Chylothorax, a lymphatic flow disorder characterized by an abnormal circulation of lymph fluid into the pleural cavity, is the most common cause of pleural effusions during the neonatal period. This condition affects 1/15,000 neonates every year. Affected neonates often manifest with respiratory distress, electrolyte imbalances, sepsis, and even immunodeficiencies. Mortality risk is highest among neonates undergoing cardiac surgery as well as those with associated hydrops fetalis. Conservative treatment options include bowel rest with administration of parenteral nutrition, followed with medium-chain triglyceride enteral feedings, and octreotide therapy. Severe or persistent cases require surgical intervention. This can involve a unilateral or bilateral pleurectomy and thoracic duct ligation, with or without pleurodesis. Early identification and successful treatment of this condition is contingent upon awareness of the most current evidence and a timely cross-disciplinary approach to care.
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- Go to article: Employer Practices in Improving Employment Outcomes for People With Disabilities: A Transdisciplinary and Employer-Inclusive Research Approach
Employer Practices in Improving Employment Outcomes for People With Disabilities: A Transdisciplinary and Employer-Inclusive Research Approach
Objective: Share new knowledge about workplace practices related to employer success in hiring, retaining, and promoting people with disabilities, and promote use of findings to employers and service providers.
Design: A transdisciplinary and multifaceted data gathering approach.
Results: Provides an overview of the research approach taken and the strengths regarding this approach.
Conclusions: The significance of findings for rehabilitation researchers and policy makers focused on improving employment outcomes for people with disabilities, for rehabilitation counselor educators preparing future service providers, and for practicing professionals providing services to individuals with disabilities and consultation to employers regarding disability issues, are presented.
- Go to article: Maternal Obesity and Breastfeeding A Review of the Evidence and Implications for Practice
A myriad of factors influence the sub-optimal breastfeeding rates in the U.S. Among these factors is maternal obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2), which has been found to negatively impact breastfeeding initiation and duration for some women. Obesity increases women’s risk for various complications throughout the perinatal period, which may impact breastfeeding and the long-term health and well-being of women and their children. However, adequate lactation support that upholds a respectful consciousness regarding the potential breastfeeding challenges of women with obesity can assist these women to successfully meet their breastfeeding goals. This review summarizes the literature on the impact of maternal BMI on breastfeeding duration, and maternal and infant risk factors that may complicate lactation for women with obesity. Recommendations for assessing and supporting the needs of mothers with obesity to best achieve their breastfeeding goals are provided.Source:
- Go to article: Mitigating Infant Medical Trauma in the NICU: Skin-to-Skin Contact as a Trauma-Informed, Age-Appropriate Best Practice
Mitigating Infant Medical Trauma in the NICU: Skin-to-Skin Contact as a Trauma-Informed, Age-Appropriate Best Practice
Infant medical trauma in the NICU is associated with serious and lasting consequences. Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) of infants with their parents is a nursing intervention that provides significant benefits and can mitigate the negative consequences of the infant’s traumatic experiences in the NICU. The purpose of this article is to explain how SSC aligns with the concept of trauma-informed age-appropriate care (TIAAC) in the NICU. The evidence supporting SSC will be reviewed and discussed using TIAAC as a framework. SSC is an effective and evidence-based care strategy that reduces the infant’s traumatic NICU experiences by improving parental proximity, attachment, and lactation; decreasing stress and pain; improving physiologic stability; supporting sleep; and enhancing neurologic outcomes.
Maintenance of electrolyte balance in the neonate is challenging in the context of illness or prematurity. Imbalances in potassium and phosphorus can occur in neonates, ranging from benign and clinically insignificant to those that can be life-threatening. An individualized approach to fluid and electrolyte management is based on the neonate’s gestational age, day of life, maintenance needs, deficits, and ongoing losses. This article reviews normal and abnormal potassium and phosphorus values along with management strategies. Using a case scenario, the reader can apply concepts outlined in this article to management of critically ill neonates with electrolyte disturbances.
After losing an infant, grieving mothers may still have to cope with postpartum issues, including lactation. This article reviews and addresses care options for lactation concerns after pregnancy, neonatal, or infant loss. Currently, lactation care and advice after loss varies greatly. Lactation consultants are instrumental in providing mothers with anticipatory guidance and evidence-based care. Implementing system-wide training and education regarding this topic will help families receive the information they need to deal with the physiological aftermath of infant loss.Source:
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common genetic disorder in Caucasian individuals, with an incidence of 1/2,500–3,500 live births. When CF was first described in 1938, most children died in infancy. Currently, the average lifespan is 28–47.7 years. Although new breakthroughs have occurred, CF is still incurable. Both early diagnosis and treatment by multidisciplinary teams are essential to optimize short- and long-term outcomes. It is imperative for neonatal clinicians to keep up to date on the most current research, treatment, and management of CF to provide the best outcomes. This article offers clinicians an updated review of the pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of CF, as well as current evidence-based diagnostics and treatment regimens.
The “golden hour” is the critically important first 60 minutes in an extremely low birth weight neonate’s life that can impact both short- and long-term outcomes. The golden hour concept involves several competing stabilization priorities that should be conducted systematically by highly specialized health care providers in both the hospital and transport settings for improvement in patient outcomes. Current literature supports utilizing an experienced team in the golden hour process to improve patient outcomes through standardization, improved efficiency, and positive team dynamics. Although a variety of teaching methods exist to train individuals in the care of extremely low birth weight infants, the literature supports the incorporation of low- or high-fidelity simulation-based training. In addition, initial and ongoing educational requirements of individuals caring for a golden hour-eligible infant in the immediate post-delivery phase, as well as ongoing care in the days and weeks to follow, are justified. Instituting standard golden hour educational requirements on an ongoing basis provides improved efficiency in team function and patient outcomes. The goal of this literature review was to determine whether implementation of golden hour response teams in both the inpatient and transport setting has shown improved outcomes and should be considered for neonatal intensive care units admitting or transporting golden hour eligible infants.
Despite advances in perinatal care in the past decade, sepsis and its complications continue to present problems for the neonate, remaining a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Sepsis research is focusing on how the neonate (host) responds to bacteria. The newborn may develop a systemic reaction to bacteria that induces the release of substances known as inflammatory mediators. Termed the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), this reaction is believed to be responsible for the signs and symptoms of sepsis. This article introduces the neonatal nurse to SIRS, providing an overview of various inflammatory mediators and cytokines, their clinical consequences, and potential new therapies in the management of SIRS.
Cloacal exstrophy is an extremely rare and devastating complex of congenital abnormalities resulting in multiple debilitating morbidities. Infants with this disorder require numerous surgical interventions to repair gastrointestinal, genitourinary, spinal, and orthopedic malformations. Treatment involves the combined efforts of many medical and nursing specialists. This article discusses the embryology, clinical presentation, and management (both early and long term) of cloacal exstrophy, with emphasis on gender reassignment issues and quality of life.