, and learning disabilities. In addition to contemporary issues and skills, there are four additional sections that highlight important processes and skills related to play therapy, filial therapy, theraplay, sandplay therapy, and sandtray therapy. Lastly, the chapter ends with a concise breakdown of helpful youth-based assessments.
This chapter focuses on contemporary issues that affect people’s lives and motivate them to seek couple and marriage therapy. Topics explored within this chapter include changing views of marriage, rising rates of infertility, delayed motherhood, adult attachment, premarital issues and warning signs, marital and relational distress, effects of crisis and disaster on relationships, substance abuse, financial stress, infidelity, intimate partner violence, conflict during divorce, online issues that affect relationships, and sex addiction and compulsivity. Throughout this chapter, readers are provided with contemporary examples, key information, and in-depth conceptualizations that accentuate the powerful effect each issue has on relationships.
It is important for emerging systemic practitioners to understand the major theories that have influenced the practice of couple, marriage, and family therapy. This chapter explores the methods for creating a clinical theoretical orientation and the theoretical movements that have informed the practice of couple, marriage, and family therapy. Readers will explore the way theories are connected during clinical practice, including the use of a sole theory, integration, eclecticism, and pluralism. Next, readers are provided an overview of feminism, the minority stress model, and racial battle fatigue as they relate to systemic practice and contemporary issues. Through a highly detailed section on first- and second-order cybernetics, readers are given a careful review of the systemic paradigm. The chapter concludes with sections on prominent theories that serve as a foundation for effective systemic practice, including constructionism, constructivism, postmodernism, gestalt, and attachment-oriented therapy.
This chapter focuses on understanding the practice of couple, marriage, and family counseling. The chapter begins with a review of the nuances of session management, cotherapy, and reflection teams. Next, readers review foundational systemic interventions and core counseling skills along with their relevance to systemic practice. The chapter concludes with a concise review of the salient schools of couple, marriage, and family therapy, and a clear breakdown of the major skills and interventions. The theoretical breakdown includes a brief synopsis of the family therapy school, a definition of the core techniques, and applied examples of each skill.
Understanding the frequently used skills, interventions, and assessments related to helping couples who experience the consequences of a variety of pertinent contemporary issues is an important knowledge for emerging systemic therapists. This chapter provides theoretical conceptualization, concise skill-based descriptions, relevant assessment measures, and examples so readers have a comprehensive understanding on how to clinically assist couples. The contemporary issues that are reviewed include infertility, adult attachment, premarital issues and warning signs, marital distress, crisis and disaster, substance abuse, financial stress, infidelity, intimate partner violence, divorce conflict, online addiction, and sex addiction and compulsivity. The chapter concludes by reviewing relevant assessment measures related to the contemporary couple issues described within the chapter.
The Couple, Marriage, and Family Practitioner: Contemporary Issues, Interventions, and Skills delivers the knowledge and skills to help today’s diverse clients in an increasingly complex world. Sweeping in breadth and depth, this is the most comprehensive guide available to examine contemporary issues and interventions in couple, marriage, and family therapy. Designed for master’s- and doctoral-level students, this book helps clinicians examine their professional identity; describes family systems and systems theory; explores current issues facing today’s families, couples, and children; and details how to apply skills, interventions, and assessments to provide optimal service to clients. The book includes key information about multiculturalism, intersectionality, nontraditional families, and other social justice issues, as well as a dedicated chapter centered on working with people of color and underrepresented couples and families. Each chapter provides clear definitions, descriptions, and relevant scholarship along with activities and examples showcasing the use of systemic theory, contextual issues, major interventions, relevant technology, and skills. Voices From the Field sections written by diverse practitioners working with people of color,
LGBTQIA+ clientele, and other underrepresented populations underscore important information and perspectives.
- Go to article: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy and Change in Attachment Security: A Pilot Study
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy and Change in Attachment Security: A Pilot Study
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy has a rapidly growing evidence base; however, research into its changes in attachment security during EMDR therapy is limited. This pilot study aimed to explore changes in attachment security in a clinical sample of adults who received EMDR therapy for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD). It also explored the quality of the therapeutic alliance in relation to changes in attachment security. A within-subject, repeated-measures design was used. Eighteen participants received fifteen EMDR sessions on average and completed self-report measures of attachment, PTSD, CPTSD, and therapeutic alliance. A decrease in attachment insecurity was observed. Changes in attachment security were partially associated with the quality of the therapeutic alliance and changes in symptomatology. This study contributes to the emerging literature on change in attachment and EMDR therapy.
- Go to article: The Effects of EMDR Therapy on Pregnant Clients With Substance Use Disorders: A Narrative, Scoping Literature Review
The Effects of EMDR Therapy on Pregnant Clients With Substance Use Disorders: A Narrative, Scoping Literature Review
This narrative scoping literature review explores a significant clinical population, pregnant women with co-occurring substance misuse, through the lens of adaptive information processing and the potential for eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy intervention. A data search in PubMed, PsychINFO, Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, Cochran, and Scopus databases focusing on literature published within the last 10 years. Due to the distinctiveness of the issue, 10 research articles met the required inclusion criteria. The results confirm that EMDR can deliver effective outcomes for women with co-occurring substance use disorder during pregnancy. However, the rationale for using EMDR as a “sole-treatment” intervention appears insufficient. Instead, there is an argument supporting the utilization of integrative approaches. This review highlights the limited research available for this essential population and discusses the need for further study and investigation.
Most mental health clinicians treating trauma survivors are exposed to repeated details of clients’ traumatic experiences, and some of these clinicians may experience symptoms of indirect trauma through vicarious traumatization (VT), which has the potential of negatively impacting professional quality of life (ProQOL). The ProQOL Scale was developed to measure both negative and positive effects of working with those who have experienced traumatic stress. The purpose of this study was to determine if clinicians who are trained in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy, as compared to trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) and prolonged exposure (PE), would relate to aspects of their ProQOL differently. Second, it was hypothesized that the ProQOL model would predict VT in TF-CBT and PE clinicians, but not in EMDR therapy clinicians. Fifty-four trauma clinicians who reported their primary modality of treatment as EMDR, PE, and TF-CBT were studied. Participants completed a survey that included demographic information, the ProQOL Scale, and the Vicarious Trauma Scale (VTS). Hierarchical ordinary least squared regression revealed that the empirical ProQOL model did not predict VT scores in EMDR therapy clinicians as it did for non-EMDR therapy clinicians. This study implies that there could be aspects of the EMDR therapy methodology that may support a clinician’s healthy worldview when empathetically bonding with traumatized clients, thereby fostering longevity for both clients and clinicians.
- Go to article: The Effectiveness of EMDR With Individuals Experiencing Substance Use Disorder: A Meta-Analysis
The current meta-analysis aims to synthesize existing studies on the effectiveness of both trauma-focused and addiction-focused eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for people with substance use disorder (SUD). Search and selection procedures involved screening 1,733 references, yielding 10 studies published between 2008 and 2021 from 8 countries with 561 participants. After the removal of one outlier study, the results showed EMDR to be effective on a variety of outcomes for people with SUD (n = 9, d = .654, 95% CI [.332, .985], p < .001). Regarding the effects on SUD outcomes, meta-analysis also showed EMDR to be effective (n = 7, d = .580, 95% CI [.209, .951], p = .002). Specifically, EMDR was effective with SUD treatment engagement and severity, but not necessarily the reduction of cravings, and also effective for reducing comorbid posttraumatic and depressive symptoms. This meta-analysis is limited by the number of studies and participants, heterogeneity in methods of included studies, the quality of studies, and other factors.
- Go to article: The TraumaClinic Model of EMDR Basic Training in Brazil: A Country Case Study for In-Person and Online Training
The TraumaClinic Model of EMDR Basic Training in Brazil: A Country Case Study for In-Person and Online Training
This article utilizes a country case study design to describe the implementation of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy training in Brazil. The primary focus is on the methodology, adaptations, adjustments, and cultural considerations necessary to incorporate in-person and virtual training in this country. Additionally, the article will explore the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic to address National Government Guidance related to social distancing. This guidance required adjustments to training delivery, clinical and self-practice, clinical supervision, and consultation. Finally, the article outlines the advantages and disadvantages of implementing EMDR therapy training in Brazil, expanding to how models of good practice could be implemented in other countries, such as Angola and Mozambique, to include cultural adaptation, sensitivity, and replication.
In this chapter, we discuss the research-informed practice component of Competency 4: Engage in Practice-Informed Research and Research-Informed Practice. Chapter 16 covers the practice-informed research component of Competency 4. This chapter covers critical thinking and critically evaluating existing research. The chapter also reviews evaluating online sources and conducting literature searches.
The chapters in Part II of this edition focus on helping students understand the substantive content of the professional social work competencies and ensure that their field placement provides them opportunities to develop their professional competency. Each chapter focuses on a separate competency and provides descriptions of the competency as well as suggested activities and practice behaviors that can be carried out in student field placements. The goal is to help students develop strategies and activities that allow them to practice and develop each of the nine professional social work competencies in their field placement. In this chapter, we examine what professional social work behavior in communication looks like as it relates to Competency 1: Demonstrate Ethical and Professional Behavior. This competency requires that social workers “demonstrate professional demeanor in behavior; appearance; and oral, written, and electronic communication” (Council on Social Work Education [
CSWE], 2022, p. 9). The chapter also reviews professional electronic communication and the ethical use of technology in social work practice.
In this chapter, we explore the importance of social work supervision. Supervision is an activity that occurs in a variety of professions, but within social work, especially in field, supervision is a dynamic process. Social work supervision partners you as the learning social worker with an experienced social work professional to assist you in applying your social work knowledge and skills in the field setting. It also serves as a tool to improve professional problem-solving while developing your professional self.
- Go to article: Identifying Attitudes Towards Violence in Intimate Partner Relationships People Living in Eastern Turkey: A Cross Sectional Study
Identifying Attitudes Towards Violence in Intimate Partner Relationships People Living in Eastern Turkey: A Cross Sectional Study
Since the rates of violence are high in patriarchal societies, determining the attitudes of people in these societies towards violence and the factors affecting these attitudes are of great importance. The researchers in the present study aimed to determine people’s attitudes towards violence who live in a region where patriarchal values still reign in Turkey and to investigate factors urging people to tend to perpetrate violence. The data was collected from 628 people at five family health centers in a province in the east of Turkey, providing health services to people of different socioeconomic levels. The Participant Information Form and Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale were used to collect the study data. In the present study, the participants displayed positive attitudes toward violence. In the present study, the following factors were determined to affect attitudes towards violence: Income status, occupation, sex, family type, alcohol use, and perception that violence cannot be prevented. Male-dominated patriarchal society has very negative effects on people in terms of perpetrating violence. In addition, to reduce the negative effects of living in extended families, people should be enabled to live independently of their families after getting married.
- Go to article: Comparing Abuse Profiles, Contexts, and Outcomes of Help-Seeking Victims of Domestic Violence: Part III—LGBT Clients
Comparing Abuse Profiles, Contexts, and Outcomes of Help-Seeking Victims of Domestic Violence: Part III—LGBT Clients
The present study represents the third part of an exploration into the demographic characteristics, context, and outcomes of abuse and outcomes of service engagement for users of specialist Domestic Violence and Abuse (DVA) services in the United Kingdom (UK; parts I and II respectively). It delivers on a commitment made in those parts to provide an examination of LGBT clients (including in comparison to the cisgender, heterosexual, or “cishet” clients examined in parts I & II, hereby known as “non-LGBT”). The current study utilized a large-scale quantitative data set of 35,882 clients presenting to specialist DVA services within the UK between 2007 and 2017, including 34,815 non-LGBT and 1,067 LGBT clients. Several areas of similarity between the two subsamples were identified, including some of the types of abuse reported, referral routes, and outcomes upon exit from services. Significant differences was also found. For example, the LGBT subsample was found to be significantly more likely to present to services with substance use and mental health issues (including self-harm) and was also more likely to have their case progressed by the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS). The findings are discussed along with recommendations for future research and practice, centered around the provision of gender and sexuality-inclusive provision, which acknowledges differential risks of LGBT clients, and how these reflect their experiences as a “minority” population (i.e., so-called “minority stress”).
- Go to article: Is Methodological Pluralism Improving Our Ability to Uncover the Causal Mechanisms Behind Men’s Violence Against Women?
Is Methodological Pluralism Improving Our Ability to Uncover the Causal Mechanisms Behind Men’s Violence Against Women?
This explorative article aims to take a step in the direction of a realist-oriented scientific design that extends our knowledge of the requirements of a methodology that improves our ability to uncover the causal mechanisms behind men’s violence against women. Despite the great advances that have been made in individual research disciplines, our understanding of the complex causes is still insufficient and suffers from our inability to grasp the larger whole of the collaborative processes. As a first step towards the objective, an integration attempt is implemented that aims to highlight methodological issues that we have to overcome to explain men's violence against women. The integration of psychological, social-psychological, and sociological theories aims to exemplify how contributing, and counteracting factors interact with each other and form a complex mechanism that influences whether violence against women will take place or not. To leave room for the methodological dimension, the depth of each perspective has been reduced. The results of the integration attempt show both opportunities and difficulties in investigating the mechanisms behind men’s violence against women. However, there is still untapped knowledge potential in the explorative integration of theories and the use of realist-oriented pluralistic research methodologies.
- Go to article: Abused and Rejected: The Link Between Intimate Partner Violence and Parental Alienation
Previous studies have demonstrated a connection between intimate partner violence (IPV) and a child’s alienation from the abused parent, but little is known about the relationships between the type of IPV, aspects, and severity of a child’s alienation, and the target parent’s gender. This study assessed the presence of an IPV history (verbal and physical aspects) among parents who identify as targets of their children’s unreasonable rejection. Also investigated were associations between the form of IPV and manifestations of a child’s alienated behavior, parent’s gender and type of IPV, and parents’ gender and degree of the child’s alienation. Self-identified alienated parents (n = 842) completed an online survey that included an IPV screening measurement (Hurts, Insults, Screams, Threatens screening tool) and a measure of the parent’s perception of their child’s alienated behaviors (Rowlands Parental Alienation Scale). The majority identified as IPV victims and reported a higher level of verbal than physical abuse. More mothers than fathers identified themselves as IPV victims. As a group, IPV victims rated their child as more severely alienated than did non-IPV alienated parents. Mothers were more likely than fathers to report physical aggression by the other parent and more likely than fathers to assess their child’s alienated behaviors as more severe. Victims of physical violence reported their children were less likely to withhold positive affection from them. This knowledge may assist in earlier identification of the alienation process and greater recognition, legitimacy, funding, and opportunities for enhanced collaboration among stakeholders. This, in turn, may lead to improvements in prevention, intervention, and accountability, thus helping to interrupt alienation processes.
Police respond to high volumes of domestic violence (DV) calls that can be time-consuming and often deal with repeat involved persons, regardless of whether or not charges are laid. This study extracts and examines three distinct cases of individuals/couples that involved almost 2% of 3,414 domestic violence calls to police that occurred over about a 3-year period for a small-sized urban community and its surrounding rural areas in Ontario, Canada. Most of the calls (86.2%) for these three cases did not result in any charges being laid. Each case represented a unique problem focus common in DV situations, and all three cases involved children. Key issues for one case included substance use and the cycle of violence; in another case, mental health problems and parenting challenges were prominent; and the third case pertained to child custody and access issues. Acceptance of offered support and services by the involved persons was minimal in all three cases. Implications for improved police responses involving collaboration with other service providers in smaller communities with limited resources are discussed.
Across many countries, the use of dating applications and websites (DAWs) has become increasingly popular over recent years; however, research examining the relationship between DAWs use and experience of dating violence and/or other harms is limited. This study aims to explore the use, motivations, and experiences of harm associated with using DAWs and meeting people in person via DAWs. An online convenience sample pilot survey was completed by adults (n = 217) aged 18+ years, living in the UK or the Republic of Ireland, who had used a DAW in the past two years. Differences were found in usage, motivations, and experiences of using DAWs in age and gender. Nearly half, 46.5% of respondents reported having been a victim of at least one harm as a result of meeting someone in person via DAWs in their lifetime; 33.2% reported experiencing sexual violence, 27.2% verbal abuse, 8.3% sexual activity in exchange for goods and 6.5% physical assault. Further to this, 41.9% of respondents reported being “Catfished” in the past two years (i.e., the other person looking different in person compared to their DAWs profile). In multivariate analysis, experiencing at least one harm was significantly associated with female gender (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.0; p < .001), being aged 40+ years (AOR 3.1; p < .01; reference category, 18–29 years) and being “Catfished” (AOR 3.3; p < .001). In multivariate analysis, sexual violence was significantly associated with being female (AOR 6.9; p < .001), being aged 40+ years (AOR 2.9; p = .013; reference category, 18–29 years) and being “Catfished” (AOR 2.9; p = .001). The study reinforces the importance of understanding the use of DAWs, exposure to harms on and offline, and risks associated with “Catfishing.”
- Go to article: Men’s Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence and Their Experiences With a Crisis Center in Denmark
Many countries are unable to offer men and their children a safe place to stay when exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). Denmark is an exception by having implemented a coordinated effort in 2016 of meeting the needs of male victims of IPV and their children. This presents an opportunity for in-depth exploration of the experiences of male victims of IPV. In this study we present a review of men’s exposure to IPV in Denmark, the experiences of 58 men who stayed in six crisis centers for men, and present results from a follow-up pilot study working with these men. Men staying in the crisis centers reported having been exposed to psychological, physical, economical, material violence, and stalking perpetrated predominantly by a female partner or ex-partner. In the follow-up, several men reported still being exposed to different types of violence and threats. The men experienced a number of adverse outcomes associated with their experiences but described a positive impact by the combination of help offered at the shelters. This study points to the importance of safe accommodation for male victims of IPV and includes recommendations for practice.