The ultimate purpose of rehabilitation research is to improve clinical and community-based practice and service delivery to maximize the function and quality of life of individuals with disabilities. This chapter begins with the history of rehabilitation and rehabilitation research, describes the key values that should be included in conducting rehabilitation research, and introduces some common frameworks that can assist researchers in designing and describing their studies. It also describes the current status of rehabilitation research, discusses the need for knowledge translation at all stages of the research process, and concludes with future directions. The very nature of rehabilitation is to involve multiple disciplines physiatry; physical, occupational, and recreational therapies; speech language pathology; neuropsychology; social work; nursing; and other medical disciplines. Throughout rehabilitation research, knowledge translation needs to be implemented so that decisions informing practice and future research can be made on a solid evidence base.
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This chapter provides an introduction to content analysis research in the helping professions. Various helping professions such as nursing, social work, and counseling have used content analysis methodology because of its flexible methods and inclusion of a range of analytic approaches. In the helping professions, professionals regularly use verbal and written communication to better support individuals, groups, and programs to work on goals that align with improving outcomes. Goals are often generated from a thorough understanding of the meaning of past experiences or trends that have encompassed one's background. Similarly, content analysis provides social science researchers a framework to better understand and make sense and meaning of large amounts of material (data), much of which is narrative in nature. The chapter provides researchers detailed information that will increase their knowledge, understanding and application of content analysis by grasping the meaning of content in a rigorous and systematic fashion.
- Go to article: Between Nuring, Caring, and Technology: Being Alive is More Than Having a Beating Heart
Nurses are often faced with the challenge of reconciling what is seen and believed regarding life with what is popular and commonly known by biomedical science. Faced with this philosophical, ethical, and moral dilemma, nurses can use many of the philosophical viewpoints grounding nursing science and its practice to assist in the reconciliation to this life-death issue. Using various perspectives and reflecting on Boykin and Schoenhofer’s theory of nursing as caring, this article addresses the question whether the presence of a beating heart is a sufficient determining factor to declare that a person is “alive,” influencing the reconciliation of technologic, caring, and nursing perspectives on health and human care. In essence, “Is a beating heart tantamount to being alive?”
Theories of caring in nursing, developed over decades, are rooted in the ethical principle of respect for human dignity and an expectation of nurse behavior that demonstrates caritas. This article describes the context and evolution of caring-theory development; presents an overview of caring theories, their components, and studies framed by a caring theory; and examines the current state of caring-theory development. The body of knowledge framed by caring theories, constructs, and models contributes to caring science. Caring science depends on how future research and scholarship are guided, translated, disseminated, and expanded to strengthen caring science and to direct nursing praxis.
- Go to article: First-Year Students’ Lived Experiences of Caring After a Human Caring Theory Class and Clinical Practicum in a BSN Program
- Go to article: Empathetic Understanding as Caring in Nursing Using Electroencephalographic Data as Evidence
Technological competency is an expression of caring in nursing. Nurses need to understand patients’ emotions and understand patients’ worlds as if these were their own. This is “empathic understanding.” Electroencephalograms (EEGs) were performed on five healthy participants while viewing an emotionally charged “sentimental” movie. EEG changes were collected and compared with data during a less emotionally charged situation. Apower map and spectrogram analyses of EEGs showed that alpha bands at the occipital region were specifically pronounced during the emotionally charged state. This study suggests that expressions of empathic understanding exists and are evidenced by EEG data, and that technological competency as caring in nursing is an expression of caring in nursing.