Nurses working in the field of obstetrics must have a greater depth and breadth of genetic knowledge over any other subspecialty. In gestation, nurses should include education on the effects of teratogens, prenatal screening options, and prenatal diagnoses. After delivery, early recognition of genetic disorders is important for immediate initiation of potentially life-saving therapies. Preconception education is a critical component of health care for women of reproductive age. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend that all women of childbearing age consume 0.4 mg of folic acid daily to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs). Counseling can still be useful in terms of optimum pregnancy management in a setting best able to cope with any anticipated problems. Complex and multifaceted maternal and fetal factors influence the consequences of drugs, radiation, and chemical and infectious agents to the developing fetus.
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This chapter examines pre- and postconference expectations and activities, explores forms to be used by the professor and the students, suggests care plans and patient assignments, and describes sample concept maps and a math skills assessment. A student with no experience in health care may be shy or sheepish when it comes to hands-on care. It may be of benefit for the students to be paired in the first few weeks of clinical classes. The care plan forms can help guide the student through the nursing process. Medication forms will help the student learn about various medications. Nursing education has adopted the use of concepts maps to assist students in gathering patient information. Patient safety is the number one priority for all health care professionals. Dose calculations are a daily activity for nurses.
Multiple physical changes can impair the mental health of the aging individual. These changes include: acid-based imbalances, dehydration, electrolyte changes, hypothermia or hyperthermia, and hypothyroidism. This chapter reviews the most common mental health disorders affecting the elderly population and trends affecting care delivery. Moreover, chronic, unresolved pain has been associated with an increased risk of a mental health disorder such as depression, suicide, or anxiety. The aging individual may exhibit signs and symptoms of insomnia such as sleeping for short periods during the night, sleeping during times of normal social activities, arising early in the morning while others sleep, and experiencing daytime sleepiness. The chapter concludes by applying the nursing process from an interpersonal perspective to the care of an elderly patient with a mental health disorder.
This chapter discusses the importance of written communication in nursing practice. Effective writing promotes the use of critical thinking and analysis, and ensures that those individuals with whom the nurse interacts will understand what is being said. E-mail communications with other members of the health care team necessitate proper writing skills. Professional writing in nursing is an important way to communicate with others, express ideas, present information, advance research, and teach others about the discipline of nursing. The nurse explains the present situation, shares present assessment findings, and makes recommendations for solving the problem. Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation (SBAR) provides a common and predictable structure for communication and can be used in any clinical domain. Labor pain can be influenced by a number of factors, such as culture, anxiety, and environment. The chapter also discusses the PICOT method, a mnemonic that encompasses the key components of a well-focused question.
This chapter provides an introductory overview of selected works for further reflection and study. It provides more in-depth discussions on nursing theoretical frameworks, starting with the references. Nursing has incorporated theories from other disciplines, including theories of systems, human needs, change, problem solving, and decision making. Health generally addresses the person’s state of well-being, while the concept of nursing is central to all nursing theories. Benner provided examples of nursing practice based on observation and interviews with professionals ranging from those just starting their professional careers to veteran nurses. In Betty Neuman’s Systems Model (NSM), the individual is viewed as an open system interacting with both internal and external environment forces and stressors. Client variables are physiological, psychological, sociocultural, developmental, and spiritual stressors. The physiological mode deals with the maintenance of the physical body.
This chapter examines the urinary system, reviews physiological and systematic assessments and related nursing tools, and also presents an analysis of the various types of dialysis. Various types of filtration will be discussed during Week 11. The filtration methods discussed include the body’s own filtration system and artificial filtration, such as hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, as well as a brief discussion of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Most health care facilities have reduced their usage of indwelling Foley catheters. Measuring intake allows the nurse to determine whether the patient is adequately maintaining hydration, adequately hydrated, or rehydrating per the physician’s orders. Intake includes oral and intravenous (IV) fluids as well as nasogastric tube (NGT), oral gastric tube (OGT), and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feedings and fluids. A pyelogram is a radiological procedure that permits the visualization of the urinary system.
This chapter examines critical thinking development, and building a foundation of knowledge of injections and intravenous (IV) therapy, medications and laboratory values. Students will be quizzed on their knowledge of intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC), and dermal injections during Week 4. Week 4 is also a good week to begin teaching laboratory values and their relationship to medications. This is also a good time to begin teaching IV therapy concepts. Critical thinking is a difficult concept to understand and a difficult skill to develop. Students will need to demonstrate their knowledge regarding medications given via the different injection routes. When an IV is needed for the patient or when the health care facility requires a saline lock for all patients, the nurse will need to insert an IV catheter. Nursing students will often discover the lattice format among the notes of other interdisciplinary team members.
This chapter introduces the student to nursing in a culturally diverse world. Nurses need to become informed about and sensitive to culturally diverse subjective meanings of health, illness, caring, and healing practice. Clients benefit when nurses learn more about and become confident in their ability to care for diverse cultural groups. Multiculturalism refers to the viewpoint that there are many diverse cultures and subcultures in the world that need to be recognized, valued, and understood for their differences and similarities. The Kleinman questions apply therapeutic communication skills in order to assess the client’s cultural needs. Information, treatments, and education relating to self-care skills can then be presented within the client’s framework. Sharing stories may also provide concrete examples of interactions with clients from diverse cultures. In client-centered care, the clients themselves are viewed as experts in their life experiences relating to health.
This chapter examines the medical-surgical courses, and learning skills students are required to master. It offers a comprehensive skills checklist that outlines and explains the necessary didactic skills, and also provides a sample course syllabus including a weekly teaching plan. At the start of their clinical classes nursing students need an overview of the numerous skills they must acquire before they can graduate into the field of nursing. Instruct the students to print out the tasks, review the nursing skills beforehand, and bring them to the hospital. Most health care facilities have a skills book useful for reviewing the nursing skills needed. Students should learn where the laboratory, respiratory department, intravenous (IV) therapy department, and radiology departments are located. The student handbook will define “plagiarism”. Students are responsible for learning the skills and/or possessing the knowledge to complete or perform the steps on comprehensive skills checklist.
This chapter presents a basic overview of the influence of law, legal issues, and the field of ethics and bioethics on the professional practice of nursing. Consumers are more knowledgeable and informed about their rights within the health care delivery system. Applying legal concepts within an ethical framework enhances client care through examining how these issues affect one’s clinical practice. Nursing ethics is sometimes viewed as a subgroup of bioethics because of the unique variety of ethical problems that arise in relation to working with clients, families, and other members of the health care team. The major principles of health care ethics that must be upheld in all situations are autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, and fidelity. In 1990, the Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA) stated that competent people could make their wishes known regarding the end-of-life experience.