This chapter demonstrates how social work ethics apply to ethical and legal decision making in forensic social work practice. It discusses the context of social work practice in legal systems. The chapter also details the basic structures of the United States (U.S.) civil and criminal legal systems. It lays the foundation for the criminal and civil court processes in the United States and introduces basic terminology and a description of associated activities and progression through these systems. The chapter focuses on providing an introductory, and overarching, picture of both civil and criminal law in the U.S. and introduces the roles social workers play in these systems. It focuses on the ETHICA model of ethical decision making as a resource and tool that can be used to help forensic social workers process difficult and complex situations across multiple systems.
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- Go to chapter: Social Work and the Law: An Overview of Ethics, Social Work, and Civil and Criminal Law
This chapter explains the theoretical basis for motivational interviewing (MI). It reviews the empirical evidence for the use of MI with diverse populations in forensic settings. MI involves attention to the language of change, and is designed to strengthen personal motivation and commitment to a specific goal by eliciting and exploring the person’s own reasons for change within an atmosphere of acceptance and compassion. It is now internationally recognized as an evidence-based practice intervention for alcohol and drug problems. MI involves an underlying spirit made up of partnership, acceptance, compassion, and evocation. The chapter discusses four key processes involved in MI: engaging, focusing, evoking, and planning. It also describes five key communication microskills used throughout MI: asking open-ended questions, providing affirmations, offering summarizing statements, providing information and advice with permission, and reflective statements.
The learning landscape continues to evolve as new technological tools enable teachers to deliver robust learning experiences. It is important to help teachers, administrators, and students know where to begin so that the transition to virtual learning is smooth, without educational loss. This chapter consists of two sections: current trends and issues in technology integration and technological pedagogical content knowledge. The first section briefly reviews the trends in instructional or educational technologies that are causing administrators, teachers, and students to reflect on and modify their thinking about learning and educational content delivery. The second section explores constructivism, the scientific underpinnings of nursing informatics, and ethics. Nurse educators must also address the ethical challenges brought about by this evolving learning landscape. After reading this chapter, one can understand current trends and issues, as well as the influence of nursing informatics and ways to approach new ethical dilemmas.
Healthcare is in a state of rapid change. Although practice environments have become more complex, educational delivery methods have remained stagnant. Innovative technologies provide opportunities to enhance nursing student learning and help nursing programs become more responsive to changes in the practice environment; however, obstacles may hinder successful implementation. With the increasing complexity of today’s health care environment, innovations in nursing curricula are necessary. This chapter explores some of the general challenges associated with the integration of innovative educational technologies, as well as some challenges unique to virtual simulation. It helps the reader to analyze the challenges of integrating educational technologies into nursing education associated with faculty, administrators, and students. It also helps the reader to examine practical and philosophical barriers related to technology integration and explores challenges unique to the adoption of virtual simulation.
Simulation has many advantages for nursing education, some of which include creating safe learning environments for students and reinforcing information learned in the classroom; it also has the advantage of being available in inclement weather as well as 24 hours a day for student access. Simulation in nursing is one of many methods used for teaching students. Teaching and learning in a virtual learning environment has many advantages for administrators, faculty, and students. One of the advantages includes the use of other disciplines to help create or participate in a virtual world learning experience. The virtual learning environment can be created to look similar to real communities, disaster areas, or homes, with avatars populating that environment. The advantage to using virtual reality, rather than a real-life experience, is that in real life, students could be immersed in an environment that could cause them harm.
- Go to article: Sexual Teen Dating Violence Victimization: Associations With Sexual Risk Behaviors Among U.S. High School Students
Sexual Teen Dating Violence Victimization: Associations With Sexual Risk Behaviors Among U.S. High School Students
Adolescent dating violence may lead to adverse health behaviors. We examined associations between sexual teen dating violence victimization (TDVV) and sexual risk behaviors among U.S. high school students using 2013 and 2015 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey data (combined n = 29,346). Sex-stratified logistic regression models were used to estimate these associations among students who had dated or gone out with someone during the past 12 months (n = 20,093). Among these students, 10.5% experienced sexual TDVV. Sexual TDVV was positively associated with sexual intercourse before age 13, four or more lifetime sexual partners, current sexual activity, alcohol or drug use before last sexual intercourse, and no pregnancy prevention during last sexual intercourse. Given significant findings among both sexes, it is valuable for dating violence prevention efforts to target both female and male students.Source:
In the postpartum period, secondary postpartum hemorrhage (SPPH) and endometritis are two conditions that frequently present to an obstetric triage unit. These complications may coexist and can occur from 24 hours postpartum to 6 weeks postdelivery. SPPH is typically not as severe as a primary bleeding episode. Postpartum women ultimately diagnosed with endometritis are generally stable, but less commonly can present in septic shock. This chapter discusses presenting symptomatology, history and data collection, physical examination, laboratory and imaging studies, differential diagnosis, and clinical management and follow-up of secondary postpartum hemorrhage and postpartum endometritis. Prompt treatment of both SPPH and postpartum endometritis can reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. SPPH is managed with the same guiding principles as primary postpartum hemorrhage. Initial treatment for postpartum endometritis is intravenous clindamycin and gentamicin.
Pregnant women presenting with abdominal pain to an emergency department or obstetric triage setting frequently have a diagnostic ultrasound (US) to assess fetus, placenta, and adnexae. In the first trimester, symptomatic adnexal masses typically present with unilateral or bilateral pelvic cramping or pressure. Obtaining a history in a pregnant woman with abdominal pain is similar to doing so for the nonpregnant patient. In addition to routine cardiopulmonary examination, abdominal examination, and assessment for costovertebral angle tenderness, a sterile speculum and vaginal examination are performed to evaluate for adnexal or uterine tenderness, cervical dilation, and potential rupture of membranes. If a mass is suspected, US is the preferred imaging modality. Magnetic resonance imaging can be employed if additional imaging is needed. Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in pregnant women must include other obstetric and nonobstetric causes of pain. This chapter describes clinical management and follow-up of pregnant women with adnexal masses.
Maternal sepsis is a common pregnancy-related condition; in the United States, it is a leading cause of maternal mortality, accounting for up to 28” of maternal deaths and up to 15” of maternal admissions to the intensive care unit. One contributing and modifiable factor to these deaths is failure to recognize sepsis, leading to delays in treatment. Therefore, rapid and accurate diagnosis and initial management of sepsis in pregnancy in the emergency department (ED) is paramount. Pregnancy poses a unique challenge given the baseline physiologic changes and the need to care for the mother while simultaneously caring for the fetus. Therefore, without clear pregnancy-specific data, recommendations are to follow the current guidelines for nonpregnant adults, yet be cognizant of the ways in which pregnancy may change maternal physiology and affect fetal well-being. Prompt identification and treatment of maternal sepsis will undoubtedly lead to the best possible maternal and neonatal outcomes.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual assault are common violent crimes perpetrated on women. Obstetric (OB) complications associated with trauma include miscarriage, preterm labor, and placental abruption. Ongoing mental health issues, including depression and anxiety, are more prevalent in pregnant women subjected to any form of IPV, whether or not direct physical violence is involved. One study showed that pregnant women subjected to verbal threats were twice as likely to deliver low-birth-weight infants. All women who present to an OB triage unit or an emergency department (not just those who present with an injury or complication) must be screened for IPV. An organized plan for providing the victim with resources must be readily available when a screen is positive. This chapter discusses presenting symptomatology, history and data collection, physical examination, laboratory and imaging studies, differential diagnosis, clinical management and follow-up care of IPV and sexual assault.