This chapter helps readers to understand the main characteristics of the three major types of eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating. It also examines each disorder from a neurobiological perspective, including genetic factors when known, neuroimaging results, the understanding of neurotransmitter dysregulation, cognitive performance, and various types of treatment. The chapter then presents the consideration of the unique challenges associated with comorbidity, societal pressure, and medical implications. Eating disorders are increasingly common, debilitating, and potentially life-threatening disorders that are clearly linked in their neurobiological basis. Mental health professionals should be aware of the signs and symptoms of eating disorders, as individuals might not disclose their eating habits as readily as their mood, anxiety level, or other symptoms. Treatment is complex, as no medication has been shown to be consistently effective, and each eating disorder will bring with it specific goals.
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This chapter discusses the social psychology of humor, starting with a walk through how the presence of other people can make things seem funnier. It shows how humor can have a positive or a negative tone and it can focus on ourselves or on those around us. Self-enhancing humor makes stress tolerable. It can keep folks from viewing minor annoyances as unbearable disasters. The chapter sketches how humor can function to maintain the status quo. People who report using self-enhancing humor show less anxiety, neuroticism, and depression; better psychological well-being and self-esteem, and more extraversion, optimism, and openness to experience. When it comes to hierarchies, getting a feel for who’s cracking jokes and laughing can communicate who’s top dog. The chapter finally focuses on gender differences, and then sees how humor contributes to developing friendships, finding a date, and maintaining an intimate relationship.Source:
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with children addresses four main aims: to decrease behavior, to increase behavior, to remove anxiety, and to facilitate development. Each of these aims targets one of the four main groups of children referred to treatment. This chapter suggests a route for applying effective interventions in the day-to-day work of social workers who are involved in direct interventions with children and their families. An effective intervention is one that links developmental components with evidence-based practice to help enable clients to live with, accept, cope with, resolve, and overcome their distress and to improve their subjective well-being. CBT offers a promising approach to address such needs for treatment efficacy, on the condition that social workers adapt basic CBT to the specific needs of children and design the intervention holistically to foster change in children. Adolescent therapy covers rehabilitative activities and reduces the disability arising from an established disorder.
- Go to chapter: Overview of the Problem-Solving Therapy Process, Introductory Sessions, and the Case of “Megan”
This chapter presents the therapy manual detailing the specific treatment guidelines encompassing problem-solving therapy (PST). It is important during the initial sessions with a new client to develop a positive therapeutic relationship. Upon obtaining a brief version of the client’s story, it becomes important early in treatment to provide an overview of PST that includes a rationale for why it is relevant to, and potentially effective for, this individual. Problem solving can be thought of as a set of skills or tools that people use to handle, cope with, or resolve difficult situations encountered in daily living. Research has demonstrated that social problem solving is comprised of two major components. The first is called problem orientation. The second major component is one’s problem-solving style. The chapter also presents the case of a 27-year-old woman suffering from multiple concerns, including anxiety, depression, fears of “going crazy”, and prior alcohol abuse.
Clients with dissociative identity disorder (DID) or dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS) live with a multiple reality disorder where parts are often living in the past and are not aware of where they are, the current date, or the time. The goal of this resource is to reduce the anxiety of parts living in the past and increase the client’s ability to differentiate the past from the present. Beginning with the host, adult, or other oriented parts, make a list of information that the disoriented parts need to be oriented and to decrease anxiety. Once the list is developed, install the list using dual attention stimulation (DAS). Useful items tend to be concrete and help differentiate the past from the present. If the client is being abused in some way in the present, often there are ways to differentiate the past from the present.
- Go to chapter: Constructive Avoidance of Present Day Situations: Techniques for Managing Critical Life Issues
The purpose of the constructive avoidance script is to assist clients in dealing with their anxiety or stress-provoking present day situations. Dissociative clients generally are phobic or avoidant of many activities such as medical procedures, going to the dentist, taking examinations, going for job interviews, and so forth due to the complex nature of their traumas, panic, anxiety, and other trauma-related problems. When the client is going to encounter a situation that has caused high stress or triggering in the past and has not completed eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) target focusing on that issue, chances are that the ego states involved are not yet ready to deal with the situation. The client can practice with the parts before the upcoming event in sessions and as homework between sessions. This protocol assumes that clients have already established a Home Base and Workplace.
This chapter serves as a one-stop resource where therapists can access a wide range of word-for-word scripted protocols for Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) practice, including the past, present, and future templates. These scripts are conveniently outlined in an easy-to-use, manual style template for therapists, allowing them to have a reliable, consistent form and procedure when using EMDR with clients. There is a self-awareness questionnaire to assist clinicians in identifying potential problems that often arise in treatment, allowing for strategies to deal with them. Some clients may be able to talk about their trauma; however, the thought of processing it with the Standard EMDR Protocol may seem too overwhelming. In cases such as these, having the client develop a resource to address the “fear of the fear” may reduce the anxiety of reprocessing the traumatic memory.
The Wedging or Strengthening Technique has been modified in Germany and is called the Absorption Technique to create resources to deal with what the client is concerned about in the future, or having stress about working with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the future, a present trigger or even an intrusive memory. Having clients imagine a strength or skill that would help them during the problem often helps them to reduce their anxiety. Focusing on a specific strength or coping skill may create a wedge of safety or control that will assist clients with the difficult situation in the future. During the Future Phase of the Inverted Protocol for Unstable complex post-traumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD) use the Absorption or Wedging Technique to develop as many different resources for the different issues about which the client might be concerned.
This chapter demonstrates a sex therapist’s utilization of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) within the context of the 3-pronged approach to target issues related to sexual dysfunction. Clients undergoing EMDR treatment for sexual dysfunction may often feel anxious and vulnerable during their sessions. This may be because the act of processing certain sexual events may trigger physical arousal that may lead to feelings of embarrassment and anxiety. Sexual dysfunction is a very vast area of study. Each sexual dysfunction has its own diagnostic criteria, assessment, and treatment. It is very important for clinicians to gain enough training and supervision in sex therapy before using EMDR protocol. Clinicians who have not addressed their own inhibitions, guilt or shame about their sexuality may cause harm to clients and to themselves. This protocol works best within the context of ongoing couple therapy and sex therapy.
Palliative care is considered a subspecialty of medicine and nursing, with certifications offered to insure the highest quality of care that can be offered to those with acute, chronic, progressive, life-altering, or life-threatening diseases. Palliative and hospice care are on the same continuum. Hospice care is offered in the last 6 months of life, whereas palliative care is offered earlier, at the time of diagnosis, with any diagnosis that can eventually lead to death. This book gives palliative care and hospice nurses the advanced knowledge they need, beyond their undergraduate and graduate nursing education, to incorporate advanced empirical, aesthetic, ethical, and personal knowledge into their nursing practice. The book is organized into four sections comprising 27 chapters. Section I articulates the purpose and value of palliative care and hospice nursing and the revolution across America and the world, which demands the relief of suffering and every effort to promote quality of life until its end. Section II emphasizes on the care for the whole person and family. The chapters on culture and spirituality, and sexuality will help to recognize that a person is more than a physical body. The art of communication, the promotion of health, and holistic therapies are also taught. Section III focuses on advancing one’s knowledge of life-threatening diseases such as cancer, end-stage heart disease, end-stage heart disease, end-stage renal disease, end-stage liver disease, chronic lung disease, neurological disorders, HIV/AIDS. Section IV deals with effective management of symptoms such as dyspnea, anxiety, depression, delirium, posttraumatic stress disorders, gastrointestinal symptoms, fatigue, and skin alterations by pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic, and complementary therapies. In the peri-death chapter, nurses will learn how their presence at the deathbed can imprint a memory that replaces fear with calm, suffering with relief, and sorrow with abundant appreciation and love.