Fibromyalgia or the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic pain disorder characterized by fatigue, muscle pain, tenderness, and sleep difficulties. This syndrome is referred as “soft-tissue rheumatism”. Fibromyalgia is a disorder that intrudes upon the daily life of people and is a worldwide phenomenon. Fibromyalgia might also include other symptoms such as concentration and memory problems, labile mood, depression, anxiety, sleep problems, painful menstrual cramps, and numbness. Because FMS has no relevant organic pathology, it is placed in the realm of medically unexplained physical symptoms. Recent studies are providing early evidence for the use of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for chronic pain patients. Also, EMDR therapy is being used for other pain conditions, including fibromyalgia. Therefore, the EMDR Fibromyalgia Syndrome Protocol created includes the three-pronged protocol and an in-depth history of the client’s FMS and trauma. More research is needed to support this new protocol.
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Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is a form of psychotherapy used for individuals who have experienced stress-related injuries. Having an unpleasant experience of previous childbirth can cause anxiety and fear of labor in women during the next childbirth. The aim of this study was investigating the effect of the EMDR therapy on childbirth anxiety among multiparous women in the next normal pregnancy, following a prior stillbirth. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted with 30 pregnant women after they were admitted for delivery in an urban hospital in Qazvin, Iran, in 2016. The participants were selected using a convenient sampling method and then were randomly assigned into two groups, EMDR intervention (n = 15) and usual treatment control (n = 15). The Van den Bergh Pregnancy-Related Anxiety questionnaire was used to collect data before treatment (on admission when recruited for study) and after treatment (within 24 hours after childbirth). The EMDR therapy for the intervention group was performed with a 90-minute session when participants were admitted in hospital for delivery. The control group received only routine care. Data were collected using descriptive and inferential statistics and p < .05 was considered statistically significant. A statistically significant reduction in the mean anxiety in the EMDR intervention group compared to the control group was reported. Also, a reduction in the scores of posttest compared with pretest was observed in the EMDR intervention group (p < .01). The EMDR therapy reduced childbirth anxiety in pregnant women during normal pregnancy, following previous stillbirth.
- Go to article: The Interactive Effect of Happiness Emotion Goals and Emotion Regulation Self-Efficacy on Anxiety and Depression
The Interactive Effect of Happiness Emotion Goals and Emotion Regulation Self-Efficacy on Anxiety and Depression
Overvaluation of happiness might be a transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology. However, emotion regulation self-efficacy may influence the association between happiness emotion goals and psychopathology. The purpose of the present study was twofold. First, we sought to replicate prior findings showing that happiness emotion goals and depressive symptoms are positively related, but only among those with lower emotion regulation self-efficacy. Second, we examined whether the noted interaction effect would relate to generalized anxiety symptoms in a sample of general population adults (N = 504). Results from regression analyses were consistent with our predictions suggesting that individuals with unrealistic happiness emotion goals and low emotion regulation self-efficacy may be particularly prone to experiencing negative emotional states and psychological distress. Further, study findings suggest the possibility that the noted interaction has transdiagnostic value and it may be important to target emotion regulation self-efficacy in the service of alleviating internalizing psychopathology.
- Go to chapter: Thriving Versus Succumbing to Disability: Psychosocial Factors and Positive Psychology
Perhaps the most crucial and significant question rehabilitation researchers have sought to answer over the past several decades is: How is it that some persons with disabilities appear to excel and succeed in life beyond all expectations, whereas others seemingly succumb or yield to the limits imposed by their disabilities and society? This chapter explores the multiple factors that contribute to this dichotomy. It focuses on disability from a salutogenic orientation (focusing on the traits of healthy and successful persons) as opposed to the traditional pathological approach (focusing on the reasons and treatment of those beleaguered with ongoing mental and physical health problems) (Antonovsky, 1987). The chapter briefly explores several of the more common disabling conditions in the United States, specifically substance use disorder (SUD), depression, anxiety, and suicide. It also explores the literature behind positive psychology and also the environmental and social barriers that obstruct wellness.
- Go to article: Randomized Controlled Trial: Provision of EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents and Ongoing Traumatic Stress to First Responders
Randomized Controlled Trial: Provision of EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents and Ongoing Traumatic Stress to First Responders
This randomized controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents and Ongoing Traumatic Stress (EMDR-PRECI) in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression symptoms related to the work of first responders on active duty. Participants were randomly assigned to two 60-minute individual treatment sessions (N = 30) or to a no-treatment control condition (N = 30). They completed pre-, post-, and follow-up measurements using the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) (PCL-5) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Data analysis by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed clear effects of the EMDR-PRECI in reducing PTSD work-related symptoms in the treatment group with symptom reduction maintained at 90-day follow-up with a large effect size (d = 3.99), while participants continued to experience direct exposure to potentially traumatic work-related events during the follow-up period. Data analysis by repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between time and group, F (2,116) = 153.83, p < .001, ηP2 = .726 for PTSD, and for anxiety F (1,58) = 37.40, p < .005, ηP2 = .090, but not for depression. A t-test showed a clear decrease for depression symptoms for the treatment group with statistically significant results. The study results suggest that the EMDR-PRECI could be an efficient and effective way to address first responders' work-related PTSD, anxiety and depression symptoms. Future research is recommended to replicate these results and to investigate if symptom improvement also results in the reduction of physical health symptoms and early retirement for PTSD-related reasons among first responders.
- Go to article: Introduction to the Special Issue: Challenges in Treating Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder With Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
Introduction to the Special Issue: Challenges in Treating Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder With Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a recommended treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). CBT offers specific interventions with demonstrated efficacy, including both cognitive therapy and exposure and ritual prevention (ERP). Yet, implementing these techniques with individual patients can present clinical challenges. In this special issue, expert clinicians and researchers present cases in which they addressed some common challenges in implementing CBT for OCD, including comorbid depression, poor insight, and family accommodation of symptoms in pediatric OCD. Other papers present how CBT can be tailored to specific OCD manifestations, including post-partum OCD, taboo thoughts, and relationship OCD. Other authors detail how they have augmented standard ERP with additional treatment techniques to maximize outcomes. These articles present a diverse set of case histories and specific treatment techniques that illustrate ways to maximize the effectiveness of CBT for OCD, serving as a useful guide for clinicians in practice and highlighting areas for future research.
- Go to article: EMDR and Nonpharmacological Techniques for Anxiety Prevention in Children Prior to Invasive Medical Procedures: A Randomized Controlled Trial
EMDR and Nonpharmacological Techniques for Anxiety Prevention in Children Prior to Invasive Medical Procedures: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nonpharmacological Techniques (NPT) have been suggested as an efficient and safe means to reduce pain and anxiety in invasive medical procedures. Due to the anxious and potentially traumatic nature of these procedures, we decided to integrate an eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) session in the preprocedure NPT. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of one session of EMDR in addition to the routine NPT. Forty-nine pediatric patients (Male = 25; Female = 24) aged 8–18 years (M = 13.17; SD = 2.98) undergoing painful and invasive medical procedures were randomized to receive standard preprocedural care (N = 25) or a session of EMDR in addition to the standard nonpharmacological interventions (N = 24). Participants completed the anxiety and depression scales from the Italian Psychiatric Self-evaluation Scale for Children and Adolescents (SAFA) and rated anxiety on a 0–10 numeric rating scale. Participants in the NPT+EMDR condition expressed significantly less anxiety before the medical procedure than those in the NPT group (p = .038). The integration of EMDR with NPT was demonstrated to be an effective anxiety prevention technique for pediatric sedo-analgesia. These results are the first data on the efficacy of EMDR as a technique to prevent anxiety in pediatric sedo-analgesia. There are important long-term clinical implications because this therapy allows an intervention on situations at risk of future morbidity and the prevention of severe disorders.
- Go to article: The Role of Metacognitions and Thinking Styles in the Negative Outcomes of Adolescents' Peer Victimization
The Role of Metacognitions and Thinking Styles in the Negative Outcomes of Adolescents' Peer Victimization
Psychological mechanisms that may explain the link between peer victimization and its adverse outcomes are still understudied. The current study aimed to apply the Self-Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model of psychopathology (Wells & Matthews, 1994, 1996) to help explain this link in a sample of adolescents. A total of 1,169 Italian adolescents (47.7% females; Mage = 15.79, SD = 1.07) completed self-report measures of peer victimization, metacognitions, thinking styles (worry and rumination), and adjustment indices (somatic symptoms, anxiety, depression). The hypothesized model based on the S-REF model was tested through path analysis. Results confirmed that peer victimization was positively associated with both positive and negative metacognitions that, in turn, were linked to worry and rumination, which were associated with higher psychological and somatic problems. The strongest indirect links were found between peer victimization and anxiety via negative metacognitions and worry, and between victimization and depression via negative metacognitions and rumination. Overall, the results support to the application of the S-REF model to peer victimization experiences during adolescence. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.Source:
Assessing and managing crisis situations are among the most challenging parts of the practicum and internship experience. No area of professional counseling practice creates as much stress and anxiety as crisis situations. Most practicum and internship settings, whether in schools, agencies, residential treatment centers, hospitals, and so forth, likely will try to screen potential crisis clients away from practicum and internship students due to the complexity and potentially litigious nature of a crisis. Because no screening system is perfect, however, counseling programs must prepare students for the possibility that they will encounter crisis clients on practicum. This chapter provides an overview of crisis situations and ways interns can begin addressing them. The most important information needed to address a crisis is to remain calm and to consult with the supervisor or a senior counselor if the supervisor is unavailable.
- Go to article: A Close Look Into Coping Cat: Strategies Within an Empirically Supported Treatment for Anxiety in Youth
A Close Look Into Coping Cat: Strategies Within an Empirically Supported Treatment for Anxiety in Youth
The Coping Cat protocol has shown both efficacy and effectiveness in the treatment of youth anxiety across numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs), leading to its designation as an empirically supported treatment. The treatment is completed in two phases. In the first phase, children are taught a series of coping skills outlined using the FEAR plan acronym. The FEAR plan is then practiced in exposure tasks during the second phase of treatment. To illustrate implementation of both phases, and highlight core treatment components (i.e., exposure, flexibility within fidelity), a case description is presented. Directions for future research are discussed.