This book brings together the work of experts from a variety of fields such as adult development, adult education, family science, family therapy and counseling, gerontology, psychology, social work, and sociology. It is organized into four sections, each of which contains chapters reflecting a given theme as it pertains to grandparenting. Section one explores the breadth of the grandparent role from multiple theoretical perspectives, explores both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies in the study of grandparenting. It examines cohort effects and emphasizes the multigenerational developmental contexts in which grandparents and grandchildren are situated. In addition, it presents variations on grandparenting: grandfathers, great-grandparenting, and step-grandparents. Section two focuses on the diversity among grandparents, examining such issues as variations in sexual orientation in such persons, grandparents who are raising their grandchildren, and changing gender roles among grandparents. Section three examines the difficulties and challenges that grandparents face in enacting their roles as well as the resources and strengths they bring to bear. It discusses the impact of having to cope with both acute and chronic illness on intergenerational relationships, the design and implementation of interventions to positively affect emotional functioning. It discusses the clinical case study approaches to helping grandparents, resilience and resourcefulness in the face of stress. Section four emphasizes the societal and cultural aspects of grandparenting, exploring issues of race and ethnicity, grandparent education, global grandparenting, and many dimensions of social policy as they relate to grandparents. The last chapter pulls the material together in presenting a multidimensional, multileveled, and dynamic picture of grandparenting stressing the influence of evolving historical and interpersonal contexts on such persons and their grandchildren. It also offers suggestions for future research over the next two decades.
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Professional competence refers to our ability to perform effectively within our professional role. As counselors, we are required to remain aware of our professional strengths and weaknesses and respond accordingly when counseling situations fall outside of our ability to be effective. Professional competence involves working with client populations for which we have been properly trained, maintaining training and education throughout our careers, and identifying and addressing personal experiences or internal problems that can affect our ability to be effective counselors. In this chapter, authors cover what it means to be professionally competent, how to recognize when we are exceeding boundaries of competence, and how to maintain competence throughout a professional career. Professional competence includes a host of complex situations and variables. Much of the research and writings on the topic of competence focuses on multicultural competence. Understanding individual differences in our client population is essential for maintaining professional competence.
This chapter presents the elements of counseling that can influence self-awareness and growth among children and adolescents. It builds on the basics and offers guidance to enhance counseling effectiveness. Children and adolescents thrive within the context of responsive relationships and these relationships are central to emotional growth. A good counselor balances the child or adolescent’s need for support and the necessity of independence in self-reflection. The fields of motivational interviewing (MI), self-determination theory, and counseling with children and adolescents are filled with specific techniques to encourage growth and change. Accordingly, the chapter highlights key elements of counselor action. Of equal importance, there will be instances in which being present, in absence of action, will create space for the child or adolescent to experience and consequently increase awareness of his or her own self—a critical foundation for growth and change.
This book describes the foundational elements of counseling and psychotherapy with children and adolescents. It includes updates and expanded material about clients’ affect, trauma, substance abuse, progress monitoring, self-care, referral for medication, and mindfulness. Of particular interest is a series of new elements including elements addressing sexual and gender identity, social media, sexuality and harassment, and rules for use of technology. All of these topics have become increasingly important in counselors’ conceptualization of children and adolescent clients and therapy. The book emphasizes the conditions and processes of creating growth within the child, explicating the process of assisting growth and self-inquiry. There are new sections on grounding feelings in the body, teaching tools for distress tolerance, and highlighting the importance of progress monitoring. The book discusses teaching skills for negotiating social conflict—a substantial stressor for children and adolescents. It provides guidance on cocreating individual and family rules for use of technology. It also addresses frequent misconceptions and mistaken assumptions followed by the discussion on crisis intervention, effective referral skills, cultural competency and mandated reporting. The book then addresses issues such as coming to terms with one’s own childhood and adolescence and the rescue fantasy. There is a succinct introduction to interventions (i.e., including a list of more comprehensive texts on counseling with children and adolescents) and an updated review of techniques often used in work with children and adolescents (e.g., play therapy, brief, solution-focused therapy). For ease of reading the word caregiver will be used to indicate a parent, legal guardian, foster parent, and so on. The book focuses on counselor self-care and provides guidance for setting boundaries, knowing their edge, practicing within competency, and assessing and planning personal self-care. Finally, it closes with a brief overview of how to use the text for transcript analysis in training programs.
There are several misconceptions and assumptions that can reduce the effectiveness of counseling with children and adolescents. New therapists and counselors in training may need to ultimately unlearn assumptions that they carried with them—knowingly or not—before entering professional training programs. This chapter reviews some common misconceptions and assumptions made by counselors at all levels. The field of motivational interviewing has emerged to address the resistance to change and the challenges associated with preparing clients for change. It seems that rational, irrational, positive, and negative thinking are important to untangle when working with children and adolescents. The goal is to help clients to challenge erroneous thinking, distortions, or faulty interpretations that lead them to negative outcomes as well as help them to anchor their academic, interpersonal, and other efforts in an effective understanding of their current abilities, skills, and context.
This chapter details the elements of counseling with children and adolescents that are essential to setting a solid stage for deeper work. It covers the techniques addressing the initial contact and important contextual issues, such as setting up a child- and adolescent-friendly office space. Initial contact sets the stage for the therapeutic alliance. Research has shown that educating clients about counseling improves treatment progress and outcome, attendance, and helps to prevent premature termination. Counseling provides a safe, nonjudgmental space in which clients can self-reflect; identify strengths; experiment with new ideas of self and ways of being; and learn effective emotional regulation, relationship, and life skills. Beginning counseling can be quite stressful for some children and their caregivers, and breaking down barriers is essential. Once relationships are established and counseling is flowing naturally, both the counselor and the client feel more relaxed.
The American Psychological Association (APA) has defined evidence-based practice (EBP) as “the integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences”. This chapter highlights a number of contemporary approaches to counseling with children and adolescents. First, though, it is important to consider some issues specific to empirically supported treatments (ESTs) with children and adolescents. Children and adolescents are still developing in terms of cognitive style, self-concept, and overall worldview. It is key that interventions are tailored to match emerging abilities and relevant contexts. The chapter deals with evidence-based practice and issues with ESTs. Integrative approaches often involve the combination of two or more standard approaches into one treatment modality. Cognitive behavior therapy is one such integrative approach and, in general, the available empirical evidence demonstrates that, for most emotional and behavioral youth disorders, cognitive, behaviorally oriented therapies produce the best outcomes.
This book deals with a number of issues and strategies for counseling people with disabilities. It allows counselors and other related health professionals to learn from the writings of 16 people with disabilities across North America. The book provides information on how other professional disciplines perceive and are trained to view disability. It discusses the medical and psychosocial aspects of caregiving in the country and highlights some of the most difficult decisions individuals and families may have to make in this process. The book is organized into four parts containing sixteen chapters. Part I explores disability from a sociological perspective. The topics covered are: the history of how people with disabilities have been viewed and treated in society; attitude formation, societal attitudes, and myths about disabilities; culturally different issues and attitudes toward disability; and attitudes toward disability by specific special interest and occupational groups. Part II focuses on the psychology of disability surrounding the individual and his or her family. The topics address: theories of adjustment to disability by the individual; family adaptation across cultures toward a loved one who is disabled; sexuality and disability; and the psychosocial world of the injured worker. Part III addresses pertinent topics concerning psychosocial issues of disability. The topics include: disability and quality of life over the life span; implications of social support and caregiving of loved ones with a disability; and thriving versus succumbing to disability: psychosocial factors and positive psychology. Part IV addresses counseling strategies and insights for working with persons with disabilities. The topics discuss: which counseling theories and techniques work best with different disability populations and why; social justice, oppression, and disability; counseling families in the community; ethical responsibilities in working with persons with disabilities and our duty to educate; and basic dos and don’ts in counseling persons with disabilities.
The authors of this chapter are tasked with reviewing the dos and don’ts of interacting with people with disabilities as human beings. A collection of suggested behaviors, a disability etiquette, has emerged from the collective experience of people with disabilities and is widely available in brochures and on the Internet. Although disability etiquette is an important read for anyone in the field, it is not a sufficient guide for the rehabilitation counselor. The authors are a value-driven profession. They share allegiance to the fundamental mission of full community inclusion for people with disabilities. They act with their clients and on their behalf to help individuals achieve standing in their communities and to advance a more inclusive world for all people with disabilities. Disability etiquette is only the superficial expression of professional values that have much deeper roots and higher aspirations.
This chapter provided an overview of the possible effects that the work of counseling may have upon counselors themselves. It has long been recognized that exposure to the distressing experiences and feelings of others can cause similar distress in those who listen and provide intervention. We also recognize that counselors can derive benefit and grow from the work that they do with their clients. Finding approaches to the work of counseling that enhance the potential for growth while minimizing distress is significant part of maintaining successful counseling practice. The chapter addresses issues related to counselor self-care and maintaining a healthy ability to continue with the work of counseling. The issues that are addressed include vicarious responses to trauma (both positive and negative), a biopsychosocial systemic approach to counselor wellness, strategies for engaging in wellness-focused self-evaluation, techniques and tools for stress management, and approaches for maintaining a healthy work/life balance.