This chapter defines emerging disabilities; explores medical, psychosocial, and vocational implications of emerging disabilities that distinguish them from traditional disabilities; and provides demographic characteristics of individuals who are most vulnerable to acquiring emerging disabilities. It examines some social and environmental trends that have contributed to the development of emerging patterns and types of disabilities including advances in medicine and assistive technology, globalization, climate change, poverty, violence and trauma, the aging American populace, and disability legislation. Psychological and physical trauma from warfare, violent crime, intimate partner violence, and youth violence can result in permanent physical, cognitive, and psychiatric disabilities. Diagnostic uncertainties, misdiagnoses, and skepticism on the part of medical providers are frequently associated with emerging disabilities. Women also represent a population that is at an increased risk of acquiring emerging disabilities and chronic illnesses. Rehabilitation systems are still not fully prepared to address the multifaceted needs of individuals with emerging disabilities.
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This chapter discusses various types of violence and their impact on human health, functioning, and onset of physical and psychiatric disabilities, and identifies approaches and programs for treating individuals who have sustained disabilities from violent acts. It examines populations that are most vulnerable to violence, and explores trauma-informed approaches to providing services to these clients in all phases of the rehabilitation counseling process. Military sexual trauma (MST) is heavily confounded by military culture, making the decision to report sexual trauma extremely difficult. The functional limitations associated with disabilities acquired through violence can substantially impair survivor’s ability to achieve and maintain competitive employment. Outreach may be particularly necessary to inform individuals with violence-related disabilities about rehabilitation services. Frain et al. emphasized the importance of training in self-management techniques for veterans because they tend to have poor self-management skills.
This chapter discusses issues of power, the cycle of violence, learned helplessness (LH), the battered woman syndrome (BWS), and reasons victims stay in abusive relationships. Violence within intimate relationships can be understood as one partner gaining power over the other partner with the use of coercive and controlling tactics. Such tactics may be reinforced with physical and/or sexual violence. Battered women who acquire LH tend to be at high risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD); their development of LH is associated not only with their abusive situation but also with past difficult life circumstances. The dynamics of domestic violence are so complex that it is difficult for most people to understand why a woman living in an abusive relationship does not simply leave. Many of the common explanations for why victims stay are myths.
Practitioners in the helping professions (e.g., nursing, social work, psychology) often serve perpetrators and survivors of interpersonal violence, and many are asked to make predictions about the likelihood of future violence. Knowledge about risk and risk factors is increasingly expected in courts, clinics, conference rooms, shelters, hospital emergency rooms, child protective service offices, schools, research settings, batterer intervention programs, parenting programs, domestic violence advocacy programs, and child abuse and intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention programs. This book reviews what is generally known about the prediction of violent behavior and then discusses implications for the prediction of interpersonal violence. It addresses the specific variables involved in the prediction of child abuse and neglect, child fatalities (including those that occur within the context of IPV), IPV, and femicide. This book represents the most current research, trends, and professional viewpoints regarding the prediction of interpersonal violence. It discusses in greater depth challenges with assessment measures and factors used to predict future violence. It is clear, however, that assessments of risk for future violence are improved when appropriately administered, psychometrically sound risk assessment scales are used. Furthermore, practitioners need to couple these objective measures with information collected on the characteristics of the perpetrator, the perpetrator’s relationship to the victim, the victim’s assessment of risk, the practitioner’s experience and judgment, and context-specific factors (e.g., poverty, unemployment, discrimination, social support).
This chapter focuses on the effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on victims of diverse cultural backgrounds and/or at-risk populations who suffer social and economic injustices. It presents the barriers experienced by victims who are members of diverse populations, including those who are impoverished, older, living in rural areas, same-gender couples, living with disabilities, immigrants, Asian American, African American, Hispanic, Native American, and veterans returning from war. States that adopt the Family Violence Option (FVO) can establish programs, exemptions, and waivers to assist battered women. Persons who recruit women into the sex industry are known to social workers and law enforcement as controllers, traffickers, and pimps. Without performing proper screening to identify victims of sex trafficking, law enforcement may arrest victims under other prostitution statutes and subject them to further trauma. When members of at-risk and diverse populations are also victims of domestic violence, they live in multiple jeopardy.
This chapter reviews the characteristics and typologies of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators as well as methods to determine their level of lethality and motivation to change. Many perpetrators are treated in batterer intervention programs (BIP) which attempt to change their cognitive and behavioral patterns, thus discontinuing their abusive acts. Many perpetrators have a history of child abuse. They may have been physically, sexually, or emotionally abused, have witnessed IPV, or have been maltreated in some other manner. Substance abuse may also co-occur with IPV. Some researchers suggest that substance abuse is involved in anywhere from 20 to 80 of domestic violence cases. Although most traditional research and the literature addressing IPV between heterosexual couples focuses on female victims and male perpetrators, increasingly men are being recognized as the victims of female perpetrators.
In 1976, to protect victims from partner violence, some US courts began issuing orders of protection by 1989, all 50 states and the District of Columbia had legislation authorizing these orders. The 1994 Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) enabled federal courts to prosecute intimate partner violence (IPV) crimes across interstate lines, including violations of civil protection orders, as well as to impose enhanced sentences on defendants convicted of federal crimes. This chapter addresses orders of protection, the process for obtaining them, the debate as to their effectiveness, mandatory arrest, no-drop policies, and social workers’ responsibilities within the criminal justice system. Social workers can run batterer intervention programs (BIP) which assist perpetrators in changing their attitudes and behaviors toward intimate partners. If perpetrators successfully complete the programs, they can avoid further retribution including jail, removal of firearms, and fines.
This chapter focuses primarily on filicides in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV). Historically, in these cases, children have often been seen to be corollary victims and often the potential risks to them have been ignored or minimized. IPV risk assessment is focused on the potential risk of harm to adult victims rather than the children. The chapter focuses on the risk of serious harm that children face when they live with IPV. Drawing from emerging research, it reviews findings about risk factors with a specific focus on IPV, and explores the effectiveness of current tools and assessment strategies in preventing child homicides related to IPV. Child homicides that occur in the chapter appear to differ from ones that are specifically child maltreatment related in terms of perpetrators’ motives.
This chapter discusses how the criminal justice system treats battered women over the past 40 years. In the United States, advocates who began working with battered women in the 1980s believed that the most important step to end threats of violence was to punish the batterer and hold him accountable for his misconduct. To do this the legal system had to be encouraged to take action whenever domestic violence was raised. A study of the needs for victims of intimate partner violence commissioned for the Colorado legislature found that over two thirds of the women in prison stated that they had been abuse victims. Other areas of the civil rights laws have also been used to better protect battered women. The gender bias, including sexism and racism, for women coming before the criminal justice system continues to make it difficult for women to seek safety and protection.
Attachment theory provides a rich conceptual framework for understanding issues that arise in intimate partner violence (IPV) that have not been well studied in adults. Attachment was initially conceived as a neurobiological-based need for the purpose of safety and survival. Moreover, through the attachment process individuals develop an internalized set of beliefs about the self and others, known as “internal working models”. In adult relationships, attachment processes are activated by way of a cognitive-affective-behavioral triad. Woman who engage in the commercial sex industry have a much higher risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. An interesting phenomenon that ties use of pornography on the Internet together with the sexual abuse of women and children has been found in the legal community. It is known that early sexualization of children may cause interpersonal difficulties that may make it more difficult to recognize the cycle of violence engaged in by the batterer.
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has conducted studies about adverse health conditions and health risk behaviors in those who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). The high numbers of women who report childhood abuse and IPV and receive no assistance in healing from the psychological effects obviously will be seen in medical clinics, often too late to stop a disease process that might have been prevented had their posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) responses been dealt with earlier. One of the most negative and lasting effects of IPV on women appears to be the impact on the women’s body image, which is related to their self-esteem. Although the health care system has attempted to deal with battered women, in fact both the structure and function are not set up to be helpful, especially when chronic illnesses are exacerbated by environmental stressors such as living with domestic violence.
This chapter analyzes the murder-suicide cases through a review of the newspaper reports of murder-suicides in the five major regions of the state of Florida. Guns in the home are the predominant weapons used in the murder-suicides in the United States. In countries where guns are not as accessible in the home, such as Great Britain, there is a lower murder and suicide rate. Jacqueline Campbell suggests that domestic violence is implicated in premature deaths of women from aggravated health conditions such as strokes, heart attacks, and other major illnesses that occur after being choked or strangled. The chapter also presents some murder-suicide case and self-defense case studies of women such as Ed and Linda, Nancy Kissell, Catherine Pileggi and Nellie Mae Madison. A recent study in Chicago offered some new information about the neuropsychological profile of men who killed an intimate partner as compared to those who kill others.
Battered women themselves are terrified about being labeled with a mental illness especially since so many are threatened into silence by their batterers who tell them that everyone will think they are “crazy”. While health service providers are now better trained in identification of both health and mental health needs of battered women and their children, there is still little understanding of what to do after identification. The Public Health Model for community distribution of health and mental health services may be a way to conceptualize all of the health services that battered women need to have in place for both prevention and intervention. The legal system also contributes to the primary prevention and intervention with women who are victims of intimate partner violence. Secondary prevention programs attempt to use the early identification of domestic violence victims as a way to prevent the development of further psychological and physical injuries.
- Go to article: Idealization and Maladaptive Positive Emotion: EMDR Therapy for Women Who Are Ambivalent About Leaving an Abusive Partner
Idealization and Maladaptive Positive Emotion: EMDR Therapy for Women Who Are Ambivalent About Leaving an Abusive Partner
After ensuring safety, treatment of victims of intimate partner violence is typically focused on the adverse and traumatizing experiences and related negative emotions. In addition, in many cases, idealization of the perpetrator and maladaptive positive emotion are initial elements that also need to be taken into account. The concept of dysfunctionally stored information described in the adaptive information processing model can be viewed as being broader in nature than maladaptive negative emotions from memories for adverse experiences and can include dysfunctional defenses such as maladaptive positive emotion and idealized life experiences. Self-defeating, dysfunctional, and unrealistic idealization in a relationship can be treated through targeting, with focused sets of bilateral stimulation, specific positive affect memories that are the origin of the distorted idealization. In this way, the client is able to develop adaptive resolution, that is, a more accurate perception of both past events and the present nature of the relationship. This approach to targeting idealization defenses is illustrated with 3 case examples of women who were ambivalent about leaving a highly abusive partner.
- Go to article: EMDR for Survivors of Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence at a Nonprofit Counseling Agency
Trauma related to sexual violence and intimate partner violence (IPV) affects millions of women, resulting in detrimental impacts to economic, physical, and mental health. Survivors are often subjected to repeated acts of violence or abuse, compounding the trauma and its effects. Participants in this mixed-methods research study included 41 women who experienced trauma related to sexual violence or IPV and were seeking counseling services at a nonprofit community agency. Quantitative assessment of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through validated measures showed statistically significant improvement in all areas after eight sessions of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Qualitative analysis through semi-structured individual interviews revealed improvements in assertiveness, self-control, functionality, and self-acceptance. Increasing access to EMDR across underserved communities, which are disproportionately affected by trauma, is discussed.
- Go to article: Restorative Justice Approaches to Intimate Partner Violence: A Review of Interventions
Domestic violence, and specifically, violence against intimate partners, has generated a large research literature in the last few decades, particularly in the area of policy and community response and intervention. However, less attention has been given to the use of more innovative approaches in such situations, namely the use of restorative justice (RJ) interventions for intimate partner violence (IPV). The aim of this review is to provide a general overview of how RJ approaches have been utilized in the context of IPV, systematically examine the available literature on RJ approaches to IPV, describe the interventions that have been developed and empirically tested, and synthesize the findings. This review summarizes existing empirical research and literature on RJ interventions for IPV. APA PsychNet, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, Embase, Medline PubMed, PsychInfo, PTSD Publications, SCOPUS, Social Services Abstracts, Social Work Reference Center, SocINDEX, Sociological Abstracts, and Web of Science were systematically searched for English-language publications with no restrictions on the year of publication. As a result, 14 articles and 5 book chapters (empirical studies and reviews) on interventions were included in this review. Synthesized findings highlight the awareness and meaning of RJ, significance of community, goals and outcomes of RJ, timing of program implementation, and what types of IPV cases are best suited for RJ. Additionally, the review describes current research gaps as well as the challenges and barriers of implementing RJ interventions.
- Go to article: Intimate Partner Violence in Transgender Couples: “Power and Control” in a Specific Cultural Context
Intimate Partner Violence in Transgender Couples: “Power and Control” in a Specific Cultural Context
Applying a “power and control” lens to high-stakes conflicts involving a trans1 person and their intimate partner can both illuminate and distort the true picture of what is going on. This article discusses 6 ways in which discriminatory societal structures and/or cultural beliefs specific to trans people and their families can be wielded as power and control weapons by both trans people and their non-trans partners. These same “abuse tactics” may, however, simply be evidence of a lack of collaborative problem-solving beliefs and skills. The difference between the two is illustrated using common issues likely to be faced by a couple undergoing or contemplating a gender transition. This article ends with specific issues and concerns that should be addressed when safety planning with a trans person or their partner.
- Go to article: Therapists' Experiences of Working With Iranian-Immigrant Intimate Partner Violence Clients in the United States
Therapists' Experiences of Working With Iranian-Immigrant Intimate Partner Violence Clients in the United States
Mental health practitioners have a responsibility to provide effective interventions to all their clients, accounting for each client's cultural context and values relevant to their well-being. In this study, eight therapists who have worked with Iranian-immigrant intimate partner violence (IPV) clients were interviewed to answer two questions: (a) What have therapists who work in the United States learned about challenges of working with Iranian IPV clients living in the United States? and (b) What suggestions do these thera-pists have for improving services to Iranian IPV clients living in the United States? In response to this question, six main themes were found: (a) Clients' lack of knowledge, (b) cultural acceptance that men are not accountable for their behaviors/gender norms in patriarchal culture, (c) women's sense of disempowerment (victim's role), (d) clients do not disclose IPV due to a sense of obligation, (e) clients' fear of consequences of disclosing, and (f) clients' difficulty trusting therapists and the mental health field. In response to the second question, that is, what suggestions do these therapists have for improving the services to Iranian IPV clients living in the United States? three main themes emerged: (a) clients need for knowledge and psychoeducation, (b) the services for Iranian-immigrant clients are not culturally appropriate, (c) therapists need to have a broad perspective of clients. Results add to the understanding of IPV grounded in the Iranian immigrant culture and ultimately contribute to a culturally based conceptualization of IPV among Iranian immigrants to sensitize therapists regarding culturally appropriate interventions that reflect the concerns of the Iranian living in the United States.
- Go to article: Sexual Coercion and Psychological Aggression Victimization: Unique Constructs and Predictors of Depression
Sexual Coercion and Psychological Aggression Victimization: Unique Constructs and Predictors of Depression
Sexual coercion of women is a common problem in couples that is often conceptualized as a facet of sexual assault or as a form of psychological aggression. Because psychological aggression is consistently linked to depressive symptoms, the researchers evaluated the unique contribution of sexual coercion victimization in the prediction of depressive symptoms beyond the variance explained by psychological aggression victimization. Sample 1 consisted of women living with a partner for at least a year and parenting a young child, whereas Sample 2 consisted of undergraduate students in relationships of at least 6 months. Overall, 27.4% of the women in Sample 1 and 22.8% of the women in Sample 2 reported experiencing sexual coercion victimization. Across both samples, depressive symptoms and psychological aggression victimization were significantly greater in women who experienced sexual coercion victimization. In addition, sexual coercion victimization and psychological aggression victimization each contributed significantly and uniquely to the prediction of depressive symptoms. Thus, although related to psychological aggression victimization, sexual coercion in an intimate relationship is a distinct construct. Implications for assessment, prevention, and couple therapy are discussed.
- Go to article: An Exploration of the Needs of Men Experiencing Domestic Abuse: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis
An Exploration of the Needs of Men Experiencing Domestic Abuse: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis
This study determines the needs of men experiencing domestic abuse from an intimate partner. In-depth interviews with 6 men who sought support are analyzed using interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA). Four master themes (interpreted as needs) are identified from analysis, “recognition” (of male victims and the impact), “safety,” “accepting domestic abuse,” and “rebuilding.” A need for recognition is identified as the dominant theme influencing the capacity for the 3 remaining needs to be met. Domestic abuse is generally understood to be a gendered, heteronormative experience. Abused men are not acknowledged as “typical” victims. The lack of recognition prevented participants from accepting and recognizing their victimization resulting in delayed help-seeking and prolonged abuse. A joint commitment is required from policy and practice to raise the profile of abused men, challenge wider society's prevailing norms, and embed equal status for all victims.
- Go to article: Learning From Experience: A Content Analysis of Domestic Violence Fatality Review Team Reports
The mounting cost of domestic violence (DV) homicide in the United States has led to increased attention from law enforcement agencies and social organizations and the establishment of domestic violence fatality review boards or teams (DVFRTs) throughout the country. These teams are tasked with reviewing a specified set of DV-related fatality cases to determine the factors that contributed to the fatalities and whether there are changes that can be made to prevent future similar incidents. There exists, however, little to no standardization of practice and procedures among DVFRTs, resulting in wide variability among the reports they produce. The purpose of this study is to empirically analyze the content of DVFRT reports across the United States to summarize standard practices in DVFRT reporting and to inform the procedures of existing and future DVFRTs. The researchers conducted a content analysis of 47 DVFRT reports to determine what information is most typically included in these reports on state, county, and city levels. A summary of findings and recommendations for DVFRTs is included.
- Go to article: Intimate Partner Violence Experienced by Women and Men: A Data-Driven Typology in a Finnish Sample
Previous research suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV) is a complex phenomenon that may be better understood through typological explanations. Notably, different IPV subtypes are likely to be differently related to the causes and consequences of violence. However, most typologies focus exclusively on male-perpetrated IPV and are based on highly selective samples. The aim of the current study was to define an empirically derived IPV typology that is gender-inclusive and allows for the identification of both gender symmetric and asymmetric IPV subtypes. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used as an objective method to identify the subtypes in a sample of victims of physical or sexual IPV (N = 856) from the Finnish National Crime Victim Survey (FNCVS). Five variables were used as the basis of the classification: gender of the victim, control-seeking by the perpetrator, the generality of the perpetrator's violent behavior, substance use by the perpetrator, and the bidirectionality of the violence in the relationship. The results reveal three IPV classes: IPV-only perpetrator (IOP), substance-related violence (SRV), and generally violent and controlling perpetrator (GVC). In the IOP class, the gender distribution of the victims was equal, whereas the two other classes were experienced predominately by women. Moreover, the classes were differentially associated with injuries and police reporting. While the current study replicates some previous findings, the finding of SRV as a separate IPV subtype is novel. Overall, the current study provides support for the general idea of several types of IPV, which should be acknowledged both in future research and intervention policies.
Existing research suggests that a significant stigma surrounds intimate partner violence, and this stigma can make it difficult for survivors to receive help. This article presents the results of a research study that used hierarchical cluster analysis to identify whether certain types of stigma are more likely to co-occur. Survey results revealed four clusters based on participants’ stigma-related experiences: low stigma, blamed and black sheep, shame and separation, and high stigma. Participants in the high stigma group reported the highest levels of verbal abuse. Implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed.
- Go to article: Motivations for Intimate Partner Violence in Men and Women Arrested for Domestic Violence and Court Referred to Batterer Intervention Programs
Motivations for Intimate Partner Violence in Men and Women Arrested for Domestic Violence and Court Referred to Batterer Intervention Programs
Research has attempted to elucidate men and women’s proximal motivations for perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV). However, previous research has yet to clarify and resolve contention regarding whether motives for IPV are gender-neutral or gender-specific. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare motives for physical IPV perpetration among a sample of men (n = 90) and women (n = 87) arrested for domestic violence and court referred to batterer intervention programs. Results demonstrated that the most frequently endorsed motives for IPV by both men and women were self-defense, expression of negative emotions, and communication difficulties. With the exception of expression of negative emotions and retaliation, with women endorsing these motives more often than men, there were no significant differences between men and women’s self-reported reasons for perpetrating physical aggression. The implications of these findings for future research and intervention programs are discussed.
Interventions for men who perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV) have historically been relatively ineffective at reducing or stopping subsequent IPV. However, there are several strong theoretical reasons that suggest Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), an intervention that emphasizes the use of mindfulness and aims to foster psychological flexibility, may be particularly well-suited to interrupting the factors that maintain IPV. The goal of the present article is to review the evidence for the application of ACT to target IPV. In addition, empirical studies that have, to date, shown promising initial support for a targeted intervention (Achieving Change Through Values-Based Behavior; ACTV) are reviewed. The implications for using ACT-based skills with perpetrators of IPV are discussed, along with potential future directions and further applications of ACT to hard-to-treat populations.
- Go to article: Profile of Female Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence in an Offender Population: Implications for Treatment
Profile of Female Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence in an Offender Population: Implications for Treatment
Despite evidence that the incidence of female-to-male intimate partner violence (IPV) in the general population is as high as that of male-to-female intimate violence, until recently little attention has been devoted to understanding women perpetrators of partner violence or to the design of programs to address their violence. This study explored the characteristics of female perpetrators of IPV in an offender population and examined the context, consequences, and motives for their aggression. There were 897 women serving a federal sentence in the Correctional Service of Canada at the time of data extraction, of whom 15% (n = 135) had a history of IPV. Results indicated that these offenders were most often classified as moderate criminal risk and high criminogenic need. Most had been victims of severe abuse during their youth and in adult relationships. Women’s motives for violence were diverse. Although most women had a history of mutual violence with their partners, 64% were the primary perpetrators in at least 1 incident. Violence in self-defense or in defense of their children were the least frequently coded categories. Similar to a comparison group of male offenders, the Spousal Assault Risk Assessment tool indicated that the most common risk factors associated with women’s IPV included past physical assault against intimate partners, substance abuse, and employment problems. These findings reinforce the need for a correctional programming targeting the diverse circumstances and motivations of women who are violent against their partners.
- Go to article: Untold Stories of Violence Experienced by Female Students in Cohabitation Relationship on Nigerian University Campuses
Untold Stories of Violence Experienced by Female Students in Cohabitation Relationship on Nigerian University Campuses
As heterosexual cohabitation of unmarried youths continues to rise in a sexually conservative Nigerian society, not much research attention has been paid to cohabiters' exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV). Therefore, this article explores the nature, patterns, and responses of female university students in campus cohabitation to incidences of violence. Drawing on a bricolage of theories, the study examined the social and psychological facilitators of cohabitation of students in Nigerian tertiary institutions and the attendant risks of IPV. Adopting an interpretivist philosophy, qualitative data were collected through 43 interviews conducted with female undergraduate students of three purposively selected universities in South West Nigeria. The study discovered a high occurrence of physical, sexual, social, economic, and emotional violence being experienced by female cohabiters. The risk exposure of Nigeria's female students in cohabitation is particularly made ominous by their acceptance of violent partners and violence as inevitable realities of romantic relationship. As a result of parental lack of knowledge or approval of campus cohabitation and the deep conservative nature of Nigerian society, there is low reportage of IPV, and victims rather endure violent experiences than seek intervention. The article advocates a revisit of the socialization processes of Nigerian society, and addressing of orientations that leaves female gender susceptible to violence acceptance in heterosexual dating relationships.
- Go to article: A Survey of Domestic Violence Perpetrator Programs in the United States and Canada: Findings and Implications for Policy and Intervention
A Survey of Domestic Violence Perpetrator Programs in the United States and Canada: Findings and Implications for Policy and Intervention
A 15-page questionnaire, the North American Domestic Violence Intervention Program Survey, was sent to directors of 3,246 domestic violence perpetrator programs (also known as batterer intervention programs, or BIPs) in the United States and Canada. Respondent contact information was obtained from state Coalitions Against Domestic Violence and from various government agencies (e.g., Attorney General) available on the Internet. Two hundred thirty-eight programs completed and returned the questionnaire, a response rate of 20%. The survey yielded descriptive data on respondent characteristics; program philosophy, structure, content, and service; client characteristics; treatment approach and adjunct services; and group facilitator views on intervention approaches and domestic violence policy and treatment standards. The programs varied in the extent to which they adhere to treatment approaches suggested by the empirical research literature. In addition, chi-square analyses were conducted on the associations between several factors. Significant correlations were found between respondent low level of education and adherence to a feminist-gendered program philosophy; respondent low level of education and use of a shorter assessment protocol; feminist-gendered program philosophy and incorrect facilitator knowledge about domestic violence; and feminist-gendered program philosophy and a program focus on power and control as the primary cause of domestic violence.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects gay men in a particular way with regard to its prevalence, forms, and consequences. There are still many aspects of the problem that require research. We know for example that the separation of the partners does not always put an end to IPV. It is not however known how it evolves in relationships between separated men, since our knowledge has been developed mainly with couples in heterosexual relationships. Based on the results of a qualitative study conducted in the Province of Québec, this article describes IPV and its consequences in a separation context. We initially conducted individual semi-structured interviews with 23 men who had experienced violence in the overall separation context of their intimate relationship with another man. We then conducted two discussion groups with 14 practitioners from related fields. These results showed that the partners’ union and separation were not binary and that the separation instead follows a three-phase process. Different acts of psychological, sexual, physical, and economic violence and their consequences were reported during these different phases. This study allows us to deepen our understanding of the IPV experienced by gay men in a separation process. It particularly sheds light on acts of violence rooted in a heterosexist social context and in the context of different types of sexual agreements. Implications for practitioners working with gay men who are subjected to or perpetrate IPV as well as for educators and state policymakers are discussed.
- Go to article: Identifying Male Victims of Partner Abuse: A Review and Critique of Screening Instruments
Accurate identification of partner abuse (PA) victims and perpetrators is essential to secondary prevention of such violence. Important progress has been made regarding identification of female victims of PA but significantly less scholarly attention has been given to screening instruments that capture men’s PA experiences. The purpose of this article is to briefly review the history of PA screening methods/instruments used and to provide an organized critique of screening tools used with men today. A gender-inclusive approach was used to critique 8 PA screening tools along the following themes: theoretical/paradigmatic approach, language, abuse type, severity and frequency, format, and psychometric data. Strengths of the instruments included (a) use of gender-neutral language in item wording, (b) screening for multiple forms of PA, (c) assessment of frequency of violent acts, and (d) collection of psychometric data with men. Recommendations for future practice include a list of questions for clinicians to use when selecting a screening tool. These questions will assist clinicians and scholars to consider the strengths and limitations of each tool and make more informed choices about the instruments they are using to screen men. Future research recommendations included (a) a call to the field to use a gender-inclusive framework in developing PA screening tools, (b) for developers to clearly label and outline theories or paradigms used to develop instruments, and (c) to obtain psychometric data for diverse groups of men, across various settings (e.g., community mental health agencies, private practice, college campuses).
Trust is essential to the development of healthy, secure, and satisfying relationships (Simpson, 2007a). Attachment styles provide a theoretical framework for understanding how individuals respond to partner behaviors that either confirm or violate trust (Hazan & Shaver, 1994). The current research aimed to identify how trust and attachment anxiety might interact to predict different types of jealousy and physical and psychological abuse. We expected that when experiencing lower levels of trust, anxiously attached individuals would report higher levels of both cognitive and behavioral jealousy as well as partner abuse perpetration. Participants in committed romantic relationships (N = 261) completed measures of trust, attachment anxiety and avoidance, jealousy, and physical and psychological partner abuse in a cross-sectional study. Moderation results largely supported the hypotheses: Attachment anxiety moderated the association between trust and jealousy, such that anxious individuals experienced much higher levels of cognitive and behavioral jealousy when reporting lower levels of trust. Moreover, attachment anxiety moderated the association between trust and nonphysical violence. These results suggest that upon experiencing distrust in one’s partner, anxiously attached individuals are more likely to become jealous, snoop through a partner’s belongings, and become psychologically abusive. The present research illustrates that particularly for anxiously attached individuals, distrust has cascading effects on relationship cognitions and behavior, and this should be a key area of discussion during therapy.
- Go to article: Attitudinal Correlates of Physical and Psychological Aggression Perpetration and Victimization in Dating Relationships
Attitudinal Correlates of Physical and Psychological Aggression Perpetration and Victimization in Dating Relationships
We examined gender-related attitudes as correlates of physical and psychological aggression perpetration and victimization among 325 undergraduate students in dating relationships. It was hypothesized that adversarial sexual beliefs and acceptance of interpersonal violence would be positively correlated with physical and psychological aggression perpetration and victimization in both men and women. Results indicated that adversarial sexual beliefs were consistently associated with relationship aggression, whereas the acceptance of interpersonal violence was not. Specifically, adversarial sexual beliefs were significantly correlated with perpetration of dating aggression in both genders and with experiencing aggression in men. Findings suggest that adversarial sexual beliefs place those in dating relationships at relatively higher risk for problems with aggression.
- Go to article: Prevalence of Physical Violence in Intimate Relationships, Part 1: Rates of Male and Female Victimization
Prevalence of Physical Violence in Intimate Relationships, Part 1: Rates of Male and Female Victimization
Physical violence in intimate relationships affects men, women, and families worldwide. Although the body of research examining the experiences of male victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) has grown, there have been few attempts to synthesize, compare, and contrast findings regarding the prevalence of male and female victimization. We examined research published in the last 10 years to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the prevalence of physical IPV victimization in heterosexual relationships. Our specific aims were to (a) describe the prevalence of physical IPV victimization in industrialized, English-speaking nations; and (b) explore study and sample characteristics that affect prevalence. Literature searches undertaken in three databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science) identified 750 articles published between 2000 and 2010. We included 249 articles that reported 543 rates of physical IPV victimization in our review: 158 articles reported 318 rates for women, 6 articles reported 8 rates for men, and 85 articles reported 217 rates for both men and women. Most studies were conducted in the United States (k = 213, 85.5%) and almost half (k = 118, 47.4%) measured IPV using a Conflict Tactics Scale-based approach. Unweighted, pooled prevalence estimates were calculated for female and male victimization overall and by sample type, country, measurement time frame, and measurement approach. Across studies, approximately 1 in 4 women (23.1%) and 1 in 5 men (19.3%) experienced physical violence in an intimate relationship, with an overall pooled prevalence estimate of 22.4%. Analyses revealed considerable variability in rates as a function of methodological issues, indicating the need for standardized measurement of IPV.
Little information is available about couples experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) who voluntarily seek couples therapy. We examined the characteristics of 129 couples who sought therapy for IPV to learn more about this population. A majority of the sample, 74%, experienced bilateral physical violence, 16% experienced unilateral male violence, and 5% experienced unilateral female violence. Conflict theory is used to explain the finding that couples experiencing bilateral violence reported higher levels of physical violence and injury than did those experiencing unilateral violence. Bilaterally violent couples also experienced more jealousy and psychological aggression and less relationship satisfaction than either group of unilaterally violent couples. Implications and suggestions for clinicians are offered, as well as ideas for future research.
- Go to article: Rates of Bidirectional Versus Unidirectional Intimate Partner Violence Across Samples, Sexual Orientations, and Race/Ethnicities: A Comprehensive Review
Rates of Bidirectional Versus Unidirectional Intimate Partner Violence Across Samples, Sexual Orientations, and Race/Ethnicities: A Comprehensive Review
One hotly debated topic within the field of intimate partner violence (IPV) is the degree to which IPV can be understood as primarily a unidirectional versus bidirectional phenomena; this topic forms a key component of the gender symmetry versus asymmetry of domestic violence debate. Resolution of this controversy has important prevention and intervention implications. In the current study, a comprehensive review of the literature was conducted, and 48 studies that reported rates of bidirectional versus unidirectional physical violence (male-to-female and female-to-male) were uncovered using a variety of search engines and key terms; one relevant meta-analysis and one seminal book chapter were also identified. Included empirical studies were published in 1990 or later, appeared in peer-reviewed journals, and contained empirical data directly related to bidirectionality of violence. Studies that only reported correlations between self-reported perpetration and victimization were excluded from these analyses. Qualifying studies were then categorized by the nature of the sample they assessed (i.e., large population samples; smaller community; purposive or convenience samples; clinical or treatment-seeking samples; legal/criminal justice-related samples; and samples assessing the relationships of gay, lesbian, and/or bisexual individuals). Rates of bidirectional versus unidirectional violence (male-toward-female vs. female-toward-male) were summarized directly as reported or were derived on the basis of data contained within the article.
All obtained studies (48 empirical, 1 meta-analysis, 1 book chapter) were then entered into an online summary table for public review; however, additional results were specifically calculated for the current article. These results indicate that bidirectional violence was common across all types of samples (population-based to criminal justice). This suggests that the role of women in violent relationships is important to consider, even if all aspects of women’s perpetration of IPV are not symmetrical to men’s perpetration of IPV. A second finding to emerge was that the ratio of unidirectional female-to-male compared to male-to-female IPV differed significantly among samples with higher rates of female-perpetrated unidirectional violence found in four of the five sample types considered. Higher ratios of male-to-female unidirectional violence were found only in criminal justice/legal studies that relied on police reports of IPV perpetration and/or in samples drawn from the U.S. military. Competing explanations for the differing ratios were offered in the current discussion. These need to be tested empirically in order to fully understand the expression of IPV across samples and settings. Differences in the directionality of the expression of IPV were not found in samples of gay, lesbian, or bisexual individuals; however, rates of bidirectional violence appear to vary by race/ethnicity with higher rates of bidirectional violence among Black couples. Overall, it is suggested that if one resolution of the gender symmetry/asymmetry debate is to argue that there are subtypes of male and female domestic violence perpetrators (Johnson, 2005; Johnson, 2006), or that there are different patterns of violence among different types of relationships characterized by IPV (Stets & Straus, 1989), researchers and clinicians will need to work together to determine how to reliably and meaningfully make these determinations in ways that will facilitate our ability to effectively prevent and treat all types of IPV.
- Go to article: Perception of Risk in Intimate Partner Violence Is Influenced by Risk Scales, Perpetrator and Victim Gender, and Mental Illness Diagnosis: A Risk Communication Study With Laypeople
Perception of Risk in Intimate Partner Violence Is Influenced by Risk Scales, Perpetrator and Victim Gender, and Mental Illness Diagnosis: A Risk Communication Study With Laypeople
Despite considerable research on the predictive accuracy of risk scales, there is limited research exploring other factors that influence perceptions of risk. We recruited participants (N = 1,955) from Amazon's Mechanical Turk to read a vignette about a fictional intimate partner violence offender, varying risk level on a fictional scale (low or high), perpetrator gender (cis male, cis female, or transgender female), victim gender (cis male or cis female), and mental health diagnosis (none, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or anxiety disorder). The strongest effect was for the risk scale, with offenders perceived as highest risk when the scale reported “high risk” as opposed to “low risk.” The other main effects were also statistically significant. Cases were perceived as riskier when the perpetrator was cis male or the victim was cis female. Regarding mental health diagnosis, the highest risk ratings were provided in the schizophrenia condition. There was also a significant interaction among risk level, perpetrator gender, and diagnosis. The extent to which participants relied on gendered stereotypes about the relationship between mental illness and violence when providing risk judgments should be examined in future research. Overall, these findings enhance our understanding of characteristics that are secondary to risk level but are likely to influence case management decisions in cases of intimate partner violence.
- Go to article: Deconstructing the “Power and Control Motive”: Moving Beyond a Unidimensional View of Power in Domestic Violence Theory
Deconstructing the “Power and Control Motive”: Moving Beyond a Unidimensional View of Power in Domestic Violence Theory
Despite the increased social recognition, law and policy changes within the criminal justice system, and the widespread use of court mandated batterer intervention programs (BIPs) domestic violence continues to be a persistent problem. The lack of significant decline in incidence rates along with a growing body of empirical evidence that indicates BIPs are, at best, only moderately effective raises serious concern. Effective policies and programs should be based on empirically tested theory. The assertion “the batterer’s motive is power and control” has become fundamental to many of the currently used BIPs and accepted mainstream theoretical explanations regarding domestic violence. However, the domestic violence literature has not yet advanced any specific conceptualizations of power, it has not produced a theoretical model of power that articulates why or how power specifically acts as a motive for a batterer, nor has it empirically tested this fundamental assertion. The main goal of this article is to take a step toward addressing this gap and advance our current understanding of an individual’s sense of power and control as a motive for using violence against an intimate partner. Specifically, it will review the pertinent literature regarding power and domestic violence, propose a new theoretical construct called internal power, and discuss internal power’s application to understanding a batterer’s “power motive.”
- Go to article: Content and Framing of Male- and Female-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence in Print News
This article investigates the content and framing of newspaper articles reporting male- and female-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV). There were 173 newspaper articles coded for IPV severity, typology, and framing. Print news coverage of female-perpetrated IPV was limited; however, when reported, cases of female-perpetrated IPV were more severe, more likely to be described as perpetrated in self-defense, and less likely to be framed in terms of individual factors. For both male and female perpetrators, incidents of IPV were overwhelmingly framed as a private matter, whereas larger societal and cultural factors were rarely discussed. We discuss implications and make recommendations for broadening print media coverage of IPV to include the broader institutional, societal, and cultural causes of IPV rather than focusing primarily on individual factors.
Female perpetrators of assault against dating, cohabiting, or marital partners (intimate partner violence [IPV]) recidivate less than their male counterparts. Risk assessment instruments, though, have been developed almost exclusively on men. In a prospective, masked 9-year follow up of 30 female IPV offenders incarcerated in a correctional treatment institution within one decade, the base rate of IPV recidivism was 23%. The Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment (ODARA) predicted IPV recidivism, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area = .724, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [0.503, 0.944], but recidivism rates differed significantly from rates based on male samples. Gender-modified items did not improve prediction. We recommend further research with larger samples to seek improved recidivism estimates among female IPV offenders, but in the interim, we suggest the ODARA can be used to apportion intervention resources for female IPV perpetrators.
This study adds to the available literature on female-perpetrated intimate abuse by examining Dutton’s (2007) theory of the abusive personality (AP) in a sample of 914 women who had been involved in dating relationships. Consistent with the AP, recalled parental rejection, borderline personality organization (BPO), anger, and trauma symptoms all demonstrated moderate-to-strong relationships with women’s self-reported intimate psychological abuse perpetration. Fearful attachment style demonstrated a weak-to-moderate relationship with psychological abuse perpetration. A potential model for explaining the interrelationships between the elements of the AP was tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). Consistent with the proposed model, recalled parental rejection demonstrated relationships with BPO, trauma symptoms, and fearful attachment. Similarly consistent with the model, trauma symptoms demonstrated a relationship with anger; and BPO demonstrated strong relationships with trauma symptoms, fearful attachment, and anger. Additionally, anger itself had a strong relationship with women’s self-reported perpetration of intimate psychological and physical abuse. Contrary to the proposed model, fearful attachment had a nonsignificant relationship with anger when this relationship was examined using SEM.
- Go to article: Examining the Reactions of Women in Substance Use Treatment as Participants in a Study on Intimate Partner Violence: Does Shame Proneness Matter?
Examining the Reactions of Women in Substance Use Treatment as Participants in a Study on Intimate Partner Violence: Does Shame Proneness Matter?
Women in treatment for substance use report higher levels of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration than the general population. Despite an abundance of research with this vulnerable population, no study has examined the research reactions of women in substance use treatment who participate in a study of IPV. Thus, we investigated the research reactions of women (N = 64) in substance use treatment who completed a self-report measure on their psychological, physical, and sexual IPV. We also examined whether shame proneness—an affective predisposition to scrutinize and criticize oneself— moderated the association between reports of IPV and negative emotional research reactions. This information is important for institutional review boards (IRBs) and researchers in determining the most ethical and appropriate protections for participants in IPV research. Findings demonstrated that victims and perpetrators of IPV did not differ from nonvictims/nonperpetrators on negative emotional research reactions. Victims of psychological aggression reported more positive research experiences than nonvictims. Shame proneness did not moderate the relationship between IPV reports (victimization or perpetration) and negative emotional reactions, although shame proneness did exert a main effect on negative emotional research reactions. Findings add to a growing body of research on participant reactions to IPV research. Our results further support the safety of self-report IPV research.
- Go to article: Physical Abuse in Childhood as a Predictor of Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration Among Dating Couples: The Role of Negative Affect During Conflict
Physical Abuse in Childhood as a Predictor of Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration Among Dating Couples: The Role of Negative Affect During Conflict
Adult victims of child physical abuse (CPA) are more likely to perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV) than are nonvictims. However, not all CPA victims go on to become violent toward their partners, suggesting that other factors moderate risk for IPV perpetration. Drawing on the background-situational model (Riggs & O’Leary, 1989, 1996), this study examines the independent and interactive effects of CPA history and negative affect arising during conflict with an intimate partner in predicting physical IPV perpetration. Fifty-three heterosexual dating couples completed questionnaires assessing CPA history and perpetration of physical IPV. Couples discussed the largest source of conflict in their relationship for 10 min. Videos of these discussions were coded for negative affect. Using an actor partner interdependence model approach to account for the dyadic interdependence of the data, findings revealed that at average levels of negative affect, CPA severity predicted greater IPV perpetration for both men and women. However, at average levels of CPA, negative affect during conflict was positively predictive of IPV perpetration for men only. Findings further revealed an interaction such that for men, the positive association between CPA severity and IPV perpetration became stronger as their negative affect during conflict increased.
- Go to article: Predicting Past and Future Dating Violence From Implicit and Explicit Violence Attitudes: An Experimental Manipulation of Provocation in Close Relationships
Predicting Past and Future Dating Violence From Implicit and Explicit Violence Attitudes: An Experimental Manipulation of Provocation in Close Relationships
This study examined implicit and explicit attitudes toward the use of violence and their capacity to predict past and future partner-directed aggression in a college dating sample. Implicit and explicit intimate partner violence (IPV) attitudes were measured and compared based on how well they identified self-reported past IPV and predicted expressed aggressive intent following a simulated dating scenario. Male and female participants (N = 106) completed self-report measures of IPV perpetration history and dating violence attitudes as well as an implicit association measure of violence attitudes. Participants were then randomly assigned to a simulated jealousy or neutral relationship scenario and subsequently indicated their desire to perpetrate physical aggression in response to it. The results indicated that implicit, but not explicit, violence attitudes predicted past-year physical IPV perpetration. Although implicit violence attitudes predicted laboratory aggression regardless of relationship provocation cues, the explicit violence attitudes only predicted aggression when relationship provocation was salient. These findings provide further evidence regarding the utility of an implicit attitudes measure in IPV risk assessment, suggest the need for additional research regarding their integration with self-report measures for predicting violence-related behavior, and have implications for investigations aimed at disrupting problematic violence attitudes.
- Go to article: Situational Analysis of Intimate Partner Violence Interventions in South Asian and Middle Eastern Countries
Situational Analysis of Intimate Partner Violence Interventions in South Asian and Middle Eastern Countries
It is vital to identify forms of intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by women and men in intimate relations, their underlying causes, and the impact on their own lives and the society. Research on victimization of women is ample; however, men’s victimization in intimate relations is a neglected area of research in many world regions, thus requiring more attention. Among the common psychosocial factors correlated with IPV, specific social, economic, and cultural factors in South Asian and Middle Eastern countries increase women’s vulnerability to face and bear the detrimental consequences of IPV. The review of existing literature and interviews with 16 notable agencies in Pakistan indicate that most of the existing intervention programs in these countries focus on providing legal and psychosocial support to female victims. In addition, there is lack of adequate evaluation or proper documentation of the activities and outcomes of intervention programs. These findings strongly suggest that further research on structured perpetrators programs in this part of the world is needed.
- Go to article: An Empirical Examination of the Relationship Between Dating Abuse and Entitlement Within a College Population
An Empirical Examination of the Relationship Between Dating Abuse and Entitlement Within a College Population
Although partner abuse is well established as destructive societal problem, partner abuse among adolescents and young adults has only recently gained attention. Entitlement is a concept regularly evoked in the dating abuse literature. Much of the literature on dating partner abuse focuses on adolescent/young adult victimization, whereas perpetration is less well understood. This study examined sense of entitlement and its relationship to various types of abuse, including economic, emotional, physical, and sexual. Sense of entitlement was positively correlated with all types of abuse and was a better predictor of abusive behaviors than other variables in the regression model. Implications address how, including how assessing and addressing entitlement can enhance both partner abuse prevention and intervention efforts.
- Go to article: Understanding Female Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration, Parenting Attitudes, and Batterer Intervention Program Completion
Understanding Female Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration, Parenting Attitudes, and Batterer Intervention Program Completion
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of parenting attitudes and widely used indicators of intimate partner violence perpetration on program completion in a sample of women required to attend a 26-week batterer intervention program. Methods: This research used a nonequivalent, control-group design in a secondary analysis of 146 women. Results: Analysis showed that (a) logistic regression indicated a statistically significant model for predicting Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory scores using level of education and racial group; (b) logistic regression also demonstrated that treatment completion could be successfully predicted by Revise Conflict Tactics Scale Negotiation score and referral status (e.g., regular court, criminal domestic violence court, and pretrial intervention). Conclusions: These analyses illustrate characteristics of female batterers as they connect to parenting attitudes and offer initial evidence suggesting that women in treatment for intimate partner violence perpetration display a host of negative parenting attitudes. Implications of these results were investigated and considered.
- Go to article: Perpetration and Victimization Prevalence for Intimate Partner Violence in the Australian-Muslim Community
Perpetration and Victimization Prevalence for Intimate Partner Violence in the Australian-Muslim Community
Intimate partner violence (IPV) prevalence has not been estimated among the Australian-Muslim community. This information is needed for evidence-based interventions to be implemented. To address this gap, this study provides initial estimates for prevalence of IPV perpetration and victimization among a community sample of Australian-Muslims using the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. The study utilized a cross-sectional questionnaire with a community sample, aged 18 to 74, and living in South East Queensland, Australia to collect data. From the 271 respondents of the study, findings indicate annual perpetration of 24% for physical-assault, 26% sexual coercion, 14% injury, and 65% psychological aggression. The findings also indicate annual victimization rates of 27% for physical assault, 28% sexual coercion, 10% injury and 67% psychological aggression. Though most acts were less severe in nature (7% severe physical assault, 2% severe sexual coercion and 5% severe injury), the study provides initial IPV prevalence estimates for the Australian-Muslim community and requires appropriate cultural and faith based strategies to address this issue in the Muslim community whilst being grounded in the Australian socio-cultural context.
- Go to article: Methods for Assessing and Addressing Participant Protection Concerns in Intimate Partner Violence Research
Methods for Assessing and Addressing Participant Protection Concerns in Intimate Partner Violence Research
Research on intimate partner violence (IPV) is highly sensitive and may put some participants at increased psychological, emotional, and physical risk. Still, we know little about the risks posed by most social science methods and have minimal guidance regarding appropriate practices for carrying out various forms of research. This study collected data from 59 IPV researchers regarding the most commonly used participant protection methods, the efficacy of those methods, number and nature of adverse events (AE) experienced, and experiences with institutional review boards (IRBs). Participants were invited via e-mail to complete an anonymous online survey. Findings indicate an overall low incidence of AEs as well as a minimal relationship between AEs and IPV inquiry. These findings may provide researchers with preliminary data on the effectiveness of various participant protection methods. Results may also facilitate more innovative and effective participant protections measures, help researchers prevent and cope with AE, and create more mutually beneficial relationships with IRBs.
- Go to article: Relationships Between Shame, Restrictiveness, Authoritativeness, and Coercive Control in Men Mandated to a Domestic Violence Offenders Program
Relationships Between Shame, Restrictiveness, Authoritativeness, and Coercive Control in Men Mandated to a Domestic Violence Offenders Program
Coercive control, a key element of intimate partner violence (IPV), is defined as an abuse dynamic that intends to strip the target of autonomy and liberty. While coercive control is gaining popularity in the research world, little is known about its correlates and causes. This study sought to examine how shame and men’s need for dominance, measured by two trait indexes of dominance, restrictiveness and the need for authority, influence coercive control. The present study used a diverse sample of men (n = 134) who were mandated to attend a domestic violence offenders program. Findings suggest that shame plays a role in the commission of coercively controlling behavior both directly and partially through its influence on authority but not through restrictiveness. Implications for understanding IPV in a domestic violence offenders program are discussed.Source:
- Go to article: The Prevalence of Mental Health Disorders in a Community Sample of Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence
The Prevalence of Mental Health Disorders in a Community Sample of Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious, devastating, and prevalent problem. IPV places women at risk for negative health consequences, including increased mental health disorders. The majority of research to date has focused on mental health disorders among women in domestic violence shelters, and research is needed that examines mental health disorders among a broader range of women experiencing IPV. Therefore, this study examined the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and substance abuse disorders in a community sample of IPV victims (N = 94) using diagnostic interviews. Results showed that the majority of women met diagnostic criteria for a mental health disorder, with PTSD being the most common mental health disorder. Furthermore, psychological abuse was a significant predictor of both PTSD and depression, whereas physical aggression did not predict these outcomes. Implications of these findings for treatment and intervention work with battered women are discussed.