This article explores the applicability of the Doctor of Nursing Practice degree from the Australian nurse practitioner (NP) perspective. NPs have been endorsed to practice in Australia for more than 13 years in many diverse roles requiring education beyond that of the current master’s level. However, there is little formal university training beyond this level. Current regulatory requirements, clinical practice settings, and the small number of NPs practicing do not provide the impetus to expand NP education requirements at this time.
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The self-complexity model (Linville, 1987) predicts that individuals who have numerous self-aspects with little overlap among them will be buffered against the effects of stressful life events and will experience less depression. Despite some evidence to this effect, many replication attempts have failed (cf. Rafaeli-Mor & Steinberg, 2002). The present studies reexamine the self-complexity model, incorporating recent theoretical and methodological critiques of its original formulation (e.g., Brown, Hammen, Wickens, & Craske, 1995; Rafaeli-Mor, Gotlib, & Revelle, 1999). Two prospective studies provide some support for a revised self-complexity hypothesis, which examines separately the effects of differentiation (number of self-aspects) and integration (overlap among them) and considers more carefully the role of stress.
Adults’ recollections of how often they were teased as children are positively associated with their social anxiety symptoms. It has therefore been suggested that childhood teasing may play a role in the development of social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, existing studies have not determined whether adults with SAD were actually teased more as children or whether their current symptoms have distorted their memories of childhood events. This study examined reports of childhood teasing in adults with SAD before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). If recollections of childhood teasing are colored by SAD symptoms, then reported frequency of teasing might be more likely to decrease as symptoms improve after CBT. However, if individuals’ memories of teasing are unbiased, they should not substantially change with the reduction of symptoms after CBT. Ninety-one participants with SAD completed the Teasing Questionnaire-Revised (TQ-R) before and after 12 sessions of group CBT. CBT was effective in reducing SAD symptoms, whereas recollections of the frequency of childhood teasing did not change significantly after treatment. These results are consistent with the possibility that recollections of childhood teasing are not substantially biased by symptoms of SAD, and they lend support to previous studies which suggest that adults with SAD endured higher frequencies of teasing as children compared to controls.
- Go to article: Maternal Obesity and Breastfeeding A Review of the Evidence and Implications for Practice
A myriad of factors influence the sub-optimal breastfeeding rates in the U.S. Among these factors is maternal obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2), which has been found to negatively impact breastfeeding initiation and duration for some women. Obesity increases women’s risk for various complications throughout the perinatal period, which may impact breastfeeding and the long-term health and well-being of women and their children. However, adequate lactation support that upholds a respectful consciousness regarding the potential breastfeeding challenges of women with obesity can assist these women to successfully meet their breastfeeding goals. This review summarizes the literature on the impact of maternal BMI on breastfeeding duration, and maternal and infant risk factors that may complicate lactation for women with obesity. Recommendations for assessing and supporting the needs of mothers with obesity to best achieve their breastfeeding goals are provided.Source:
- Go to article: Doctor of Nursing Practice Practice Improvement Project: A Simulation-Based Emergency Preparedness Program in Immediate Care
Doctor of Nursing Practice Practice Improvement Project: A Simulation-Based Emergency Preparedness Program in Immediate Care
This practice improvement project was aimed at implementing a simulation-based education program at an immediate care clinic to better prepare staff for emergency situations and to determine whether simulation-based training could positively impact the confidence of participating staff members. Six staff members participated in a 2-phase program. The first phase included an educational component with practice mock code scenarios, whereas the second phase consisted of a spontaneous mock code drill 2 weeks later. Results revealed significant differences in participants’ overall reported comfort and confidence levels (percentages) in performing during a medical emergency pre- and postprogram. In addition, when individual skills were evaluated, there was a significant increase in participants’ comfort in initiating cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), confidence in performing bag-to-mouth ventilation, and confidence in following basic life support guidelines during emergency situations. Findings suggest that a simulation-based learning program in immediate care can enhance the confidence of staff members in responding to emergent situations.Source:
Anxiety sensitivity (AS) has been identified as a contributing factor to the development and maintenance of anxiety. Individuals with high AS are sensitive to bodily cues and anxiety-related thoughts and often misinterpret these stimuli as catastrophic or dangerous. Similarly, negative and positive metacognitive beliefs (i.e., beliefs about thinking) are believed to increase internal threat monitoring and the use of maladaptive coping strategies, which may increase the impact of AS on anxiety. As such, the purpose of the present study was to examine the moderating role of metacognitive beliefs on the relationship between anxiety sensitivity and anxiety. Adult participants (N = 417), recruited through an online crowdsourcing website, completed a battery of measures assessing the constructs of interest. Results from multiple linear regression indicated that the relationship between AS and anxiety became significantly stronger as negative and positive metacognitive beliefs increased, thus suggesting that negative and positive metacognitive beliefs may exacerbate the effect of AS on anxiety. The development of risk profiles that incorporate AS and negative and positive metacognitive beliefs may be beneficial for early identification of individuals at high risk for the development of anxiety.
This article describes the specific cognitive behavioral techniques that were employed to treat a client with a 20-year history of compulsive water drinking. It is suggested that working with client’s placement of attention is necessary, especially when there are no ‘thoughts’ to debate with.
After losing an infant, grieving mothers may still have to cope with postpartum issues, including lactation. This article reviews and addresses care options for lactation concerns after pregnancy, neonatal, or infant loss. Currently, lactation care and advice after loss varies greatly. Lactation consultants are instrumental in providing mothers with anticipatory guidance and evidence-based care. Implementing system-wide training and education regarding this topic will help families receive the information they need to deal with the physiological aftermath of infant loss.Source:
- Go to article: The Integrated Neuropsychological Therapy: A Psychotherapy Model Tying Neuropsychology and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
The Integrated Neuropsychological Therapy: A Psychotherapy Model Tying Neuropsychology and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is based on the identification of dysfunctional processes and intervention principles shared across psychopathology. From a neuropsychological perspective, deficits of executive functions and social cognition have been identified as common mechanisms involved in the genesis and maintenance of different psychopathological disorders. The present article describes a new psychotherapy model, the integrated neuropsychological therapy (INPT), built on the principles of transdiagnostic CBT and neuropsychology. Case formulation is operationalized into three levels of functioning, that is, automatic, reflective, and strategic, considering both neuropsychological processes and clinical contents. Treatment planning involves three phases, that is, preparation, enhancement, and change, each consisting of different treatment modules defined according to the above levels of functioning. These modules are selected based on the patient’s profile defined during case formulation. The theoretical foundations of INPT are provided, and a case description is presented, which illustrates the implementation of the treatment model.
The article describes Tools of the Mind—an instructional program developed 25 years ago and now implemented in a variety of early childhood settings across the United States and in Canada. Based on the principles of cultural-historical psychology, this program addresses developmental and learning needs of young children by offering a comprehensive curriculum and by delivering professional development for early childhood educators. The article provides examples of how Vygotskian and post-Vygotskian ideas get embodied in Tools of the Mind instructional strategies with a special emphasis on make-believe play as a leading activity for preschool- and kindergarten-aged children. The authors discuss the results of several evaluation studies conducted on Tools and how these results helped to shape the current state of the program.