This chapter starts with a global definition of motivation: an internal state that arouses people to action, moves them in particular directions, and keeps people engaged in certain activities. Motivation is not a learning theory, but it affects what people learn. Classical conditioning, think Pavlov’s dogs is a learning theory and motivation has essentially no role in it. The chapter provides an overview of early theories of motivation, starting with Aristotle. Compulsion occurs when people feel that they must act, even though they may not wish to act in a particular way. For ancient Greek philosophers, hedonism meant pleasure is to exceed pain over the long haul, thereby acknowledging life will not always be pleasurable. The James–Lange theory involves motivation from an emotional perspective. Behaviorism is hard to describe mainly because most people have a misunderstanding of two of its elements: punishment and reinforcement.
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Treatment of Behavioral Addictions Utilizing the Feeling-State Addiction Protocol: A Multiple Baseline Study
This article proposes a new treatment for behavioral addictions, which are commonly treated with some form of cognitive behavioral therapy. The Feeling-State Addiction Protocol (FSAP), based on the feeling-state theory of behavioral and substance addiction, proposes that just as single-event traumas can become fixated with negative feelings, intensely positive events can become fixated with positive feelings. This fixated linkage between an event and a feeling is called a feeling-state (FS). A multiple baseline study of the FSAP was performed using only the steps of the protocol that involved the processing of the FSs. The results of the study of 4 participants (each with at least two compulsions) indicated for 3 of the 4 participants a clear link between the processing of the FSs and reduced reactivity to the visualized behavior. The reactivity was measured by skin conductance level and a positive feeling scale. All four participants reported that their compulsive behavior was eliminated after the intervention targeted the FSs.