This chapter reviews prevention, including genetic counseling. It discusses genetic testing for diagnosis as opposed to screening and the treatment for genetic disease. Methods of prevention begin with education of the public and health care professionals and identification of those at risk. Genetic counseling is the process of helping people understand and adapt to the medical, psychological, and familial implications of genetic contributions to disease. The malignant cells often exhibit aneuploidy as well as translocations that are found only within the tumor cells. Genetic errors that arise from specific cell lines are somatic mutations. It is suggested that there is a thorough collection of family, genetic, and medical history for children entering the adoption process. Nurses may play a variety of roles in genetic counseling that reflect their preparation, area of practice, primary functions, and setting. The chapter explains the incidence of chromosome abnormalities.
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The initial recognition of the need for a genetics referral may arise when a nurse suspects a genetic contribution to disease because of personal or family medical history and/or findings from a physical assessment. Family history is a valuable and cost-effective tool that is often underutilized in clinical practice. Many common genetic conditions result from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. It is critical to collect information about potential environmental exposures to help inform a patient’s risk assessment. Health care professionals should become familiar about toxic environmental agents that are common in their specific geographic location. A growing number of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs have labeling that includes pharmacogenomic information, which can be used to optimize drug dosage and prevent adverse and life-threatening drug reactions in a patient or family member.
Nurses working in the field of obstetrics must have a greater depth and breadth of genetic knowledge over any other subspecialty. In gestation, nurses should include education on the effects of teratogens, prenatal screening options, and prenatal diagnoses. After delivery, early recognition of genetic disorders is important for immediate initiation of potentially life-saving therapies. Preconception education is a critical component of health care for women of reproductive age. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend that all women of childbearing age consume 0.4 mg of folic acid daily to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs). Counseling can still be useful in terms of optimum pregnancy management in a setting best able to cope with any anticipated problems. Complex and multifaceted maternal and fetal factors influence the consequences of drugs, radiation, and chemical and infectious agents to the developing fetus.
This book integrates theory and practice, and addresses the key principles of sport, exercise, and performance psychology. It reflects the broadening of sport psychology studies to encompass more widespread human performance research. Chapters address such essential concepts as the key principles of sport, exercise, and performance psychology, individual differences, identity development, individual differences associated with personality, motivation, self-efficacy, stress and coping, injury, decision making, job opportunities, and burnout in the context of human performance. Motivation is likely one of the most critical variables in determining one’s behaviors and ultimate success because it impels them to act or sit still. Self-efficacy is said to influence whether people are optimistic or pessimistic, the goals they select, and their willingness to persist in the face of failure. Stressors fall into one of three possible categories-bioecological, psychointrapersonal, and/or social. Bringing these topics to life are companion “Applying the Concepts” chapters demonstrating how these principles are directly applied in real-life situations. The text focuses on the core theories underpinning sport psychology. Interviews with researchers, coaches, athletes, and other individuals from performance-intensive professions vividly reinforce the book’s content. Additionally, the book contains insights on theories and research findings that students can apply to their own experience.
This chapter addresses the key principles of sport, exercise, and performance psychology. It reflects the broadening of sport psychology studies to encompass more widespread human performance research. It provides Dr. Sachs’s honest and open remarks along with interspersed additions from the authors to introduce the field and its accompanying issues. In explaining his career trajectory, Dr. Sachs recalls earning his undergraduate degree in psychology and then applying to graduate programs in applied behavioral analysis. Dr. Sachs’s somewhat zigzagged trajectory in the field demonstrates the important sport and exercise psychology principle that explains the benefits of focusing on the process rather than the outcome when setting goals. Dr. Sachs added that the United States leads the way in research and writing with regard to sport and exercise psychology, while other countries may be more advanced in the application of that knowledge at the professional levels.
This chapter addresses the key principles of sport, exercise, and performance psychology. It reflects the broadening of sport psychology studies to encompass more widespread human performance research. The topic of decision making has been covered in psychology, economics, and motor learning but addressed very sparsely in sport, exercise, and performance psychology. Rational decision making requires defining the problem, identifying criteria, weighing those criteria, generating alternative solutions, and ultimately computing the optimal decision. The chapter introduces the literature on decision making and provides examples of factors that influence the choices people make. The decision to act, move, or what move to make is decided in the response selection stage, and the final stage is when one’s brain and muscles are organized to make the actual move. The key to improve the decision-making over time is to increase personal awareness of own limitations and keep learning and collecting information from reliable sources.
One of the most important findings from the original battered woman syndrome (BWS) research was the existence of a three-phase cycle of violence that could be described and measured through careful questioning of the battered woman. This chapter describes the cycle, updates it by adding information from the courtship period, and divides the third phase into several different sections where appropriate so that there may not be any loving contrition or even respites from the abuse at times during the relationship. Teaching the woman how her perception of tension and danger rises to an acute battering incident after which she experiences feelings of relief and then gets seduced back into the relationship by the batterer’s loving behavior, often similar to what she experienced during the courtship period, has been found to be helpful in breaking the cycle of violence that keeps the woman in the relationship.Source:
You CAN Teach Med-Surg Nursing!:The Authoritative Guide and Toolkit for the Medical–Surgical Nursing Clinical Instructor
This book gives readers all the direction and resources they need to be a confident and competent medical-surgical nursing clinical instructor. It offers insight and examples related to student evaluations, syllabus preparation, and contracts that would typically be used by an adjunct instructor. Week-to-week instruction, along with medication quizzes and student learning activities, helps ensure that students are learning new knowledge and skills on an ongoing basis. A caring plan and medication forms are included, along with medication administration guidelines. The major body systems are addressed, with comprehensive resources included on each one. The increasingly significant topics of delegation and patient teaching are also included. Each clinical week is prepared and sequenced in such as way as to provide the clinical instructor with enough material to teach without redundancy. Each clinical course must meet for a certain number of hours to ensure the student is meeting attendance requirements. When a student misses a clinical class, a makeup assignment should be given to meet the attendance requirement. There are several types of assignments included in the book on makeup assignments. The work assigned for the makeup assignment must be written in American Psychological Association (APA) format and must be thoroughly investigated with reliable evidenced-based references. The assignment should be detailed enough to makeup for the hours missed.
This chapter examines pre- and postconference expectations and activities, explores forms to be used by the professor and the students, suggests care plans and patient assignments, and describes sample concept maps and a math skills assessment. A student with no experience in health care may be shy or sheepish when it comes to hands-on care. It may be of benefit for the students to be paired in the first few weeks of clinical classes. The care plan forms can help guide the student through the nursing process. Medication forms will help the student learn about various medications. Nursing education has adopted the use of concepts maps to assist students in gathering patient information. Patient safety is the number one priority for all health care professionals. Dose calculations are a daily activity for nurses.
This chapter discusses basic review of the admission process, and describes an admission assessment exercise that allows students to assume the roles of both patient and nurse. It also describes the role of nurse in which the student learns to collect patient data and record data appropriately, and also explains the role of the electronic medication administration record (eMAR). Preconference begins with a review of the skills previously mastered: hand washing, obtaining vital signs, and performing those daily nursing activities such as taking assessments and collecting data on patients. The student is responsible for making copies of the nursing notes for the required clinical assignments. With the admission assessment exercise, the clinical instructor can discuss the correlation of the vital signs, medications, past medical history, and familial history. New designs in technology have facilitated new medication administration practices that will reduce the number of medication errors in health care facilities.