Nurses working in the field of obstetrics must have a greater depth and breadth of genetic knowledge over any other subspecialty. In gestation, nurses should include education on the effects of teratogens, prenatal screening options, and prenatal diagnoses. After delivery, early recognition of genetic disorders is important for immediate initiation of potentially life-saving therapies. Preconception education is a critical component of health care for women of reproductive age. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend that all women of childbearing age consume 0.4 mg of folic acid daily to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs). Counseling can still be useful in terms of optimum pregnancy management in a setting best able to cope with any anticipated problems. Complex and multifaceted maternal and fetal factors influence the consequences of drugs, radiation, and chemical and infectious agents to the developing fetus.
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The health professions have taken very seriously the importance of ethical considerations in research and practice. Most of the ethical issues regarding measurement of human subjects have been addressed in connection with biomedical and social research. Three basic, comprehensive ethical principles provide the foundation for the guidelines, recommendations, and standards that provide for the rights and well-being of human subjects in measurement and research: respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. In accordance with these ethical principles, researchers are obliged to recognize and protect the basic rights of subjects in measurement activities. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) privacy regulations took effect on April 14, 2003. These provisions, which require health care organizations and providers to protect the privacy of patient information, underscore the importance of privacy in the measurement context, and limit communication and use of individual patient health information in both practice and research.
This chapter examines pre- and postconference expectations and activities, explores forms to be used by the professor and the students, suggests care plans and patient assignments, and describes sample concept maps and a math skills assessment. A student with no experience in health care may be shy or sheepish when it comes to hands-on care. It may be of benefit for the students to be paired in the first few weeks of clinical classes. The care plan forms can help guide the student through the nursing process. Medication forms will help the student learn about various medications. Nursing education has adopted the use of concepts maps to assist students in gathering patient information. Patient safety is the number one priority for all health care professionals. Dose calculations are a daily activity for nurses.
Teaching Cultural Competence in Nursing and Health Care, 3rd Edition:Inquiry, Action, and Innovation
Preparing nurses and other health professionals to provide quality health care in the increasingly multicultural and global society of the 21st century requires a comprehensive approach that emphasizes cultural competence education throughout professional education and professional life. The ideas and suggestions presented in this book are offered to stimulate new ideas and invite health professionals to explore new paths on the journey to developing cultural competence in themselves and in others. The book is divided into five parts. Part I is composed of three chapters filled with resources to help educators begin teaching cultural competence. Essential background information about the multidimensional process of teaching cultural competence offers a valuable guide for educators at all levels who are planning, implementing, and evaluating cultural competence education. Educators and researchers are continually challenged to measure outcomes following educational interventions. Part II addresses this challenge by introducing several quantitative questionnaires and assessment tools and discussing implementation and data interpretation strategies in a detailed, user-friendly approach that can be easily adapted by novice and advanced researchers. The tools include Transcultural Self-Efficacy Tool (TSET) and Clinical Setting Assessment Tool-Diversity and Disparity (CSAT-DD). Parts III, IV, and V offer a wide selection of educational activities that can easily be applied by educators everywhere. Three chapters provide a general overview and a menu of activities for use in three areas: the academic setting, the health care institution, and professional associations. Five chapters creatively link strategies via detailed case exemplars that spotlight various populations and settings. The book’s final chapter presents important implications for educators everywhere.
In this chapter, the author began working in international medical humanitarian aid, with an organization called Medecins Sans Frontieres/Doctors without Borders (MSF). Pediatrics and Pediatric Intensive Care are where the author’s nursing career had started. With assignments in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Haiti, and South Sudan, the author have provided care for people who have been displaced due to conflict, victims of war trauma, women with high-risk pregnancies, malnourished and critically ill children, and people with HIV and tuberculosis, and responded to outbreaks of preventable illnesses such as measles and cholera. MSF opened the Sibut project, with a focus on providing care for young children and women of child-bearing age. The security system includes daily contact with all of the village leaders in Sibut, including the Catholic priests, the imams at the Muslim mosque, the village elders, and the militia leaders.
Multiple physical changes can impair the mental health of the aging individual. These changes include: acid-based imbalances, dehydration, electrolyte changes, hypothermia or hyperthermia, and hypothyroidism. This chapter reviews the most common mental health disorders affecting the elderly population and trends affecting care delivery. Moreover, chronic, unresolved pain has been associated with an increased risk of a mental health disorder such as depression, suicide, or anxiety. The aging individual may exhibit signs and symptoms of insomnia such as sleeping for short periods during the night, sleeping during times of normal social activities, arising early in the morning while others sleep, and experiencing daytime sleepiness. The chapter concludes by applying the nursing process from an interpersonal perspective to the care of an elderly patient with a mental health disorder.
Nurses with a doctor of nursing practice (DNP) degree possess the specific skills needed to address the issues and achieve the goals related to better access, reduced health disparities, balanced quality and cost, improved health literacy, enhanced practice, and sustainability of health care and health care systems. This chapter explains the DNP abilities and proficiencies on financial and business management, applying evidence-based practice (EBPs) to build systems of care, and evaluating outcomes, with specific concentration on grant writing for health care programs. Generally, contemporary operating budgets in the acute hospital, ambulatory, or community settings are based on historic operating expenses and revenues, or increasingly are zero based. This leaves the DNP with little to no margin for increases related to redesigning care delivery models, implementing quality initiatives, initiating performance improvement strategies, or creating new service lines; except, of course, to become leaner.
The obesity epidemic is even more pronounced in rural America, and is a growing concern as rural adults and children are now more likely to be obese than urban adults and children. People who are overweight or obese are at increased risk for chronic disease and conditions such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, and some types of cancers. For women, obesity also is associated with complications of pregnancy, menstrual irregularities, hirsutism, and psychological disorders such as depression. Stress has been linked to obesity in adults and in children, and rural residents are continually subject to the stresses of poverty, limited access to health care, and geographical and social isolation. In rural communities, community organizations and families need to come together to identify common goals related to obesity prevention and identify and mobilize human and community assets to implement strategies they believe will work for their community.
This chapter explores how three successful nursing leaders, using different leadership approaches, demonstrate traditional leadership attributes such as strategic vision; risk-taking and creativity; interpersonal and communication effectiveness; and inspiring and leading change. It discusses the opportunities and implications for nursing leaders and those external to the profession to develop collaborative and transformative partnerships to advance quality health care. Pragmatic leaders demonstrate leadership excellence by effectively translating their nursing care assessment skills into the ability to approach organizational problem solving and decision making in a systematic, logical manner. In contrast to the present-needs focus of pragmatic leaders, charismatic leaders are vision-based leaders who predicate their leadership agenda on attaining future goals. Each of the three nursing leaders profiled understands the importance of being politically astute and effectively leveraging power and influence to make value-added contributions. To varying degrees, the various constituents of the nursing leaders profiled view them as socialized leaders.
Bernhard went to New York, where he had some old friends and found work with a publisher. He married Sara who employed as an editor at Fortune magazine. In December 1950 they established Springer Publishing Company. Sara took care of the administrative and marketing work, while Bernhard managed the editorial and production elements, and mainly, of course, obtained additional new publications. Their first 20 books, produced by the end of 1956, were all in medicine or medicine-related fields. The events that followed belong to the history of the nursing profession, since they show the beginning of self-assured professional nursing. Dr. Modell, obviously impressed by the strong sales of his cardiology text, started an annual series on Drugs in Current Use for nurses. Springer Publishing Company addresses professors in the fields of health and medical care and their applications.