This chapter presents the anatomy review of the human heart. The human heart is a hollow four-chambered muscle that is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. The heart lies in the mediastinum in the thorax, pointing toward the left of the midline. The heart consists of four main layers: the pericardium, epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium. The epicardium is the outermost layer of the heart muscle. The middle layer of the heart is called the myocardium. The innermost layer of the heart is the endocardium. The heart is divided into right and the left side. The right side of the heart contains the right atrium and right ventricle. The left side of the heart contains the left atrium and left ventricle. The heart has four valves: tricuspid valve, mitral valve, aortic valve, pulmonary valve; acting as tiny doors that keep the blood moving in one direction.
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The chapter explores how to measure the electrical direction for the P wave, the QRS complex, and the T wave, as well as for other forces. It provides a method for determining the direction of the electrical force for any of these waves, or complexes, on the electrocardiograph (EKG). The heart produces electrical and mechanical energy on a continuous basis. Both forms of energy come from specialized cardiac muscle fibers. These fibers provide electrical signals and mechanical energy that physically pumps the blood. Although the EKG does not show that mechanical energy, it can be used to measure a variety of electrical events. When a force is abnormal in size or direction, it may indicate that the specific part of the heart producing the force is abnormal. Therefore, learning the normal electrical direction of forces in the heart provides a simple and scientific way of understanding and interpreting an EKG.
This chapter explains various types of heart blocks such as premature atrial contraction, sinus arrest and asystole. It explains various types of pacemakers such as ventricular pacemaker and artrial pacemakers. Junctional rhythm is a regular rhythm. A P wave is frequently not seen because the rhythm originates in the AV junctional node. Junctional rhythm may be a manifestation of digitalis toxicity, sick sinus syndrome, and acute inferior wall infarction. Pauses are most commonly caused by premature atrial contractions (PACs) that do not conduct down to the ventricle and generate a QRS complex. These are called nonconducted PACs (NCPACs). Asystole is a prolonged period of no electrical activity. Cessation of function of the sinus node is called sinus arrest. Normally, when sinus arrest occurs, another pacemaker must take over, such as the junction or the ventricles. Ventricular pacemaker rhythm demonstrates a vertical electrical artifact (EA) at the beginning of the QRS.
This chapter presents the case examples of pressure and volume overload on the left ventricle and provides list of criteria for the diagnosis of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH) on the electrocardiogram (EKG). It also describes and explains how to identify ST changes in LVH and LVH simulating anterior wall infarction on the EKG. LVH refers to an increase in the wall thickness or dilation of the left ventricle. LVH is often the result of increased pressure, or volume, within the left ventricular chamber. Mitral regurgitation (MR) occurs when the mitral valve allows the backflow of blood from the left ventricle into the left atrium. The most common cause of pressure overload is hypertension (HTN). Hypertrophy of the left ventricle increases the amplitude of the left ventricular forces, because more mass generates more electricity. In LVH, the frontal plane, the horizontal plane, or both may show increased QRS amplitude.
This book presents theoretical underpinnings of perinatal and pediatric bereavement, chapters on dimensions of perinatal and pediatric loss that have been of interest recently, and clinical interventions derived from research. It is divided into two sections. The first section has 10 chapters focusing on aspects of perinatal loss. It presents background content on various grief theories developed in the past five decades. These theories have expanded our understanding of the processes of death, dying, and bereavement. Grief after pregnancy loss can be more complicated for certain groups. The book provides a comprehensive overview of perinatal grief among lesbian couples and an overview of perinatal loss in adolescents, discussing normal adolescent growth and development, and using Sanders’s integrated theory of bereavement to discuss the common physical, emotional, social, and cognitive reactions to loss. The second section has eight chapters focusing on various aspects of caring for families whose children are dying or who have died, and caring for children who are grieving. Sometimes, the death of a child can occur under traumatic circumstances, setting the stage for very intense psychological responses. The book focuses on the impact of the cause of the death on posttraumatic stress responses and overall parental health after the traumatic loss of a child and describes supportive interventions for bereaved parents. Suicide is one of the most traumatic losses a family can experience. Finally, the book presents the importance of creating and capturing meaningful moments in the time leading up to and after the death of a child, focusing on the importance of relationships among families and professionals as they prepare for the child’s death.
- Go to chapter: When the Unthinkable Happens: A Mindfulness Approach to Perinatal and Pediatric Death
This chapter explores traumatic grief and loss and discusses various treatments for it. It focuses on mindfulness-based interventions for specific use in traumatic grief with bereaved parents. Traumatic grief appears relatively responsive to the psychosocial approach, particularly when it includes exposure elements, such as retelling the story of the loss, reutilization, and building tolerance to the emotions associated with loss. More recently, Thieleman, Cacciatore, and Hill have presented evidence for a mindfulness-based, psychosocial approach for specific use in traumatic grief with bereaved parents. Western culture’s interest in mindfulness has grown exponentially, and practices have been integrated into a variety of general, psychotherapeutic treatment approaches including acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT), mindful- ness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Of all mindfulness practices, one of the most cost-effective strategies to help providers working with bereaved parents is meditation.
This chapter highlights key elements of adolescent growth and development and outlines communication strategies to serve as a guide for health care clinicians. It provides a summary of research findings on the adolescent female bereavement response to an early pregnancy loss prior to 20 weeks gestation like miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, or elective termination. To gain a greater understanding of the adolescent response to pregnancy loss, it is helpful to review normal adolescent emotional and psychological development. Erik Erikson’s classic developmental theory offers an outline of the psychosocial tasks of adolescents. Blos described three separate phases of adolescence: early, middle, and late, which evolve throughout the transition from childhood to adult hood. Sanders’s integrated bereavement theory has been used to organize grief responses and the bereavement process. When adolescents have experienced an early pregnancy loss they will experience grief responses that are physical, emotional, social, and cognitive in nature.
Multiple physical changes can impair the mental health of the aging individual. These changes include: acid-based imbalances, dehydration, electrolyte changes, hypothermia or hyperthermia, and hypothyroidism. This chapter reviews the most common mental health disorders affecting the elderly population and trends affecting care delivery. Moreover, chronic, unresolved pain has been associated with an increased risk of a mental health disorder such as depression, suicide, or anxiety. The aging individual may exhibit signs and symptoms of insomnia such as sleeping for short periods during the night, sleeping during times of normal social activities, arising early in the morning while others sleep, and experiencing daytime sleepiness. The chapter concludes by applying the nursing process from an interpersonal perspective to the care of an elderly patient with a mental health disorder.