This introduction presents an overview of key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book illustrates the process for the evaluation of student learning. It provides the tools necessary to create effective student-learning objectives, including the use of Bloom’s taxonomy. These objectives provide the framework for creating course evaluation methods that measure your students’ achievements toward those student-learning objectives. The book establishes an evaluation plan and designs assignments clearly linked to the course’s student-learning objectives. It discusses methods for writing an assignment description that aid the student in understanding the reason for the assignment and promotes student success. The book differentiates types of rubrics and provides a process for developing rubrics that can be used to clarify assignment expectations and to effectively score student work products for formative or summative evaluation purposes. It also examines concepts fundamental to assessment and evaluation of student achievement of learning objectives.
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The goal or desired outcome of any nursing program is to graduate competent nurses who are prepared to provide safe care and participate fully in an ever-changing and increasingly complex health care system. A faculty committed to practice excellence and a curriculum that is focused on student-learning outcomes and objectives support this goal. This chapter discusses the effective development of student-learning outcomes and objectives related to the teaching-learning process and the design phase of curriculum development, with an emphasis on the differences between student-learning outcomes and objectives. It presents the classification of outcomes and objectives using Bloom’s taxonomy, and their effective development and implementation across all levels of the teaching-learning-assessment process, especially the student evaluation process. Bloom’s taxonomy is a popular categorization scheme that can aid the nurse educator to write clear and effective student-learning objectives and outcomes in the three distinct yet overlapping learning domains: cognitive, psychomotor, and affective.
Assignments designed by educators for evaluation of learning need to be worth the student’s time and energy to complete, and people’s time and energy to grade. This chapter shows how to select alternative evaluation methods to match the domain and level of learning objectives and also shows how to appreciate the value of a variety of methods that allow for fair evaluation of students’ achievement of course learning objectives. It develops an evaluation plan with a variety of evaluation methods that is effective in the evaluation of the course learning objectives. The chapter designs an assignment description to increase student learning and improve a student’s chance for success in producing an exemplary work product. It describes a process to involve students in the peer evaluation of group assignments so that students earn grades according to their contribution as well as the quality of a work product.
As educators, the establishment of student-learning outcomes and methods of evaluation of the achievement of these outcomes are crucial aspects of the educational process. This chapter describes the importance of using scoring rubrics to ensure objectivity and consistency in grading assignments. It develops a scoring rubric for selected assignments using a step-by-step approach. The chapter shows how to utilize a scoring rubric to objectively score assignments. It provides valuable feedback to students regarding achievement of student-learning objectives through assignments. The chapter includes a description of types of rubrics and why and how to use a rubric. It presents examples of a scoring sheet, a holistic rubric, and an analytic rubric for the same assignment to allow a comparison of increasing guidance for educator and student. The chapter also includes a step-by-step process toward the development and use of scoring rubrics by educators and students.
Assessment and evaluation are processes fundamental to planning and measuring student learning. This chapter shows how to differentiate between assessment and evaluation, to collect data for evaluation. Assessment data assist the educator in identifying learning needs and progress, and provide direction for learning experiences. The chapter evaluates student achievement of the course student-learning objectives. The evaluation can be formative or summative. The chapter also shows how to select a course of action based on formative or summative evaluation results. It provides meaningful feedback to students regarding achievement of learning objectives and identifies barriers to meaningful student evaluation. The chapter assigns student grades reflective of the level of achievement of student-learning objectives. It reviews perspectives and considerations with respect to the meaning and process of grading assignments and assigning a course grade. Finally, the chapter discusses ethical considerations for evaluation and grading.
Educators frequently use papers as written assignments throughout the curriculum for evaluation of student achievement of learning objectives. Papers are a vehicle for professional communication that require presentation of original, scholarly learning through a working knowledge of grammar, sentence structure, format, and style. Papers can vary in scope, focus, complexity, and presentation and thus are categorized as major and minor paper assignments. A major paper is distinguished from a minor paper by the increased depth and complexity required for successful completion. This chapter focuses on major papers and essay-type minor paper assignments for evaluation of student-learning objectives. It describes reasons to use papers for evaluation and differentiates between major and minor written paper assignments. The chapter designs a clear assignment description for major and minor papers. It examines prerequisite knowledge and/or resources required by students for major and minor papers and develops a scoring rubric for major and minor papers.
Nurse educators frequently use presentation assignments either as a teaching/learning strategy or as a method of evaluation. This chapter focuses on student evaluation of either individual or student group presentations, which may be delivered either in class or online. Presentations are excellent synthesis assignments and allow students to show innovation and creativity. The chapter describes reasons to use presentations for evaluation and designs a clear assignment description for presentations for evaluation. It examines prerequisite knowledge and/or resources required by students for a presentation assignment. The chapter provides a presentation assignment of online courses, including how to use the narration option of PowerPoint. It discusses best practices for the use of PowerPoint for presentations and also provides a scoring rubric for a presentation assignment. The chapter considers the involvement of students in the peer evaluation of presentations.
The inclusion of participation in evaluation plans for college courses is controversial. There is a clear difference between attendance and participation. This chapter helps nursing students to describe reasons to use participation for evaluation and discusses methods to encourage participation. Participation refers to the contribution of the student to class discussion and other class activities. The chapter helps nursing students to design a clear assignment description for participation for evaluation and examine prerequisite knowledge and/or resources required by students for participation. It helps nursing students to develop a scoring rubric for participation. While using class preparation and participation in summative evaluation is controversial, it is very common and most college courses include participation in the evaluation plan. With the inclusion of participation in summative evaluation, efforts must be made to clearly communicate expectations to students and to design the learning environment to allow all students to participate.
Nurse educators in online or blended courses frequently use discussion board threaded discussion as either a substitute or a supplement to course discussion in a face-to-face classroom. This chapter focuses on the evaluation of student participation through online discussion board assignments. The use of discussion board assignments as a teaching/learning strategy and evaluation method is explored. The chapter presents the five phases of discussion board assignment design and development. It describes reasons for the use of a discussion board for evaluation. In online asynchronous course content delivery, class communication and student participation methods vary widely. The chapter designs a clear assignment description for threaded discussion through a discussion board for evaluation. It provides prerequisite knowledge and/or resources required by students for effective use of a discussion board for evaluation and a scoring rubric for a discussion board assignment.
Educators frequently use reflective journals as a teaching/learning strategy and a method of formative and summative evaluation with students in undergraduate and graduate settings. They may be used as an assignment in didactic or clinical courses to enhance translation of content into real-world experiences and facilitate critical-thinking skills. Reflective journals are one of the few assignments that support affective learning and promote development of life-long, self-directed learning. This chapter describes reasons to use reflective journaling for evaluation and designs a clear assignment description for a reflective journal assignment for evaluation. The purpose of a reflective journal is to stimulate deep learning and critical self-reflection and analysis for personal and professional growth. The chapter presents prerequisite knowledge and/or resources required by students for quality reflective journals. It also shows how to guide students using various media for reflective journals and a scoring rubric for evaluation of reflective journals.