This chapter aims to help clinicians learn stabilization interventions for use in the Preparation Phase of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) treatment. Using these interventions will aid clients in developing readiness for processing trauma, learning how to manage symptoms of dissociation, dealing with affect regulation, and developing the necessary internal cohesion and resources to utilize the EMDR trauma-processing phase. Earlier negative experiences stored dysfunctionally increase vulnerability to anxiety disorders, depression, and other diagnoses. When assessing a client with a complex trauma history, clinicians need to view current symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depression as reflections of the earlier traumas. The chapter outlines the strategies dealing with dissociative symptoms, ego state work, and internal stability that help clinicians to develop an individualized treatment plan to successfully guide the client through the EMDR phases of treatment.
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- Go to chapter: Stabilization Phase of Trauma Treatment: Introducing and Accessing the Ego State System
- Go to chapter: A Developmentally Grounded and Integrative Clinical Approach for Treating Complex Trauma and Dissociative Disorders in Children
A Developmentally Grounded and Integrative Clinical Approach for Treating Complex Trauma and Dissociative Disorders in Children
Children are exposed to distress, violence, and trauma even before they are born. In-utero and early childhood exposure can contribute to severe medical and psychological consequences. Children who have been exposed to such traumatic events often arrive at the psychotherapist’s office with emotional and behavioral symptoms suggestive of reactive attachment disorder (RAD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and dissociation. This chapter reviews relevant theories of dissociation integrated with theories of development to provide a summary of how attachment impacts dissociation. With a developmentally grounded theory of dissociation, the chapter describes clinical interventions for treating the dissociative sequelae of attachment trauma in children. This theoretical framework offers a developmentally grounded and integrative framework for working with children with complex trauma and dissociation. Symptoms of dissociation are common with PTSD, but an extreme response to trauma can be dissociation and dissociative disorders.
- Go to chapter: Use of Meditative Dialogue to Cultivate Compassion and Empathy With Survivors of Complex Childhood Trauma
Use of Meditative Dialogue to Cultivate Compassion and Empathy With Survivors of Complex Childhood Trauma
This chapter offers a review of selective literature on complex childhood trauma. It explains a case study demonstrating the use of meditative dialogue, a collaborative practice through which client and therapist are able to work together to develop empathy and compassion toward self and others during psychotherapy sessions. Thompson and Waltz described an inverse relationship between exposure to trauma and subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity, and self-compassion. Recent neuroscience research has begun examining the effects of meditation practices on specific areas of the brain through neuroimaging studies. Clinical trials on the use of meditative dialogue in psychotherapy with survivors of complex childhood trauma, looking at the brains of the clients, and using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure changes, would help to demonstrate its efficacy and move it into the realm of evidence-based practices.
This chapter describes the toxic stress often experienced by young homeless children and the effect that this type of stress can have on brain development, behavior, and lifelong health. Mental health and cognitive challenges are abundant among homeless families. Stress can affect maternal cardiovascular function and restrict blood supply to the placenta, potentially reducing fetal nutritional intake or oxygen supply, and lead to reduced fetal growth, increased risk of placental insufficiency, preeclampsia, and preterm delivery. Trauma in early childhood has clear neurological and developmental consequences, especially with regard to brain development and executive functioning. The chronic release of two stress hormones glucocorticoids and cortisol can have damaging effects on neurological functioning and lifelong health. Similarly, exposure to high levels of cortisol inhibit neurogenesis in the hippocampus, further impacting executive functioning and the ability to distinguish safety from danger, a symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
This chapter describes maneuvers to access the internal system of the patient as well as means to accelerate or decelerate the work in that process of accessing the self-system. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), ego state therapy, and somatic therapy fit together like hand and glove. An extended preparation phase is often necessary before trauma processing in complex traumatic stress presentations and attachment-related syndromes, particularly when dealing with the sequelae of chronic early trauma. Clinical practice suggests that the adjunctive use of body therapy and ego state interventions can be useful, during stabilization and later on in increasing the treatment response to EMDR. Traditional treatment of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative disorders has usually included hypnoanalytic interventions, during which abreaction is considered an important part of treatment.
This chapter discusses the impact of trauma and its treatment through discussion of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its neurological components-especially those affecting memory, evidence-based therapies (EBTs) for the treatment of PTSD, and the implications for practice, policy, and research. Two primary predictors exist for a person developing PTSD. The first one is experiencing dissociation during the trauma. The second predictor is the person developing acute stress disorder. Specifically, neuroimaging shows how PTSD affects neurological functioning in the brain. The primary regions of the brain affected by PTSD are the medial prefrontal cortex, the left anterior cingulate cortex, the thalamus, the medial temporal and hippocampal region, and the amygdala. The different regions of the brain associated with memory encoding are: left prefrontal cortex, left temporal/fusiform, anterior cingulate, and hipocampal formation. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been used extensively to treat PTSD.
This chapter focuses on identifying and working with dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders in a therapeutic context, providing a road map to assist with the pacing and planning of clinical interventions. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep can be conceptualized as a household strength processor that can accommodate the usual processing requirements of daily life. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been historically defined as requiring a trauma that is outside the range of normal human experience. Hypoarousal and parasympathetic activation that are an intrinsic part of dissociative symptoms are much more difficult to assess. The original painful memories live on in flashbacks and nightmares as well as in reenactments of the unconscious dynamics captured from the family of origin’s enactments of perpetration, victimization, rescuing, and neglect. Excessive sympathetic nervous system activation is easily construed to be an indicator of psychopathology.
This chapter reviews the disturbances in self-referential processing and social cognition in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to early-life trauma. It talks about the neural underpinnings of self-referential processing and examines how they may relate the integrity of the default mode network (DMN). The chapter describes the deficits in social cognition, with a particular focus on theory of mind in PTSD and the neural circuitry underlying direct versus avert eye contact. It then addresses the implications for assessment and treatment. Johnson demonstrated that self-referential processing is associated with the activation of cortical midline structures and therefore overlaps with key areas of the DMN in healthy individuals. Healthy individuals exhibited faster responses to the self-relevance of personal characteristics than to the accuracy of general facts. Less activation of the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) was observed for the contrast of self-relevance of personal characteristics relative to general facts as compared to controls.
Child psychotherapy is different than any other type of adult-child relationship. A trained mental health professional is using clinical skills to help a child find the answers to the problems he or she has encountered. This chapter outlines the most common symptoms in child psychotherapy. Anxiety is one of the most common symptoms of childhood, but the etiology and manifestation of anxiety varies. Anxiety is a symptom of many other disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), separation anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social phobia and other specific phobias, selective mutism, mood disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Gifted children tend to have higher levels of anxiety because they can think about things they are not yet emotionally prepared to manage. The chapter discusses clinical interventions for common issues of childhood, along with resources for children, directions for parents, and references for parents, caregivers, educators, and therapists alike.
This chapter provides information for therapists to integrate theories of neuroscience into the practice of child psychotherapy. Neuroscientists have described how the brain develops, documented the impact of external experiences on the developing brain, and integrated theories of neurodevelopment and neuroplasticity into our understanding of the impact of our interpersonal relationships on our brain. The chapter focuses on developmental trauma disorder and the research on the impact of trauma on children. The majority of the research on trauma in children has focused on the assessment and diagnosis of Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, there are a limited number of studies that have documented the efficacy of the treatment of PTSD in children. The chapter reviews diagnoses specific to neurodevelopment, including autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and sensory processing disorders (SPD).
This chapter presents a combined creative-corrective approach to working with the bereaved by emphasizing on cognitive assessment as a tool for social workers. It determines how best to facilitate an adaptive grief process with individuals who experience traumatic loss or complicated grief. Cognitive therapies (CT) and cognitive behavior therapies (CBTs) were found suitable with individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and chronic or traumatic grief. Grief as a process of reorganizing one’s life and searching for a meaning following a loss through death is a painful experience. The Adversity Beliefs Consequences (ABC) model is based on a cognitive theoretical model to be applied in treatment of bereaved individuals. Like other cognitive models, rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) emphasizes the centrality of cognitive processes in understanding emotional disturbance, distinguishing between two sets of cognitions that people construct, rational and irrational ones and their related emotional and behavioral consequences that differ qualitatively.
The current common combat era casualties have been posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), head injuries, hearing loss or impairment, and polytrauma. Common causes of military traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are blasts, falls, vehicular accidents, and penetrating fragments or bullets. Mild TBIs (mTBIs) usually are not detectable by lab tests or scans, which typically show normal results. The most common assessment instrument used for TBI is the Glasgow Coma Scale, which scores eye opening responses, motor responses, and verbal responses. Findings of effectiveness of psychosocial rehabilitation models for civilians with TBI and their families suggest that developing models of supported education and employment for injured veterans may be similarly helpful. Stigma, military stoicism, mTBI-related executive function compromise, and PTSD-related avoidance symptoms are barriers to care for neurological disorders, but disclosure of care is still perceived as possibly leading to loss of career or current employment, both among active duty and veterans.
This book serves as a practice resource for social workers by making accessible the vast territory covered by the social, cognitive, and affective neurosciences over the past 20 years, helping the reader actively apply scientific findings to practice settings, populations, and cases. It features contributions from social work experts in four key areas of practice: generalist social work practice; social work in the schools and the child welfare system; in health and mental health; and in the criminal justice system. Each of the chapters is organized around practice, policy, and research implications, and includes case studies to enhance practice application. The impact the environment has on neural mechanisms and human life course trajectories is of particular focus. It is divided into four sections. Section A includes chapters devoted to social-cognitive neuroscience conceptualization of empathy, mirror neurons, complex childhood trauma, the impact of trauma and its treatment through discussion of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Section B covers child maltreatment and brain development, transition of youth from foster care, social work practices in schools for children with disabilities, and managing violence and aggression in school settings. Section C deals with several issues such as substance abuse, toxic stress and brain development in young homeless children and traumatic brain injuries. Neuroscientific implications for the juvenile justice and adult criminal justice systems are explained in Section D.
This chapter focuses on self-care for Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) practitioners. The protocol was derived from the notes of Neal Daniels, a clinical psychologist who was the director of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Clinical Team at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center. In Dr. Daniels’s words, the procedure is short, simple, effective. Right after the session or later on in the day when it is possible, bring up the image of the patient, do 10–15 eye movements (EMs); generate a positive cognition (PC) and install it with the patient’s image, and do 10–15 EMs. Once the negative affects have been reduced, realistic formulations about the patient’s future therapy are much easier to develop. Residual feelings of anger, frustration, regret, or hopelessness have been replaced by clearer thoughts about what can or cannot be done. Positive, creative mulling can proceed without the background feelings of unease, weariness, and ineffectiveness.
- Go to chapter: The Inverted EMDR Standard Protocol for Unstable Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
The Inverted eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) Standard Protocol for complex post-traumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD) is a structured way to assist these clients to reduce their symptoms to the point where they are stable enough to work with more and more of their old memory clusters of the past, such as most often childhood abuse, neglect, and numerous secondary traumas after that. The protocol seems to be especially useful in clients with psychiatric hospitalization histories or inpatient settings. There are three foci for the Inverted Standard Protocol for unstable C-PTSD based on inverting the EMDR Standard Protocol to meet the needs of unstable C-PTSD clients: the future, the present, and the past. The constant installation of present orientation and safety (CIPOS) method assists clients in reducing the stress of triggers of older trauma material in a more controlled manner without getting overwhelmed by the old material.
Sexual trauma includes any type of physical touching or other activity of a sexual nature that is against our will or done without our consent. This chapter defines sexual trauma as anything that occurred or was threatened to occur that was experienced as a violation of a sexual nature. Sexual trauma occurs in many different forms and any sexual trauma can be deeply wounding, requiring new skills for healing. Military sexual trauma (MST) refers to experiences of sexual trauma that occur while a person is serving on active duty military service. The link between MST and homelessness is a perfect example of accumulated symptoms. MST was related to symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Forced sex may be viewed as an act of domination to inflate one’s sense of self-importance or power. Psychological symptoms include negative thought patterns such as negative thinking, negative thoughts around trust, safety, and self-blame.
Self-Care for Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Practitioners was derived from the notes of Neal Daniels, a clinical psychologist who was the director of the PTSD Clinical Team at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Always concerned about the welfare of clients and practitioners, he put together a short, simple, and effective protocol for the practitioner, on the completion of any session where there was negative affect remaining. Once the negative affects have been reduced, realistic formulations about the patient’s future therapy are much easier to develop. Residual feelings of anger, frustration, regret, or hopelessness have been replaced by clearer thoughts about what can or cannot be done. Positive, creative mulling can proceed without the background feelings of unease, weariness, and ineffectiveness. The idea was to work on the material right after the session or later in the day when time allowed.
- Go to chapter: Protocol for Releasing Stuck Negative Cognitions in Childhood-Onset Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (C-PTSD)
Protocol for Releasing Stuck Negative Cognitions in Childhood-Onset Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (C-PTSD)
This protocol was developed to help clients with childhood-onset complex post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who have difficulty moving from the negative cognition (NC) to the positive cognition (PC) and instead, experience persistent looping. Packed dilemmas usually require and respond to a protocol comprising a particular sequence of Socratic cognitive interweaves (CI), which disentangles two clusters of confusion in turn: first, responsibility and entitlement, and then responsibility and loyalty. Ordinarily, as eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapists, the authors attempt to stay out of the way of the client’s processing, and since CIs can influence processing, they use them sparingly. In a packed dilemma, however, they may need to influence the processing because the family attachment patterns are woven into issues of responsibility, which contribute to the embedded immobility of the NC.
The Wedging or Strengthening Technique has been modified in Germany and is called the Absorption Technique to create resources to deal with what the client is concerned about in the future, or having stress about working with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the future, a present trigger or even an intrusive memory. Having clients imagine a strength or skill that would help them during the problem often helps them to reduce their anxiety. Focusing on a specific strength or coping skill may create a wedge of safety or control that will assist clients with the difficult situation in the future. During the Future Phase of the Inverted Protocol for Unstable complex post-traumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD) use the Absorption or Wedging Technique to develop as many different resources for the different issues about which the client might be concerned.
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) Standard protocol connects a trauma model of relationships to Bowen’s concept of differentiation. In addition to those couples where a traumatic episode, prior to or during the relationship, has had a clear impact on the relationship, highly reactive couples are those who profit most from integrating EMDR into their couples work. EMDR can play an important role when reactivity in sessions blocks therapist interventions or resists routine interventions; when one or both partners are so reactive as to be abusive. When EMDR is used to treat trauma, therapists generally look for treatment change specific to the trauma and its posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like symptoms. In couples therapy, the desired outcomes are more the generalized effects of EMDR and those we might expect from EMDR performance enhancement.
Different experiential, psychophysiological, and neurobiological responses to traumatic symptom provocation in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been reported in the literature. The term bottom-up processing is used in sensorimotor psychotherapy, a somatic approach to facilitate processing of unassimilated sensorimotor reactions to trauma. Lanius found this approach useful in dealing with dissociative symptoms and adapted it to be used in conjunction with bilateral stimulation (BLS), as part of a comprehensive treatment approach for individuals with complex post-traumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD) and dissociative symptoms. When we use the Standard eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) Protocol, we work with sensorimotor, emotional, and cognitive aspects of information. Bottom-up processing is a way to work with issues of dissociation. Traumatic memories appear to be timeless, predominantly nonverbal, and imagery-based. Somatic memory is an essential element of traumatic memory; trauma memories, at least in part, are encoded at an implicit level.
This chapter looks at dissociation, psychosis, and schizophrenia from a phenomenological standpoint. Phenomenology is the lens through which psychiatrists look at mental illness, and psychiatry as a specialty has looked at people in this way from its earliest days. In taking a phenomenological view of dissociation and psychosis, the chapter reiterates some of the dissonance brought by Laing when he invited people to understand schizophrenia as a theoretical model and not a biological entity. Extreme dissociation is the most primitive form of survival, where a human being is confronted with events that are impossible to process. Treating schizophrenia by formulating it within a trauma and dissociation paradigm allows for the application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy, which is one of the current international gold-standard psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
This chapter covers psychiatric diagnoses that might be applied to children seen in primary care: pediatric bipolar disorder, major depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It discusses the diagnoses of the context in the neuroscience explaining the disorder. The chapter reviews the efficacy of current pharmacological treatments along with explanations regarding how they impact physiology, and considers side effects. It also provides alternatives to drugs administered for distress in the children themselves. The profile of adults with bipolar I differs dramatically from the behavioral pattern of children being diagnosed as having pediatric bipolar disorder. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved fluoxetine/Prozac for the treatment of depression in children. Antidepressants carry an FDA black-box warning for suicidal ideation in children and adolescents. Stimulant drugs are the mainstay of treatment for ADHD. The number of children in foster care receiving antipsychotic drugs is particularly notable.
This chapter helps the reader to understand the justifiable optimism when applying eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy to psychosis and to equip clinicians with the skills to identify those people experiencing psychosis who are most suitable for EMDR therapy. The adaptive information processing (AIP) model and the dysfunctional memory network (DMN) are paradigms that have validity beyond posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); they are just as valid for addictions, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and psychosis. The chapter explores the people who are suitable for EMDR therapy for psychosis, using the Indicating Cognitions of Negative Networks (ICoNN) model, in two groups: first, people with psychosis who have a clear trauma history or comorbid PTSD; and second, those who meet current criteria for schizophrenia within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD) classification systems in addition to the proposed criteria for dissociative schizophrenia.
This chapter defines emerging disabilities; explores medical, psychosocial, and vocational implications of emerging disabilities that distinguish them from traditional disabilities; and provides demographic characteristics of individuals who are most vulnerable to acquiring emerging disabilities. It examines some social and environmental trends that have contributed to the development of emerging patterns and types of disabilities including advances in medicine and assistive technology, globalization, climate change, poverty, violence and trauma, the aging American populace, and disability legislation. Psychological and physical trauma from warfare, violent crime, intimate partner violence, and youth violence can result in permanent physical, cognitive, and psychiatric disabilities. Diagnostic uncertainties, misdiagnoses, and skepticism on the part of medical providers are frequently associated with emerging disabilities. Women also represent a population that is at an increased risk of acquiring emerging disabilities and chronic illnesses. Rehabilitation systems are still not fully prepared to address the multifaceted needs of individuals with emerging disabilities.
The eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) method represents a significant advance in psychotherapy. While most of the empirical research on EMDR demonstrates its efficacy as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including relational traumas. Dysfunctional patterns of relating in the family of origin can imprint themselves on the relational template of adults, only to be reenacted in the contemporary couples relationship. Because EMDR can be effective at transforming these earlier relational traumas, adults can become less reactive, enjoy greater distress tolerance, and have a more resilient ego boundary. Thus, EMDR is an invaluable tool in couples therapy. A 5-step protocol is proposed that can guide therapists to develop an EMDR treatment plan within the context of couples therapy. This protocol can and should be applied to both partners in most cases, but of necessity, the therapist must choose one partner to begin with.
This chapter provides the reader with a working knowledge of the relationship between trauma, schizophrenia, and the other psychoses. Trauma and its consequences have been a part of society for a very long time. The psychological impact of the trauma of war became most widely known as “shell shock” in World War I. Wartime features heavily in the development of the nomenclature of the psychological impact of trauma. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the archetypal response to a traumatic event, and the concept soon expanded from the military to all of society as potential sufferers. The evolution of the diagnosis of schizophrenia was characterized by a move away from a trauma/dissociation model and toward a biological diathesis model, which resulted in schizophrenia’s phenomena being viewed as psychologically incomprehensible. There is no single cause of psychosis, just as there is no single gene.
- Go to chapter: Substance Use and Co-Occurring Psychiatric Disorders Treatment: Systems and Issues for Those in Jail, Prison, and on Parole
Substance Use and Co-Occurring Psychiatric Disorders Treatment: Systems and Issues for Those in Jail, Prison, and on Parole
This chapter describes how mental health and substance use interact with criminal justice involvement. It examines the common assessment and intervention strategies for co morbid mental health and substance abuse in forensic population and settings. The chapter gives a brief review of how substance use disorders co-occur with psychiatric disorders. The chapter describes prevalence of co-occurring disorders such as anxiety/depression, bipolar disorders, psychotic disorders, personality disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder in general. It then discusses prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the prison/jail systems. The chapter also describes medication-assisted therapies for opioid use disorders and, treatment and aftercare services. It explores two of the most common types of treatments for those in the CJS, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and 12-Step groups. The chapter further reviews two CBT programs, aggression replacement training and strategies for self-improvement and change.
The Imma Group Protocol is based on the Integrative Group Treatment Protocol (IGTP) by Jarero, Artigas, Alcalá, and López Cano, the Four Elements Exercise by Elan Shapiro, and the principles of group therapy work. This protocol is designed for small groups of children from the age of 5 upward. The language can, of course, be adjusted to suit the developmental level of the group. The protocol is to be used only by Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) -trained therapists. The therapist must have the ability to react on the spot, evaluate, and provide further treatment for clients who are overwhelmed by the traumatic material. As much as is possible, relevant information about the participants is obtained; this can include material from parents and teachers. The Child Report of Post-Traumatic Symptoms (CROPS) and Parent Report of Post-Traumatic Symptoms (PROPS) are measures helpful in collecting information concerning posttraumatic symptoms in children.
- Go to chapter: The Wreathing Protocol: The Imbrication of Hypnosis and EMDR in the Treatment of Dissociative Identity Disorder, Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
The Wreathing Protocol: The Imbrication of Hypnosis and EMDR in the Treatment of Dissociative Identity Disorder, Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
The Wreathing Protocol has been designed as a thorough, planful, and parsimonious way to protect trauma patients from decompensation during the middle phase of trauma. It presumes sophistication and fluency on the part of the clinician who ought to be skilled in advanced hypnosis techniques, ego state therapy, and controlled fractionated abreactions without the use of formal hypnosis or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). To best illustrate the discrete interventions amidst the complexity of dissociative responses, the operationalized EMDR protocols will be exemplified in the paradigmatic dissociative disorder, dissociative identity disorder (DID); however, they also apply for lesser dissociative disorders, dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS) and post-traumatic conditions particularly when using an ego state model as an organizing principle in the treatment. Wreathing Protocol represents a skeletal structure around which complex dissociated elements of personality can regroup, blend, and integrate after detoxification and transformation of the traumatic material.
The Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Performance Enhancement Psychology Protocol (EMDR-PEP) addresses performance anxiety, self-defeating beliefs, behavioral inhibition, posttraumatic stress, and psychological recovery from injury for creative and performing artists, workplace employees, and athletes. The EMDR-PEP can be very useful with everyday nonpathological complaints such as procrastination, fear of failure, setbacks, and life transitions. The EMDR-PEP encompasses a full spectrum viewpoint regarding optimal functioning at work and in life. This perspective inspires clients to identify their strengths as well as areas to improve and to prioritize their work accordingly. Reduced anxiety and increased self-confidence were reported for mature performing artists launching an existing repertoire into a new arena and in a controlled study of master swimmers. The following forms are included in the clinical intake for performance work: Trauma History and EMDR Readiness, Relationship History, School History, Employment History, Problem History, and a Performance Inventory.
Clients with dissociative disorders (DD) or complex post-traumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD) often have issues concerning the “therapist’s trustworthiness, inherent dangerousness and potential abusiveness”. Goals of this exercise are the following: Increase cooperation between the therapist and the dissociative system by communicating knowledge about the therapist, the office, and experience in treatment to all parts of the system; and maintaining the client’s dual awareness while processing information concerning trauma in the past. It is essential for these clients to maintain their connection to the therapist and the present. Dual attention stimulation (DAS) is used to install and communicate the information. Examples of things to notice are the following: pictures on walls, the carpet, a stuffed animal, the wallpaper, where therapist sits, where client sits, typical sounds, and any things in therapist’s office that indicate it’s not the past. Safety-oriented information is also important.
This chapter focuses on anxiety disorders and deals with a discussion of the physiology of anxiety, including the major structures involved in the creation of a fear memory. It considers the mechanisms for extinction of conditioned anxiety. The chapter discusses the basic physiology of fear conditioning, specific anxiety disorders namely generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and explains treatments. It then reviews the literature about how clients can talk about their fears to minimize them and how relabeling or reappraising of past events can be helpful. There is evidence suggesting that the basal ganglia, structures associated with the control of movement, are involved in the expression of OCD behaviors in subsets of those with OCD. Cognitive behavioral therapy is effective in the treatment of generalized anxiety. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are also used in the treatment of anxiety disorders.
The standard Safe Place Protocol uses a word for cuing and self-cuing. For the last 3 years, the author has used olfactory stimulation with more than 30 children and adolescents to cue the Safe Place and resources installed with the Resource Development and Installation (RDI) Protocol. The effectiveness of olfactory cues to assist traumatized children in accessing previously installed resources for self-regulation may be associated with the relationship between trauma and thalamic activity. Individuals with simple post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) might show an increase in thalamic activity and those with complex PTSD, a decrease in thalamic activity. For many years, aromatherapy has been used as an adjunctive form of therapy in mental health. Before establishing the Safe Place, it is important that you explain to the child and the caregivers what eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is and how it works, especially the different forms of bilateral stimulation (BLS).
The comorbidity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance abuse gives sufficient reason to treat patients who are addicted with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). The concept of addiction memory (AM) and its importance in relapse occurrence and maintenance of learned addictive behavior has gained growing acceptance in the field of addiction research and treatment. The name craving extinguished (CravEx) was given to this EMDR strategy because craving seemed to vanish during EMDR reprocessing of the addiction memory in some of the patients. CravEx, as part of a treatment for comorbid addictive clients, focuses on reprocessing of the addiction memory thus leading to stabilization in the addiction. Major traumas can impact on addictive behaviors and are important to include in treatment planning. Anecdotal reports from clinicians indicate an effect of the reprocessing of the addiction memory in patients addicted to heroin or psychostimulants.
This book provides a standard that reflects the basic elements of the 11-Step Standard Procedure; and the Standard 3-Pronged EMDR Protocol as they are applied to different populations. The diverse population includes children and adolescents; couples; clients suffering with complex post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociative disorders; clients with anxiety; clients who demonstrate addictive behaviors; clients who deal with pain; clinicians themselves. The book serves as a basis to encourage research into these various applications for EMDR. It is divided into seven parts. Part I is devoted to the scripted EMDR protocols such as olfactory stimulation, which are used to develop resources for children and adolescents who may have suffered traumatic events in their life. The protocols take into account the particular difficulties of this developmental group and help minimize common difficulties and major hurdles. Part II describes scripted EMDR protocols designed by couples therapists and sex therapists to further the progress of their patients precisely targeting templates of relational interaction, anxiety, or sexual dysfunction. Part III concerns the scripted protocols for dissociative disorders and complex post-traumatic stress disorder. The protocols represent the structured scripted efforts of many trauma therapists over a considerable number of years. Parts IV and V of the book address the concretization of much needed scripts for the EMDR treatment of addictions and pain—two interconnected public health worries. Part VI looks at the world of people’s adaptation to fears and tackles the usage of scripted protocols to detoxify the impact of specific phobias. Part VII demonstrates the usage of scripted EMDR protocols in clinician care and in the management of secondary post-traumatic stress disorder and vicarious traumatization.
Suris, Lind, Kashner, and Borman surveyed 89 female participants who reported a history of military sexual trauma (
MST) and reported that “all of the respondents endorsed some amount of sleep difficulty”. Woods, Hall, Campbell, and Angott examined relationships among interpersonal violence, posttraumatic stress, and physical symptoms in a sample of women and found that different types of sleep complaints were among the most frequently reported problems and that they were significantly correlated with having experienced sexual violence. Traditionally, insomnia has been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and every version of the diagnostic criteria for PTSD contains some version of disturbed sleep. This chapter recommends a thorough assessment of medical and psychological comorbidity as well as trauma history to identify factors that may affect sleep. Chronic pain should be reviewed with the patient’s primary care physician for possible medication changes that can alleviate pain and improve sleep.
- Go to chapter: Healthy Sexual Functioning After Military Sexual Trauma: An Interview With Wendy Maltz
Sexual abuse can create sensitivities and problems that infiltrate a person’s sexuality years after the actual trauma occurred. A Guide for Survivors of Sexual Abuse provides basic information and recovery strategies for helping survivors of military sexual trauma (
MST) overcome the repercussions of abuse and establish healthy and pleasurable sensual lives. Sexual healing tends to be more advanced recovery work. Sexual behavioral changes often seem to fall into two extremes, withdrawing from sexual activity, or becoming compulsively drawn to engaging in it. Victims of MST may have a challenging time finding enough private space, social support, and safety to face what happened to them and begins healing. Initial recovery tasks, such as dealing with fear of the offender, overcoming depression, expressing anger, improving physical care, improving assertiveness skills, and coping with posttraumatic stress symptoms are fundamental to sexual abuse recovery.
This chapter explores vicarious trauma, compassion fatigue, and burnout and the potential impact on professionals who treat victims of military sexual trauma (
MST). Professionals who provide counseling to sexual trauma survivors will be affected by the exposure to the personal and, sometimes, graphic accounts of sexual victimization reported by their clients. Although brief exposure to extreme or shocking trauma material can have a significant impact on the helping professional, prolonged exposure to emotional pain and the explicit details of other people’s suffering can be more problematic. Psychologist Jacob Lindy pointed to this concern in his book on treating war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Burnout was originally used in the 1970s by psychoanalyst Hebert Freundenberger in reference to occupational exhaustion. Burnout may involve psychological, physical, or behavioral symptoms in both personal and professional settings.
The neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the effects of lifetime trauma on an individual have been covered extensively in the literature over the past two decades. This chapter reviews some of the relevant trauma-related neurobiology literature as it applies to military sexual trauma (
MST), both in men and in women. The presentation of premilitary factors is structured around three major areas in the neurobiology of traumatic stress: early life trauma and the emergence of the emotional response; lifetime cumulative effect of trauma and the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA); and additional factors contributing to long-term vulnerability or resiliency. The brain and behavioral patterns are molded in parallel with early life experience. When a child develops the ability to recall events, he or she experiences the beginning of autobiographical memory. Primary affective states originate in the reticular activating system (RAS) of the brain.
- Go to chapter: Prolonged Exposure and Cognitive Processing Therapy for Military Sexual Trauma–Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Prolonged Exposure and Cognitive Processing Therapy for Military Sexual Trauma–Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
This chapter discusses the main treatment components of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and prolonged exposure (PE) and provides evidence for CPT and PE, and highlights common clinical issues seen in patients with military sexual trauma (
MST) related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Janoff-Bulman posits a model of PTSD in which trauma is conceptualized as “an emotional shock” that shatters beliefs about safety and self-worth. Therapeutic techniques derived from several theories typically process the traumatic memory so that individuals can integrate it into their autobiographical memory base, identify and modify maladaptive trauma-related beliefs, and decrease cognitive, emotional, and behavioral avoidance. In clinical trials, PE demonstrates consistently large clinically meaningful changes across PTSD, depression, anxiety, and functioning in heterogeneous trauma-exposed samples including sexual assault survivors and veterans.
Emotional dysregulation is a key component of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is important to understand the basic neurophysiology of stress and how it influences a survivor’s ability to cope. The mechanism involved in stress includes the connections among the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the adrenal gland. Glucocorticoids influence metabolism and immune function, and send signals back to the brain about the stressor. Low cortisol levels immediately after a trauma may also be a risk factor for developing PTSD. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) secretes catecholamines during stress, which help to consolidate memories. When military personnel have a history of childhood abuse and subsequent military sexual trauma (
MST), they may be particularly vulnerable to developing PTSD. Anticipatory anxiety is also one of the greatest barriers in engaging clients in treatment. Mindfulness can be described as any practice that brings clients back to the present moment.
Somatic experiencing (SE) has emerged from a long tradition of somatic education and body-oriented psychotherapy. When the body successfully implements the planned action sequence and adequately releases the remaining unused survival energy, the person regains equilibrium and does not encounter the physiological sequelae associated with trauma. The person then moves from acute arousal into a state of chronic arousal and generalized dysfunction in the central nervous system. SE draws upon the neurobiological study of the multidirectional interconnection between the body, brain, and mind. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the symptom clusters associated with the diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders illustrate the body’s “stuck energy”. Treating survivors of military sexual trauma (
MST) introduces a unique set of circumstances. In the military, unit cohesion is synonymous with safety and survival.
This book is a comprehensive guide to the basics of mindful hypnotherapy (MH), incorporating everything you need to understand the approach, apply it to clients in your clinical practice, and use it for your own personal edification and growth. MH is a treatment that combines the qualities from two highly effective and well-established treatment approaches: mindfulness and hypnotherapy. These approaches have separately been shown to be effective in the treatment of a wide array of disorders ranging from elevated stress or adjustment problems to more debilitating conditions such as major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorders, chronic pain, anxiety disorders, and more. This book is intended to be an additional tool in a therapist’s toolbox—a new approach that delivers a mindfulness-based intervention within a hypnotic context. The book is divided into three sections. The first section (Foundations) provides the conceptual basis for MH, research, discussion of hypnotic abilities, and basics for formulating hypnotic inductions and suggestions. The second section (Mindful Hypnotherapy by Session) provides a treatment manual for MH over eight sessions. It includes transcripts, hypnotic inductions, and guidance for individualization and tracking progress using the Mindful Self-Hypnosis Daily Practice Log. The third section (Conclusion) provides an overview of training and personal growth toward becoming a mindful hypnotherapist. This MH approach is long overdue, and over the course of the past 40 years, the fields of hypnotherapy and mindfulness have been compared and contrasted phenomenologically, physiologically, and neurologically. MH is an intervention that intentionally uses hypnosis (hypnotic induction and suggestion) to integrate mindfulness for personal or therapeutic benefit.
This chapter offers a summary of the Seeking Safety Model, which is designed to address both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD). It focuses in particular on its relevance to military sexual trauma (
MST). Conventionally, most SUD treatment programs focused on attaining stabilization or abstinence before addressing mental illnesses. Seeking Safety is an evidence-based therapy that has been widely used to treat people with a history of trauma and substance abuse. The primary goal of Seeking Safety is to encourage client safety by building coping skills in relation to both trauma and substance abuse. Seeking Safety offers 25 topics that address cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal skills. A clinician’s report says that veterans appear to be more difficult to engage in treatment than other groups. The Seeking Safety approach is a low-cost model that was designed for public-health relevance, which can be implemented across all levels of care.
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions to Support Youth Following Natural Disasters: Evidence-Based Principles and Practices
Evidence-Based Interventions to Support Youth Following Natural Disasters: Evidence-Based Principles and Practices
This chapter discusses issues associated with specific natural disasters, generalized issues associated with most natural disasters, and evidence-based principles and practices for supporting youth following a natural disaster. La Greca highlighted three phases of recovery following natural disasters and offers evidence-based interventions associated with each phase. These include the postimpact phase, short-term recovery and reconstruction phase, and the long-term recovery phase. The chapter outlines the effects of natural disasters on children and provides an overview of strategies for supporting children and adolescents following traumatic events. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized as an anxiety reaction that emerges after witnessing or experiencing a traumatic event. The chapter summarizes three evidence-based approaches to support children in the aftermath of a potentially traumatic event, such as a natural disaster: trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), and the Mourning Child Grief Support Curriculum (MCGC).
- Go to chapter: Evidence-Based Interventions for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents
This chapter presents an overview of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in childhood and adolescence, including how symptoms may present and what factors are associated with risk of developing PTSD. It provides a review of the research literature and a step-by-step guide for practice for two empirically validated treatments for youth PTSD. The symptoms of PTSD are grouped into four clusters: intrusion symptoms, avoidance symptoms, cognition and mood symptoms, and arousal and reactivity symptoms. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) was initially developed to address trauma associated with child sexual abuse and has subsequently been adapted for use with children who have experienced other trauma types. Research indicates that TF-CBT is effective in treating PTSD, depression, and related behavioral problems in children exposed to traumatic events. The chapter provides a step-by-step breakdown of TF-CBT and Prolonged Exposure for Adolescents (PE-A) interventions, including descriptions of core components and standard implementation practices.
This chapter examines the environmental factors that can contribute to the experience of medical trauma by increasing patients’ distress, impairing their sleep, and by becoming part of the trauma picture encoded in patient memory. It explores the areas of the hospital most associated with medical trauma, the emergency department (ED) and intensive care unit (ICU) as well as the many factors that create the sensory experience of the hospital. The high percentage of patients experiencing intense psychological distress has prompted many researchers to explore what exactly about treatment in the ICU leads to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). When patients experience a traumatic medical event such as a heart attack, stroke, or obstetrical trauma that requires a lengthy stay in the hospital, they are at risk of experiencing psychological distress that can lead to depression, anxiety, and even PTSD.
This chapter describes the need for a specific focus on counseling women and girls. It discusses the fundamental tenets of empowerment feminist therapy (EFT). Gender and gender differences are not inherently problematic; however, issues arise when they become markers for which individuals are esteemed or devalued. Violence against women is a serious public health issue in every country in the world. Violence against women and girls takes many forms, some of which are accepted cultural practices that have severe negative repercussions for females’ physical and psychological well-being. Child marriage and female genital mutilation are two of these cultural practices. Due in part to trauma, oppression, and gender-role expectations, women and adolescent girls experience the highest rates of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Out of the feminist movement, and in response to the biases inherent in mental health treatment, feminist therapy came into existence.
This chapter includes brief historical, political, and cultural perspectives on violence against women as well as the current state of this issue. It discusses various forms of violence against women that impact their emotional, physical, and psychological well-being. Clinical implications include an overview of the clinical foundation in working with survivors of violence and the three layers of the counseling process: prevention, intervention, and restoration. The chapter discusses the impact of this work on the counselor, along with how to promote posttraumatic growth in clients. The movement toward ending violence against women has gained significant momentum since the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st centuries. The emotional effects of domestic violence (DV) can have devastating impacts on survivors. Although sexual violence is often present within DV, it also occurs outside of intimate relationships. Legally, sexual violence is often referred to as sexual assault or rape.