This chapter provides a basic introduction of research design based on the question or goal to be accomplished by the research. Statistical significance has an interesting history and is a horribly misunderstood term. Fisherian statistics has a very different approach to statistical testing. More recently, though, there has been a resurgence of Bayesian analysis across a wide variety of fields such as business, education, finance, and sociology. There is a host of numeric studies that analyze numbers, and these are separated into experimental and nonexperimental studies. Experiments are quite popular and some call them the “gold standard” of research. There are main core types of content in surveys that motivation researchers desire: demographic, knowledge, behavioral, and attitudinal. Ethnography arose primarily out of the cultural and social anthropological fields, which studied both how culture affected behavior and how cultural processes evolved over time.
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Positive psychology falls within the perspective of humanism (or humanistic psychology) but is different because it focuses on testing ideas. Abraham Maslow had arguably the most well-known view of growth motivation because his concept appears in countless psychology and educational psychology textbooks. Optimism is an area that has an interesting past and has quite a cast of characters over time. Most recent, optimism has been viewed as a cognitive characteristic, but not just plain cognition because there is an emotional component to it. There are two types of happy in the motivation world. The first is hedonic, which focuses on the experience of pleasure, avoiding problems, and having a relaxed and good life. The second, eudaemonic happiness, focuses on three areas: wealth and materialism, attachment, and personal goals. Youth activities that promote positive development do have solid longitudinal research showing their effects.
Cultural research can tell us about the uniqueness of a culture, usually through amazing ethnographies. Comparative research can tell us about cultural similarities. A large body of cross-cultural studies in motivation uses surveys that have been adapted from one language to another. Though many models assume cultural invariance, most have tried to understand their models across cultures in order to understand the models’ strengths and weaknesses. Operant conditioning has specific assumptions that it is a universal model. Intrinsic motivation is one of the more interesting motivation topics culturally. Self-esteem is an area of cross-cultural research in which the question of the self matters. In general, Weiner views the causal parts of the attribution model—locus, stability, and control— and their relationship to self-esteem, expectancy of success, and the effects of guilt, shame, anger, and sympathy and their influence on action or behavior as near universal principles across cultures.
This chapter starts with a global definition of motivation: an internal state that arouses people to action, moves them in particular directions, and keeps people engaged in certain activities. Motivation is not a learning theory, but it affects what people learn. Classical conditioning, think Pavlov’s dogs is a learning theory and motivation has essentially no role in it. The chapter provides an overview of early theories of motivation, starting with Aristotle. Compulsion occurs when people feel that they must act, even though they may not wish to act in a particular way. For ancient Greek philosophers, hedonism meant pleasure is to exceed pain over the long haul, thereby acknowledging life will not always be pleasurable. The James–Lange theory involves motivation from an emotional perspective. Behaviorism is hard to describe mainly because most people have a misunderstanding of two of its elements: punishment and reinforcement.
This book helps in understanding motivation from a perspective of basic knowledge, provides a bit of the schema set that a motivation researcher brings to these situations and offers some guidance in one or more motivational models. Chapter 1 begins with a global definition of motivation. Motivation is not a learning theory, but it affects what people learn. The second chapter talks about topics related to incentives, rewards, reinforcers, and punishers using the operant-conditioning framework. Self-determination theory (SDT) is a large-scale model for motivation, and allows for the discussion of social development, individual differences, and cultural factors that can assist or impede a person’s progress. Needs can be thought of as arising from three categories: physiological, psychological and social needs. The sheer “motivation” for paying attention in class and working on material in class concerning physiological needs is impressive. Individuals have beliefs and judgments about their ability to successfully complete an activity or task, which can be termed as expectations. Additionally, people also have a value system associated with the expectation. Goals are important and goal setting is crucial for moving forward. Long-term goals are better suited for increasing intrinsic motivation. Chapter 7 describes several focused theories within the thematic concept of self-evaluation or self-judgment. Positive psychology falls within the perspective of humanism but focuses on testing ideas. Optimism has been viewed as a cognitive characteristic with an emotional component to it.
This chapter is about “the self” and how people think about their successes and failures. It describes several focused theories within the thematic concept of self-evaluation or self-judgment. For example, attribution theory examines how an individual attributes success and failure across activities. Self-efficacy focuses on the original concept of one’s belief in the ability to successfully complete a task. Attribution theory seeks to predict expectancy and emotions by examining individuals’ causal attributions in attempting to make sense of their related performances in many achievement-related instances. A major reason for using attribution theory as a framework is that it addresses two important components of achievement motivation that are relevant to collaborative contexts: expectancy for success and emotions. In general, there is a small relationship between self-concept and school success. Self-efficacy is a vibrant research area in education, business, sports, and across cultures.
Individuals have beliefs and judgments about their ability to successfully complete an activity or task. In the motivation world, people call these expectations. In addition to expectations, people also have a value system associated with the expectation. Modern versions of expectancy value (EV) are still descendants of Atkinson’s work and are based on achievement performance, persistence, and choice. Within the task-value beliefs there are four components: attainment value, intrinsic (interest enjoyment) value, utility value, and cost. There are emotional components to success and failure or even the expectancy of the two. In addition to the poor performance, people tend to try and avoid making a mistake, quit early, and lose interest rapidly. This pattern, fear of failure leading to performance-avoidance goals, leads to poor adjustment skills and anxiety. Related to the performance and mastery concepts is an implicit theory of intelligence.
Needs can be thought of as arising from three categories: physiological, psychological and social needs. The sheer “motivation” for paying attention in class and working on material in class concerning physiological needs is impressive. The relationship between physiological arousal and psychological desire is low for females. Females’ sexual desire is highly associated with relationship factors such as intimacy. Neurological responses occur simultaneously with our physiological responses. Addictions receive a great deal of attention in research and in motivation. Related, and Depending on the drug, there is a drug tolerance that is built up over time. Hypersexual behavior disorder can create personal and interpersonal distress for individuals. Internet sex addiction or cybersex can be thought of as having the same definition as hypersexual behavior because of the negative effects it has on personal and interpersonal relations.
This chapter discusses some of the reasons why one cannot blindly trust their own brain and proves that doubt is not just a good thing, but a necessary thing. It focuses on how humans naturally misperceive and misevaluate the data they are exposed to, especially in the case of ambiguous information. The chapter addresses the concept of bounded rationality, which describes how our pattern-recognition abilities and motivation to find reasons for events that occur in the world around us yields multiple benefits for our species, evolutionarily speaking, while resulting in particular problems with evaluating information. It examines how using mental shortcuts can be more cognitively efficient, but again results in bias when presented with new or inconsistent information. The chapter describes some of the well-researched and common biases/heuristics people encounter as humans: confirmation bias; belief perseverance; hindsight bias; representativeness heuristic; availability heuristic; and anchoring and adjustment heuristics.