Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes two injury types: primary and secondary. In infants and young children, nonaccidental TBI is an important etiology of brain injury and is commonly a repetitive insult. TBI is by far the most common cause of acquired brain injury (ABI) in children and is the most common cause of death in cases of childhood injury. In 2009, the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) issued validated prediction rules to identify children at very low risk of clinically important TBI, which is defined as TBI requiring neurosurgical intervention or leading to death. The range of outcomes in pediatric TBI is very broad, from full recovery to severe physical and/or intellectual disabilities. Children and adolescents who have suffered a TBI are at increased risk of social dysfunction. Studies show that these patients can have poor self-esteem, loneliness, maladjustment, reduced emotional control, and aggressive or antisocial behavior.
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The learning landscape continues to evolve as new technological tools enable teachers to deliver robust learning experiences. It is important to help teachers, administrators, and students know where to begin so that the transition to virtual learning is smooth, without educational loss. This chapter consists of two sections: current trends and issues in technology integration and technological pedagogical content knowledge. The first section briefly reviews the trends in instructional or educational technologies that are causing administrators, teachers, and students to reflect on and modify their thinking about learning and educational content delivery. The second section explores constructivism, the scientific underpinnings of nursing informatics, and ethics. Nurse educators must also address the ethical challenges brought about by this evolving learning landscape. After reading this chapter, one can understand current trends and issues, as well as the influence of nursing informatics and ways to approach new ethical dilemmas.
Healthcare is in a state of rapid change. Although practice environments have become more complex, educational delivery methods have remained stagnant. Innovative technologies provide opportunities to enhance nursing student learning and help nursing programs become more responsive to changes in the practice environment; however, obstacles may hinder successful implementation. With the increasing complexity of today’s health care environment, innovations in nursing curricula are necessary. This chapter explores some of the general challenges associated with the integration of innovative educational technologies, as well as some challenges unique to virtual simulation. It helps the reader to analyze the challenges of integrating educational technologies into nursing education associated with faculty, administrators, and students. It also helps the reader to examine practical and philosophical barriers related to technology integration and explores challenges unique to the adoption of virtual simulation.
Simulation has many advantages for nursing education, some of which include creating safe learning environments for students and reinforcing information learned in the classroom; it also has the advantage of being available in inclement weather as well as 24 hours a day for student access. Simulation in nursing is one of many methods used for teaching students. Teaching and learning in a virtual learning environment has many advantages for administrators, faculty, and students. One of the advantages includes the use of other disciplines to help create or participate in a virtual world learning experience. The virtual learning environment can be created to look similar to real communities, disaster areas, or homes, with avatars populating that environment. The advantage to using virtual reality, rather than a real-life experience, is that in real life, students could be immersed in an environment that could cause them harm.
- Go to chapter: Neurodevelopmental Disabilities: Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Neurodevelopmental Disabilities: Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
This chapter defines neurodevelopmental disorders, and examines the medical, psychosocial, and vocational aspects of two neurodevelopmental disorders that are increasing in the U.S. population: autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It provides populations at risk of being diagnosed with ASD or ADHD, and distinguishes key considerations for outreach, eligibility determination, and rehabilitation assessment and planning. The chapter considers services to be included in the rehabilitation plan to facilitate goal achievement for consumers with ASD or ADHD, and examines evidence-based practices in job development, placement, and retention. Both ASD and ADHD can be accompanied by co-occurring psychiatric disabilities. Counseling and guidance are always individualized to the unique characteristics, rehabilitation needs, and preferences of each rehabilitation consumer. Rehabilitation counselors must also take into consideration the importance of family involvement in the transition and rehabilitation of youths with ASD and ADHD.
This chapter describes changes in the age demographic of the American populace that will steadily increase the number of elderly people in the United States for the next 30 years, and examines the relationship among aging, health, and disability. It provides the characteristics and needs of people who have frequently occurring aging-related disabling conditions such as dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, and stroke. The most common chronic health conditions for people over the age of 65 include arthritis, hypertensive disease, heart disease, hearing impairments, musculoskeletal impairments, chronic sinusitis, diabetes, and visual impairments. It is important for rehabilitation counselors to understand the impact that population aging has had and will continue to have on family interaction and socialization, the American economy, and human health care and social service systems. In providing counseling and guidance services to individuals with age-related disabilities, the issue of chronicity is often of paramount concern.
This chapter examines the roles that lifestyle factors and climate change play in the onset and exacerbation of emerging disabilities, and provides examples of chronic illnesses and disabilities linked to lifestyle and climate change that are increasing in the population. It considers the medical, psychosocial, and vocational characteristics of emerging disabilities associated with lifestyle and climate change, and explores characteristics of populations at risk of acquiring disabilities and chronic illnesses associated with lifestyle and climate change. The respective incidences of diabetes, asthma, and heart disease have reached epidemic proportions in the United States. The chapter presents an overview of the health impacts of extreme heat, extreme weather events, air pollution, and vector-borne diseases. Temperature increases, changing precipitation patterns, and extreme weather events have resulted in the increased spread of vector-borne diseases. Health promotions services may be especially beneficial to individuals with lifestyle disabilities to assist them with changing health-related behaviors.
This chapter examines the medical, psychosocial, and vocational characteristics, challenges, and rehabilitation needs of emerging populations of individuals with psychiatric disabilities, and introduces a recovery-oriented approach to providing responsive services to individuals with psychiatric disabilities. It explores integrated, evidence-based, and emerging practices to facilitate better recovery and rehabilitation outcomes for these populations. The onset of psychiatric disabilities occurs during critical years when major changes are occurring in the areas of identity formation and cognitive, psychosocial, psychosexual, and career development. Many individuals with psychiatric disabilities receive their health care in emergency departments and intensive care units and not until their secondary conditions create medical crises. Substance use disorders (SUDs) often co-occur with psychiatric disabilities. The principles of recovery align with the core values and principles of rehabilitation counseling. Illness management and recovery (IMR) is an evidence-based practice for equipping individuals with the knowledge and skills they need to self-manage their disabilities.
This chapter defines emerging disabilities; explores medical, psychosocial, and vocational implications of emerging disabilities that distinguish them from traditional disabilities; and provides demographic characteristics of individuals who are most vulnerable to acquiring emerging disabilities. It examines some social and environmental trends that have contributed to the development of emerging patterns and types of disabilities including advances in medicine and assistive technology, globalization, climate change, poverty, violence and trauma, the aging American populace, and disability legislation. Psychological and physical trauma from warfare, violent crime, intimate partner violence, and youth violence can result in permanent physical, cognitive, and psychiatric disabilities. Diagnostic uncertainties, misdiagnoses, and skepticism on the part of medical providers are frequently associated with emerging disabilities. Women also represent a population that is at an increased risk of acquiring emerging disabilities and chronic illnesses. Rehabilitation systems are still not fully prepared to address the multifaceted needs of individuals with emerging disabilities.
This book provides a better understanding of emerging disabilities and their impact on all areas of life and explores implications for rehabilitation counseling practice, policy, and research. It first defines emerging disabilities and examines current societal trends that contribute to the onset and diagnoses of chronic illnesses and disabilities that are considered to be emerging in the United States. Then, the book provides an overview of medical, psychosocial, and vocational aspects that distinguish emerging disabilities from traditional disabilities. The first section of the book includes four chapters on emerging disabilities with organic causes or unknown etiologies. It examines disabilities and chronic illnesses that are characterized by chronic pain. The second section of the book examines the role of natural and sociocultural environments in creating new patterns and types of disabling conditions. It focuses on both lifestyle factors and climate change and how these contribute to the onset and/or exacerbation of chronic illness and disability and explains physical disabilities, chronic illnesses, and mental health conditions that result from violence. The final section of the book explores implications for rehabilitation practice, policy, and research to better respond to the unique concerns and needs of rehabilitation consumers with emerging disabilities. It suggests research topics, designs, and procedures for building upon our knowledge about the rehabilitation needs of emerging disability populations and developing evidence-based practices to facilitate successful rehabilitation outcomes for individuals in these populations.