This chapter explores how a love researcher goes from having a conception or even a theory of love to actually constructing a love scale. A love scale provides a way to test the validity of a theory. A love scale enables couples to assess one aspect of their compatibility. A love scale provides individuals and couples an opportunity to enhance their love relationships. The one important thing to remember is that as measuring instruments love scales are far from perfect. Love scales are no different from scales for measuring intelligence or personality. An investigator might simultaneously measure intimacy with the intimacy subscale of the Triangular Love Scale and observe a couple in interaction, looking for behaviors signifying trust, caring, compassion, and communication. No scientist today believes that it is possible to capture the entire phenomenon of love through scientific study or through scales that are geared to measure love.
Your search for all content returned 285 results
The purpose of the orienting to present reality (OPR) exercise is to help clients with a dissociative disorder, or help dissociative symptoms work with their ego state system to begin to experience present time and place. This generally enhances feelings of reality and security for the system as well as their sense of appropriate caring and protection by the adult client. The OPR Protocol is done in three steps: getting to know the ego state(s), using the workplace, and comparison between the present and the past. Generally, OPR will need to be repeated many times during treatment, since parts may appear who need orientation or reorientation during any phase in the therapy. This includes times during eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) trauma processing when a disoriented part(s) may appear.
The author, Jean Watson, began to recognize that people could never know the subjective inner life world of others, but can be open to connecting human-to-human with others, realizing that one person’s level of humanity reflects on us all. Her journey as an ‘identified leader’ in nursing has taken her, and continues to take her, into the heart of nursing the soul of nursing, the sacred dimensions of nursing to be more specific. In summary, her so-called leadership has evolved from within, leading by following her inner passion, heart-centered vision, and ethical ideals of acknowledging and honoring that nurses hold a moral covenant with humanity to sustain human caring, health, and wholeness with dignity and informed moral compassion. The human sacred dimension of nursing is the bedrock and the moral motivation, which sets the value’s frame and serves as the moral map, vision, guide, and prophetic mentor into our future.
The author, Mary Rockwood Lane, discovered that her life as a woman, nurse, artist, activist, and writer was her destiny and spiritual journey. It all seemed to come together on a single day, when she felt a profound inner shift that revealed her true essence; the day that made her realize why she became a nurse in the first place. Lane’s research study showed that creativity helped patients find love and compassion. The research revealed themes that creativity helped patients get in touch with their inner wisdom, with their soul or spirit. Lane believed in caring and forgiveness. She began to understand why caring was actually the choice for peace and war was not. Our ability to live in peace comes from our authenticity as human beings. Peace is the cornerstone of wholeness and health and Caritas is an ethical and philosophical foundation for creating peace.
The author, A. Lynne Wagner, has always envisioned nurses needing an expansive knowledge of body and disease, of clinical skills and machinery, and perhaps team skills of working together in a crisis. Wagner began her journey in exploring the power of reflective inquiry via story and aesthetic expression to inform self and others through three avenues that fostered deeper meaning of nursing: Nurse-Self as Artist; Practicing Nurse as Artist; and Nurse-Researcher as Artist. A typology of three modes of reflection-cognitive, affective, and collective- used to explore caring-self in nursing practice emerged from the data, describing different activities, processes, and outcomes of reflective storytelling that lead to a fuller understanding of experiences. Wagner came to nursing with a strong moral, ethical foundation of caring for others, with a sense of respect and compassion that was fostered by her caregivers, role models, mentors, and growing spirituality throughout her life.
The author, Tilda Shalof, has been a nurse for 33 years, the past 28 of them in the medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU) at Toronto General Hospital. She have also been a nurse actor for doctors’ practical examinations, an insurance nurse, a flu shot nurse, a traveling nurse, a school nurse, a nurse artist, a nurse writer, and a camp nurse, and now she is a nurse working in a clinic that cares for people living with HIV. In the ICU, patients are unstable, most are unconscious, and all have catastrophic, multisystem, life-threatening illnesses. One surefire way to keep patients safe is for nurses to be vocal, brave, smart, and empowered-and for there to be enough of them. Shalof spent time with nurses caring for soldiers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and others who care for homeless, pregnant, often drug-addicted young women, and sex workers.
- Go to chapter: Development of the Caring Factor Survey (CFS), an Instrument to Measure Patient’s Perception of Caring
Development of the Caring Factor Survey (CFS), an Instrument to Measure Patient’s Perception of Caring
The Caring Factor Survey (CFS) is a tool that examines the construct of caritas, which literally means divine care/love. This chapter reviews the initial psychometric testing of the CFS that was a result of studies conducted in 2006 and 2007. Development of psychometrically sound instruments is essential to articulate the place care has within the increasingly mechanistic environment of healthcare. The CFS has been used in specific contexts to test the processes of caring: hospice, long-term care, care of patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy, patients with coronary heart disease, and labor and delivery. The CFS has also been used to create six derivation works such as caring for self, caring for coworkers, and caring of the manager. A search for the CFS or any derivation work in Google Scholar will provide many more resources for building an argument on the impact of the caritas processes being enacted on self and others.
The Caring Efficacy Scale (CES) was currently a consultant in the area of measurement and program evaluation. It was designed to assess an individual’s confidence in (or sense of efficacy about) his or her ability to express a caring orientation and establish a caring relationship with patients. The conceptual theoretical basis for the scale is Bandura’s self-efficacy theory from the discipline of social psychology and Watson’s theory of transpersonal human caring from nursing. The most current version of the instrument is intended to be used to evaluate outcomes of nursing education in a new advanced program with a formal caring philosophy and caring curriculum. This tool is guided by theories from both social psychology and nursing caring theory. It has been tested in nursing education and clinical care settings. It has psychometric sophistication in its development, use, and refinement. The Likert form makes it relatively easy to use.
Nyberg’s Caring Assessment (also referred to as the Caring Attributes Scale, or CAS) was developed based on caring attributes reported in the literature. The instrument is not focused on behavior but on attributes, which author uses in an attempt to philosophically and operationally capture the subjective aspect of caring. The caring attributes are such dimensions as deep respect for the needs of others, a belief that others have potential, and commitment to relationship. The tool focuses on the human care element of nursing. The conceptual definitions became the operational definitions as the questionnaire was developed. Thus, construct and content validity were the outcome of the method of development of this measurement scale. The questionnaire has been used to measure the results of changing nursing practice, such as the implementation of primary nursing or relationship-centered nursing. While permission to use the scale was given in all instances.
The family caring inventory is the only known instrument specifically designed to isolate and measure the concept of caring in the family. The ability to display and receive caring is the strategic core, or key factor, of healthy family functioning, especially when coping with stressful life events. The family caring inventory expands the concept of caring from the individual to the family level. Similar to negotiating partnerships in Powell-Cope’s (1994) middle-range theory of the caregiving role, the family caring inventory is based on a reciprocal interaction of caring. Consequences of family caring are viewed as resilience, cohesion, holism, growth and development, inner harmony, power, self-worth, met needs, increased knowledge, enrichment, health and healing, and development of humanity. From this conceptual map, dimensions of family caring evolved into four major categories: caring behavior or expressiveness, caring thoughts, caring feelings or emotions, and caring process.