This chapter describes the importance of research-based practice, the research method, evaluating the science and ethics of research and careers in adolescent development. The theories that guide research and practice in adolescent development now were generated through a rigorous and ongoing process of scientific investigation. Issues relating to health, school, delinquency, parenting, family, relationships, and dating are just a few of the many areas that use the ideas generated by the study of adolescent development to benefit adolescents in practice. Questions in adolescent development must be approached using the scientific method. Maybe playing violent video games is linked with aggression in adolescence, but as adolescents enter young adulthood playing violent video games impacts people in different ways. A college degree or knowledge in adolescent development can be applied to many fields of work.
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Despite the attention paid to diversity and inclusiveness, counselor education programs often overlook the gifted population, resulting in a training gap that complicates school counselors' awareness of—and ability to appropriately respond to—the unique needs of gifted individuals. This book is a complete handbook for understanding and meeting the needs of gifted students and is most useful to counselor educators, school counselors, and parents. It is mostly to inform school counselors and counselor educators about gifted kids as a special population and to offer guidance for responding with appropriate counseling services. The book is organized into thirteen chapters. The first chapter provides an overview on counseling gifted and talented students. The second chapter talks about aligning service to gifted students with the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) national model. The next two chapters discuss the characteristics and concerns of gifted students, and intersectionality of cultures in diverse gifted students. Chapter five presents theories that support programs and services in schools. Chapter six describes the common practices and best practices in identifying gifted and talented learners in schools. Chapter seven examines working with classrooms and small groups. Chapter eight focuses on academic advising and career planning for gifted and talented students. Chapter nine addresses personal/social counseling and mental health concerns. Chapters ten and eleven talks about creating a supportive school climate for gifted students through collaboration, consultation, and systemic change, and empowering parents of gifted students. Chapter twelve presents school counselors as leaders and advocates for gifted students. The final chapter provides brief summaries of the above chapters described in the book.
School counselors collaborate, consult, and coordinate resources. They partner with community agencies, empower parents and families, advocate for students, and are probably part of the leadership team in their schools. Every day school counselors probably make lists of tasks that must be accomplished and then prioritize those according to level of urgency. When prioritizing student needs, the needs of gifted students may not rise to the top in the mind of the school counselor. Most educators equate "gifted" with high-achieving, perfectionistic, perhaps slightly eccentric students who have helicopter parents. School counselors work with gifted students regularly. These students come with a variety of different concerns ranging from typical developmental needs to mental health concerns that warrant immediate attention and service. While gifted students are no more or less likely to experience concerns tied to mental health, they do experience the world differently by nature of being gifted.
A speech/theater teacher at a large urban high school refers Andrew (pseudonym for a composite profile), 16, to the school counselor because “he’s out of control and living dangerously.” The counselor, who routinely examines the student’s school file before such a meeting, finds standardized test percentiles in the high 90s, a good attendance record, and regular participation in the arts, but also a high incidence of lateness to class and an academic record that has deteriorated in high school. Family information shows an older brother attending a distant university, parental divorce when Andrew was 5, and, at age 12, Andrew relocating with his brother and mother when she remarried.
Andrew presents as personable, verbal, socially smooth—and somewhat arrogant. He claims he can raise his current low grades before the semester ends. Missed assignments are the key. He says he adds provocative comments to class discussion, and teachers like him.
His best friend lives 2000 miles away, where Andrew lived prior to his move at age 12. Andrew has gravitated toward dramatic females locally, and his current girlfriend is in high conflict at home. His grades deteriorated after becoming involved with her. He has run away several times and now has thoughts of running away with her. He mentions a special relationship with a male friend. When he drinks, he drinks too much, and his friends worry about him.
Andrew believes the psychologists he saw in the past did not understand him. He was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (
ADHD) and depression, but was noncompliant with medication. He recognizes that he makes poor choices. He claims not to be suicidal currently, but has been in the past. He has self-harmed. He says his father has almost no contact with him, but his father does have a close relationship with his brother. Andrew says his own problems resemble his highly intelligent father’s. Andrew has been exploring anarchic and white supremacist groups online.
The counselor plans to meet with him in a week, but will informally check on him daily and then meet with him and his mother together, a meeting Andrew quickly agrees to. Regardless of whether a referral will be made eventually, the counselor hopes to build a therapeutic relationship with Andrew to be able to provide ongoing support at school as needed.
A few days after the school counselor’s meeting with Andrew, his mother contacts the counselor because of the girlfriend. She says Andrew struggles with impulse control, is easily distracted and affected emotionally, has difficulty managing emotions, and escalates conflict quickly when sad or angry. He resists authority at home, and his arguments with her leave her worn out and sad. She says her husband, Andrew’s stepfather, ignores Andrew and does not understand giftedness.
This chapter provides an overview of the historical, developmental, medical, and contemporary considerations regarding college student development as they apply to college counseling centers. It describes documented significant transition from who provided counseling, to the focus of counseling what remains constant is the need to remain current with regard to continuing changes in higher education. The expansion of vocational services paved the way for college counselors to begin addressing social and personal concerns in a counseling context and provided momentum for universities to expand the role of college and university counseling centers. The chapter addresses historical foundations of college counseling, originating with faculty providing services to that of a specialized, highly trained staff of mental health professionals composed of psychiatrists, psychologists, counselors, social workers, psychiatric nurses, and others. Information from research and national surveys has been included to underscore the important changes in college mental health.
This book, meant for campus mental health and student affairs professionals, is specifically designed to provide the most current information available regarding critical issues impacting the mental health and educational experiences of today’s college students. It shows how counseling services can coordinate their efforts with other on and off-campus institutions to expand their reach and provide optimal services. The book first provides an overview of the historical, developmental, medical, and contemporary considerations regarding college student development as they apply to counseling centers. It then explores the diversity composite of U.S. colleges and counseling centers (CCC) and articulates the standards and requirements of ethics as related to diversity. The four functions of essential direct clinical services provided to students are: individual counseling; group counseling; couples and family counseling; and assessment and testing. Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) and e-mail cognitive behavioral therapy (eCBT) are newer methods for remotely treating anxiety and depression. Written for both mental health counselors and administrators, the book addresses ethical and legal issues, campus outreach, crisis and trauma services, substance abuse, sexual harassment, spiritual and religious issues, web-based counseling, and psychoeducational services.
Depression, once referred to as the common cold of mental health, remains a consistent problem for young adults. Depression and its frequent companion, anxiety, along with many other factors, lead to mental health crises among college students. This chapter provides information for counselors working with college students who present with symptoms of depression and, to some degree, comorbid depression and anxiety. It presents depression and its effect on college students. The chapter presents a case scenario to provide an example of way in which depression and anxiety may combine in presentation. It discusses screening for anxiety and depression as comorbid disorders. The chapter provides techniques for treatment planning and prevention, cultural considerations, and college and university mental health outreach programing related to depression and comorbid anxiety and depression. It highlights several existing outreach programs, provided supplemental programming ideas, and suggested resources for counselors in developing outreach programs on their campuses.