This chapter presents an overview of the restorative justice movement in the twenty-first century. Restorative justice, on the other hand, offers a very different way of understanding and responding to crime. Instead of viewing the state as the primary victim of criminal acts and placing victims, offenders, and the community in passive roles, restorative justice recognizes crime as being directed against individual people. The values of restorative justice are also deeply rooted in the ancient principles of Judeo-Christian culture. A small and scattered group of community activists, justice system personnel, and a few scholars began to advocate, often independently of each other, for the implementation of restorative justice principles and a practice called victim-offender reconciliation (VORP) during the mid to late 1970s. Some proponents are hopeful that a restorative justice framework can be used to foster systemic change. Facilitation of restorative justice dialogues rests on the use of humanistic mediation.
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This chapter describes some of the recent restorative justice innovations and research that substantiates their usefulness. It explores developments in the conceptualization of restorative justice based on emergence of new practices and reasons for the effectiveness of restorative justice as a movement and restorative dialogue as application. Chaos theory offers a better way to view the coincidental timeliness of the emergence of restorative justice as a deeper way of dealing with human conflict. The chapter reviews restorative justice practices that have opened up areas for future growth. Those practices include the use of restorative practices for student misconduct in institutions of higher education, the establishment of surrogate dialogue programs in prison settings between unrelated crime victims and offenders. They also include the creation of restorative justice initiatives for domestic violence and the development of methods for engagement between crime victims and members of defense teams who represent the accused offender.
This chapter examines the differences in facilitating a settlement-driven versus dialogue-driven mediation. It also examines the concept of introducing a humanistic approach to mediation and dialogue. The chapter presents the characteristics and qualities of an effective mediator in relation to the victim and offender, the facilitator’s responsibilities during preparation, the dialogue itself, and follow-up, including the significance of self-care. Nowhere else in the restorative justice process is the principle of respect and being non-judgmental more critical than in how the facilitator treats victim, offender, and other key stakeholders. Settlement-driven mediation is generally practiced within a conflict resolution context. In contrast, dialogue-driven mediation recognizes that most conflicts develop within a larger emotional and relational context characterized by powerful feelings of disrespect, betrayal, and abuse. Besides the governing values that define humanistic mediation, mediators must cultivate their emotional commitment to and connection with the highest principles they assign to the dialogue work.
This chapter defines restorative justice and discusses the various forms that this approach to wrongdoing and offending may take. It reveals the relevance of restorative interventions to social work practice. The chapter recognizes pioneers in the field of restorative justice with special emphasis on social work theorists. It describes the various forms of restorative justice from micro level victim-offender conferencing to community-level healing circles to macro level reparative justice. The chapter argues for greater social work involvement in shaping policies that include restorative justice options in situations of wrongdoing and social work involvement in facilitating victim–offender and anti bullying conferencing. The chapter also describes aspects of restorative justice that address competencies related to advocacy for human rights and issues of spirituality.
This chapter distinguishes between spirituality and religiosity. It reports on a study that begins to deconstruct the elements in restorative justice that might be considered spiritual. Spirituality is defined as a reverence for life. Sacred reverence is defined as being in awe of and deep regard or veneration. Religious leaders are often strong promoters at the forefront of many rehabilitative justice practices including restorative justice. By delineating specific spiritual components, the concept of spirituality is made clearer and more usable by social workers and other mediators of restorative justice practice. Bender and Armour examined texts about restorative justice using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. Nine components of spirituality emerged from the research on the restorative justice literature such as: internal transformation, connectedness, common human bond, repentance, forgiveness, making right a wrong, balance or harmony, rituals and the spirit or supernatural.
This chapter provides an introduction to the three basic dialogue practices like victim-offender mediation (VOM), family group conferencing (FGC) and peacemaking circles and the expansion of VOM to include severely violent crime. It describes the components of a restorative justice dialogue that are a part of all approaches. The chapter delineates the stages in developing a dialogue including referral, preparation, dialogue meeting, and follow-up. Again these stages demonstrate how restorative justice values, principles, and core concepts are actualized in the process. The chapter describes the conditions necessary for creating the context that enables change during the dialogue. Those conditions include a process orientation, safety establishment, respectful interaction, and the flow of positive energy. Besides embodying restorative justice values, these conditions represent spiritual components. The components include: personal accountability in response to the harm, inclusivity, voluntarism, preparation for the dialogue, and the telling of story as personal truth.
Forensic Social Work, 2nd Edition:Psychosocial and Legal Issues Across Diverse Populations and Settings
The growing public awareness of bias and discrimination and the disproportionate involvement of minority populations, especially based on race, class, and gender, have affected the social work profession with a call to fulfill its long-forgotten mission to respond and advocate for justice reform and health and public safety. Forensic social workers practice far and wide where issues of justice and fairness are found. This book emphasizes on the diversity of populations and settings, social workers would best serve their clients adding a forensic or legal lens to their practice. It targets the important and emerging practice specialization of forensic social work, a practice specialization that speaks to the heart, head, and hands (i.e., knowledge, values, and skills) of social work using a human rights and social justice approach integrated with a forensic lens. The book defines forensic social work to include not only a narrow group of people who are victims or convicted of crimes and subsequently involved in the juvenile justice and criminal justice settings, but broadly all the individuals and families involved with family and social services, education, child welfare, mental health, and behavioral health or other programs, in which they are affected by human rights and social justice issues, or federal and state laws and policies. Practitioners who read this book will learn and apply a human rights legal framework and social justice and empowerment theories to guide multilevel prevention, psychosocial assessments, and interventions with historically underserved individuals, families, and communities, especially using the life course systems power analysis strategy and family televisiting. The book fills a critical gap in the knowledge, values, and skills for human rights and social justice–focused social work education and training.
This book is a guide to understanding core restorative justice values and practices and what we have learned from research on the impact of this emerging social movement in the global community. The first three chapters provide an overview of the restorative justice movement and its connection with core social work values and spirituality (not religion). Restorative justice dialogue and its most widespread applications are then presented in Chapters four through eight. Each chapter on a specific application of restorative justice dialogue includes a thorough description of the process, including case examples, followed by a review of empirical research that is available. These chapters describe the most widely used applications, namely victim-offender mediation (VOM), family group conferencing (FGC), peacemaking circles, and victim-offender dialogue (VOD) in crimes of severe violence. The concluding three chapters, nine through eleven, focus on broader issues related to restorative justice dialogue. The crucial role of the facilitator in restorative justice dialogue is highlighted, followed by identifying the dimensions of culture in the restorative justice movement and the very real possibility of unintended negative consequences if we are not mindful of these dimensions. Finally, emerging areas of practice that go beyond the juvenile and criminal justice system are addressed.
This chapter promotes understanding of the intersection of social work case level practice skills and social welfare programs and policy. It describes the social work advocacy process, and explores how social and political values impact accessibility to social welfare programs. It assists social workers in developing competence in policy practice and in case and policy advocacy. The chapter also helps social workers recognize when social welfare and economic policies are not fairly distributed, and to become skilled in taking action at the micro-, mezzo, and/or macro level. It discusses the interaction of direct practice with case advocacy to underscore the critical need to understand and interpret policy to achieve social justice. The chapter further highlights the importance of social workers engaging in case and policy advocacy to achieve a socially just outcome for any individual or group, especially those impacted by involvement in the criminal justice system.
Many social service leaders with only a focus on promoting social justice had become increasingly aware that to grow, they needed to incorporate more financial and business management practices into their nonprofit organizations. Leaders in the for-profit world are becoming more concerned about the need for social responsibility and promoting programs that not only made a profit but also reflected a social justice perspective. This book explicitly integrates social justice principles into the management of a nonprofit organization. The book discusses the history of the development of nonprofit management up to the present day. It addresses legal and ethical considerations, organizational planning and staff management, finance, public relations, fundraising, public advocacy and volunteerism, program design and grant development, governance and board development, developing an international nonprofit, information technology, career development, and creating a nonprofit/social entrepreneurship organization. Additional chapters address quality improvement, mentoring, and proposal writing. The text is ideal for students and faculty in social service administration, human service leadership, social work management, public and community health, public administration, and health care administration and management.
In order to be an effective manager, the key ingredient is to understand that the world, as it is perceived, is the world that is behaviorally important. As a manager, it is important to be able to differentiate between fact and inference. Managers should identify staff with high-power needs and understand that when those people feel powerless or not in control of a situation, they are more likely to be frustrated. As many managers view the appraisal process as intruding into their “regular” responsibilities, they tend to not want to go out of their way to concentrate on gathering, thoroughly evaluating, and digesting all the information needed to accurately assess a staff member’s performance. An ongoing and open dialogue between staff and management is critical to ensure that the manager is conducting him- or herself in a manner that fits into the parameters of social justice.
Social justice is the foundation for a democratic society and means that all people should have an equal chance to achieve economic, personal, and public success. Social change means that nonprofit organizations do not accept the status quo in the health, education, poverty, and other areas of public concern where they work. The problem in today’s financially uncertain world is that nonprofits have moved away from doing social change advocacy and concentrate more on their own staff, fundraising, and other management issues. This chapter traces the development and evaluation of a training program for present and future nonprofit leaders that combine management and social change skills and knowledge, which allow a nonprofit executive to take on social change challenges. The training considers social change as a part of the daily workload of a nonprofit and so it is integrated into each management course in the curriculum.
This book provides useful empirical information about male juvenile delinquents and serves as a model training manual for new programs and people working in existing rehabilitation programs. It also provides guidelines for developing policy on the rehabilitation of juvenile delinquents. The book can be used as a resource for academicians and others who teach courses on juvenile delinquency and assigned as a supplementary textbook for students learning about juvenile delinquency, juvenile justice, and mental health. The authors of the book take a multidisciplinary approach that will appeal to everyone who thinks about juvenile delinquency: politicians, judges, police, teachers, clinicians, social workers, educators, and students of criminology, criminal justice, juvenile delinquency, family violence, sociology, psychology, and counseling. This approach appeals to undergraduate students in liberal arts programs that require them to take courses in multiple disciplines, and to graduate students in the mental health fields whose undergraduate training varies. The book also consists of six case histories of boys who resided at Ocean Tides. The information was culled from their files, the clinical consultant’s interviews with the boys when they were in residence, and aftercare information. These cases were selected to provide a sampling of the Ocean Tides boys; their backgrounds, personal, and psychological hurdles; and the outcome of their experience at Ocean Tides.
Members of privileged groups have important roles to play in social justice efforts. Because they have social advantages and greater access to resources, they are in unique positions to address issues in ways that are more difficult for those with disadvantages, as they are somewhat protected from the negative outcomes of doing so. Thus, White people can work to reduce racism, wealthy people economic inequality, heterosexual people homophobia, and so forth. This chapter highlights how the participation of those in privileged groups is essential to the success of social movements. Sexism is a form of prejudice, and it is important to have a clear understanding of how it works. Many people in dominant groups define prejudice in individualistic terms, as a consciously held attitude. Everyday allies are men who practice supportive behaviors whenever they encounter the opportunity.
Advocacy is key for the clinical mental health counseling profession. Clinical mental health counselor advocates (
CMHCAs) rely on the advocacy competencies to guide their assistance to clients in removing barriers and to secure deserving resources, or to advocate on behalf of clients, groups, or communities. This chapter addresses the importance of advocacy and social justice advocacy, and the strategic positionality of the clinical mental health counselor as an advocate for addressing social and institutional barriers that reduce client access, equity, and success. It identifies the advocacy competencies and approaches to advocate for clients care, and emphasizes the ways that they foster resilience and growth. Specific cases illustrate clients' and professionals' understandings of and access to a variety of community-based resources. The chapter also addresses strategies to advocate for the profession and for clinical mental health counseling professionals.
This chapter presents a type of culturally open pastoral counseling that requires a transformation of self and society beyond an educated mind and a politically sensitive vocabulary. It discusses the current state of multicultural competence and social justice discourses. The chapter offers a few guiding principles intended to foster a more culturally open approach to cross-cultural training for pastoral counselors and other helping professionals. Training cultural competence in pastoral counseling and related fields focuses on meeting the ethical guidelines established by professional organizations. Training and discussions of social justice in pastoral counseling and related fields are aimed at drawing attention to the injustices inflicted on marginalized populations and motivating privileged populations to address and eradicate the resulting disparities. The primary focus of cross-cultural training for pastoral counselors is awareness, knowledge, and self-reflection. Developing cultural competence requires heightened awareness of personal cognitive dissonance when confronted with conflicting beliefs.
- Go to chapter: The Network for Social Work Management Human Services Management Competencies and Practice Behaviors
The Network for Social Work Management Human Services Management Competencies and Practice Behaviors
This book presents a comprehensive list of leadership and management competencies from the Network for Social Work Management (
NSWM) and the Council on Social Work Education ( CSWE) along with a list of competencies and practice behaviors that are located in each chapter. This chapter discusses NSWMhuman services management competencies and practice behaviors. There are twenty one competencies, which include: establishes, promotes, and anchors the vision, philosophy, goals, objectives, and values of the organization; possesses interpersonal skills that support the viability and positive functioning of the organization; possesses analytical and critical thinking skills that promote organizational growth; models appropriate professional behavior and encourages other staff members to act in a professional manner; manages diversity and cross-cultural understanding and develops and manages both internal and external stakeholder relationships; and initiates and facilitates innovative change processes and advocates for public policy change and social justice at national, state, and local levels.
This book presents a comprehensive list of leadership and management competencies from the Network for Social Work Management (
NSWM) and the Council on Social Work Education ( CSWE) along with a list of competencies and practice behaviors that are located in each chapter. This chapter briefly describes the nine CSWEcompetencies and practice behaviors. Competency one: Demonstrate ethical and professional behavior; Competency two: Engage diversity and difference in practice; Competency three: Advance human rights and social, economic, and environmental justice; Competency four: Engage in practice-informed research and research-informed practice; Competency five: Engage in policy practice; Competency six: Engage with individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities; Competency seven: Assess individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities; Competency eight: Intervene with individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities; and Competency nine: Evaluate practice with individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities.
This chapter presents over 100 interventions using art, drama, music, writing, dance, and movement that school counselors can easily incorporate into their practices with individual students and groups, and in classroom settings. These creative interventions, based on the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) National Model framework, support the key student domains of academic, career, and personal/social development. It provides a wider variety of modalities as well as easy-to-follow step-by-step instructions for each intervention. The chapter focuses on music-based interventions in the personal/social domain for connecting students to the Civil Rights Movement through music. Music played a key role in the movement and marked pivotal milestones as the movement progressed. The music-based interventions explore songs related to the Civil Rights Movement and as an expression for discussing social justice.
This chapter provides an overview of social work values and how these values influence the definition of ethical conduct and practices. “Social workers’ values influence the kinds of relationships they have with clients, colleagues, and members of the broader society”. The profession’s values also inform the kind of interventions social workers employ with clients. For example, a social worker might advocate against separating immigrant parents from a child born in the United States based on the value of social justice. The social work profession’s values also provide guidance in resolving ethical dilemmas. The social work profession continually reexamines the value base of the profession as it evolves in today’s ever changing world. Direct practice social workers should pay particular attention to the standards addressing the roles, duties and interactions they have with the clients they serve.
The chapters in this book represent an effort to create a foundational textbook for social workers that introduces the student to justice informed social work practice and is an initial step — a starting point – for considering how to center oneself in justice oriented practice across systems and structures. Within the social work profession, justice is conceptualized as a constellation of social, economic, and environmental justice. Although population based books are common in social work scholarship, the authors have intentionally opted for a different approach. This text focuses on structural oppression and inequities connected to our clients' engagement in systems and structures that, although often purported to support them, frequently are broken and inflict harm. It starts with an overview of key concepts and theoretical underpinnings that provide foundational knowledge and then moves into chapters that focus on human rights, and varying systems related to education, criminal justice, housing, the environment, poverty, finances and wealth, and food insecurity. One will learn about the ways that injustice presents itself in the various systems in which social workers practice. Structural discrimination has systemic implications and systemic consequences as well. The book offers us foundational knowledge and tangible recommendations that one can apply and transfer to best fit the work we are doing in the multiple of practice settings, and with the diverse client populations with/in which one work. This book should also leave us with more questions than when one began reading and the authors hope will solidify our commitment to our life-long education, unlearning, and discovery around just practice. Within each chapter, context for understanding oppression and injustice today is interwoven with an understanding of how policies and programs, over time, have created and perpetuated inequity.
Myriad statutory, procedural, and technological innovations have been made in the criminal and civil justice systems to increase access to courts and legal services for older people and people with disabilities. This chapter describes basic legal concepts that pertain to individual rights and explains some of the criticisms that have been leveled against aging and elder abuse policy on legal grounds. It points out the role that courts play in interpreting rights, determining when they have been violated, and finding that statutes and executive actions are invalid. It focuses on a few examples that have attracted scrutiny, particularly with respect to elder abuse and neglect. Among the constitutional amendments that are most relevant to elder justice are the Fifth, which limits the government's authority to infringe on life, liberty, and the pursuit of property without due process, and the Fourteenth, which provides equal protection under the law.
The phenomenological approach to qualitative research is rooted in philosophy and amplified in social justice and creativity. The general purpose of phenomenology is to seek the essence of its subject, and that may take the form of meaning making with a social justice context. Phenomenologist are interested in what lies at the heart of the matter. Phenomenology differs from other qualitative traditions in its unique quest for meaning making through essentialism. While all qualitative inquiry is an attempt to preserve a unique perspective, phenomenologists highlight the uniqueness as a community value, allowing the reader to engage in transference of a common purpose. This chapter helps to identify the paradigmatic hierarchy and understand how to increase rigor of phenomenological research. It describes the five types of phenomenological research and recognizes multicultural issues associated with phenomenological research.
This concluding chapter proposes an Elder Justice Agenda. The agenda suggests strategies that can be adapted by advocates, service providers, educators, planners, policy makers, and researchers, and offers examples for doing so. The chapter summarizes recommendations made throughout the book and organizes them into categories: practice, training, policy, public awareness and engagement, and research. It further suggests steps and actions for getting started. The agenda is neither complete nor definitive. Rather, it is offered to stimulate discussion, debate, problem solving, collaboration, and innovation. It is further provided to inspire thought leaders and those new to the field of aging and abuse prevention to share perspectives. It provides opportunities for critics and advocates to be heard, and young and old to join together to tackle today's unprecedented challenges and shape the future of an aging America.
The concept of justice is deeply entrenched in America’s psyche. This book assumes that advocates for older people can increase their effectiveness by achieving a clearer understanding of Americans’ not-so- self-evident nor inalienable rights. It explores how social justice and human rights principles have applied to older adults in the past and are viewed today. It examines how the interests of older adults compare to and are intertwined with those of other groups. In essence, the book frames elder justice as the intersection between aging policy and policy that promotes human rights and justice. Chapters two through five describes historical antecedents and precedents for elder justice and suggests how human rights and social justice principles have been embedded in what has traditionally been referred to as “aging policy”. These chapters look at other policies that significantly affect older people but do not fall under that rubric. They further explore ageism and its role in policy. Taken together, they offer two models or approaches that can guide the development of elder justice: the public health model and proposals for an international convention on the rights of older people. Chapters six through ten considers how elder justice principles can be applied. As examples, they focus on how individual rights and social justice apply to elder abuse prevention, to the justice system, in the consumer context, at the end of life, and with respect to people with diminished mental capacity. They also look at equity across generations and among older people. Chapter eleven calls for a new paradigm of elder justice and offers a rationale for why one is needed. Chapter twelve builds on other chapters to demonstrate how elder justice might translate into practice, training, policy, public awareness and engagement, and research.
- Go to chapter: Other Special Topics in Counseling Children and Adolescents: Program Identity, Essential Skills, and Counselor Wellness
Other Special Topics in Counseling Children and Adolescents: Program Identity, Essential Skills, and Counselor Wellness
This chapter draws from the literature, professional counseling and education organizations, and their professional experiences to discuss the multi-faceted areas associated with counseling children and adolescents. It also details the evolving requirements to enter the school counseling profession and the standards that guide professional preparation and ongoing professional, ethical practice. Additionally, the chapter explores the challenges associated with balancing multiple roles and the benefits associated with using the literature to engage in the ethical practice of counseling that meets the needs of diverse stakeholders and supports personal well-being and professional excellence. The authors offer this chapter as a resource to counselors-in-training and persons in professional practice to remain engaged in the profession. The authors encourage readers to ponder the convergence of counselor training, professional standards, empathy, advocacy and social justice and wellness on their work, well-being, and contributions to their communities and the profession.
This introductory chapter presents a brief description of the book and its contents. It begins with description of the concepts of truth, justice, and the American way. This book assumes that advocates for older people can increase their effectiveness by achieving a clearer understanding of Americans’ not-so-self-evident nor inalienable rights. It explores how social justice and human rights principles have applied to older adults in the past and are viewed today. The book examines how the interests of older adults compare to and are intertwined with those of other groups. In essence, it frames elder justice as the intersection between aging policy and policy that promotes human rights and justice. Finally, the chapter describes the organization of the book and presents a brief overview of each chapter.
Aside from guidance in the case of a neglected, abused, or abandoned child or an offending juvenile, the forensic psychologist plays an important role in advocating for special needs children and advocating, on their behalf, enforcement of the antidiscrimination laws that apply to the educational system. This chapter is all about children of all ages. It discusses all aspects of children and the law through laws, psychology, and cases. The approach was chronological, in that the first part of the chapter addresses abused, neglected, and abandoned children (usually the youngest), then considers education, and ends with the main forensic psychology topic of juveniles in the justice system—that is, delinquents; their behavior, rights, and punishment; and the laws that affect them. Research into the adolescent brain was cited, as were several topical cases that illustrate the still fluctuating thinking about juvenile justice.Source:
At every stage of the job search, the successful candidate will need to ensure positioning as a strong fit for the right opportunity. First, job seekers who have clear insight on what they have to offer will gather information to identify target organizations that are good prospects for a fit with their career goals. Having identified a list of their target organizations, the next step is to gather as much intelligence on them as possible to help these individuals customize their resumes and cover letters for specific opportunities. Most nonprofit organizations are dedicated to a mission of advancing social justice or making the world better in some way. In filling leadership level positions, they look for the candidate who will embrace the mission and has leadership skills that will spark the organization to generate an even greater impact.
Supervisors must keep the conversation of social location and issues of power and privilege front and center in the process and content of supervision. This chapter presents some ways in which supervisors can keep these conversations central in supervision so that discussions of diversity and oppression remain vibrant, intentional, and ever-present. It outlines four primary areas that can be attended to in the supervisor-supervisee relationship in order to do this: establishing a safe space for supervisory connection; working toward cultural knowledge/awareness and cultural humility; recognizing and managing privilege, power, and bias associated with social location for all involved; and embracing our role as agents of change in the areas of social justice and advocacy with our clients and in our profession. The degree to which the supervisor creates a sense of safety for supervisees to self-disclose influences the quality of the supervisory relationship.
This chapter emphasizes two different approaches to mixed methods research. The transformative mixed methods approach creates new social justice–oriented research by employing qualitative and quantitative methods within a single phase, sequential phases, or concurrently. The multiphase mixed methods tradition is specifically designed for large-scale investigations that employ separate and equally emphasized qualitative and quantitative methodological frameworks. The order of data collection and analysis can either be sequential or concurrent, and each phase builds on the previous thread culminating in a fuller understanding of the overall project objectives. The chapter comprehends the philosophical integration of transformative and multiphase research design. It recognizes how to maximize the rigor of transformative and multiphase design. The chapter defines the data analysis process for transformative and multiphase designs and explains how mixed methods traditions can enhance multicultural competency.
This book vividly portrays the personal and professional lives of social work luminaries from the 19th to the present century. It links their groundbreaking contributions in social work to current Council on Social Work Education core competencies. The book focuses on leaders who shaped the field across modern American history — the Progressive Era, the Great Society, the New Deal, the Postwar period, and others—and examines their lives in the context of the social and historical environment, their contributions to social work, and lessons from their experiences that are still relevant to social work today. Through detailed, engaging life stories and photographs, readers—including undergraduates, graduate students, and practicing social workers—will learn about the profession’s rich history rooted in charitable work, “friendly visitors”, and social justice advocacy. The book also touches upon the contributions of early social work pioneers as well as those leading us forward in the 21st century. The social work leaders explored are Dorothea Dix, Ellen Gates Starr, Mary Richmond, Frances Perkins, Whitney Moore Young Jr, Katherine Anne Tuach Kendall, Dr. Nazneen Sada Mayadas, and Barbara Mikulski. It provides important historical groundwork for classes in social welfare policy, introduction to social work, and social work history courses. Chapters include discussion questions and activities to facilitate professional growth and personal development.
This chapter differentiates religion from spirituality and examines the prevalence of both in the African American community. It examines the history of the Black church as well as its overall impact on the African American community. The chapter then elucidates the beginnings of Black Protestant church during slavery followed by its historical and current role in social justice and activism endeavors. It explores Catholicism with a review of some of the differences from Protestant denominations, a historical examination of the African American Catholic Church, and an introduction to Black Catholic theology. Next, the chapter discusses Islam, including the Nation of Islam, and focuses on religion among same gender loving (
SGL) African Americans and potential struggles with homonegativity. It concludes by focusing on how religion and spirituality can continue to support the African American community through educational programs, mental and physical health interventions, and support of SGLAfrican Americans.
This chapter summarizes pertinent issues discussed throughout the text, especially reinforcing the multiple emphases on systems-of-care, ecological, salutogenic, social justice, and diversity approaches. In addition, the chapter identifies new frontiers for counseling practice, such as new opportunities for counselors within the Veterans Administration and
TRICAREsystem, in hospital settings, in hospice programs and assisted living environments, in other community settings, in school-based programs, in college counseling centers, and in sports counseling. The chapter also addresses the influence of technology upon the counseling profession, discussing the Internet-based services, such as virtual counseling, and telecounseling. It provides a discussion of the ethical, legal, and practice concerns related to this developing branch of counseling. With our professional organizations and the advocacy efforts of our practitioners and educators, the future holds great promise for the further development of professional counseling as an important part of the field of mental health and wellness.
Social justice and social change are theoretical orientations and organizing principles to guide action. This chapter explores the “traditional” nonelectronic mechanisms for cultivating donors and surveys the broad range of tools traditionally used to cultivate donors. Successful fundraising requires the connection of the donor’s values and priorities with a nonprofit’s core values, and mission. In general, an individual donor’s contributions typically are unrestricted and can be used for funding an organization’s general operating expenses. The nonprofit sector is supported by four types of funders: government, individuals, foundations, and corporations. Private and corporate foundations’ contributions are typically restricted or directed at covering the expenses of a particular program in an organization’s management portfolio. Managers often justify corporate giving on the basis of its claimed benefits to shareholders; benefits may include goodwill that is created by corporate involvement with charitable causes, which may lead to enhanced employee morale and increased customer loyalty.
Counselors and clients are immersed in a social and cultural context and embedded in multiple systems and subsystems, such as family, workplace, community, and society. This chapter addresses system views, integrated care, barriers to treatment, multicultural issues, and the use of multicultural and social justice skills in the provision of clinical mental health counseling. Specific topics include a discussion of systems, holistic care, barriers to healthcare, and culturally competent counselors. The chapter further explores the connections between culturally competent care and the potential role for clinical mental health counselors in ascertaining the systemic need for new agency- and integrated healthcare-based programs. The student is introduced to basic tenets of system worldviews, developing integrated new programs aimed at meeting the clinical mental health needs of diverse and varied clients, and the application of multicultural and social justice skills in clinical mental health counseling.
- Go to chapter: Understanding and Responding to Affectional and Transgender Prejudice and Victimization
In addition to traumas that heterosexual and cisgender people experience, queer and transgender people face a heterosexist and cissexist culture, in which marginalization and trauma against them is normalized or minimized. In this chapter, the experience of hate crimes and violence, relational and interpersonal trauma, religious based-trauma, and sociocultural and political-based trauma are covered in relation to how it impacts Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, and Queer (
LGBTQ) people. Clinical and counseling implications are discussed. The increase in mental health challenges is explained via the minority stress model. Implications for diagnosis and trauma-informed practices for queer and transgender people are discussed. Additionally, the role of the mental health professional as a social justice advocate is explored, including how social justice frameworks can be incorporated in the counseling environment.
The distress of populations affected by genocide, war, and the specific phenomenon often referred to as “ethnic cleansing” and political violence is typically viewed through the lens of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (
PTSD) (the word “war” is used in the rest of this chapter to refer specifically to “ethnic cleansing”). However, there have been increasing critiques of the assumed universal applicability of the trauma paradigm, from psychologists and psychiatrists, as well as anthropologists and sociologists, engaged with individuals and societies affected by mass violence. This chapter reviews how the specific characteristics of genocide, war, and political violence pose challenges to biomedical and Western psychological framings of trauma. It argues the need for greater attention to cultural context, intersecting structural oppressions, and social justice and considers how narrative- and arts-based tools, underpinned by principles drawn from multicultural and decolonial approaches, may assist in this endeavor.
In this chapter, the authors review important concepts related to diversity, inclusion, racial power dynamics, and racial justice overall and in school settings. Brief historical reviews of Brown v. Board of Education and the cycle of school segregation accentuate the need for addressing social justice within school settings. This chapter also highlights many other important concepts/theories to promote social justice and equity, including a focus on the strengths perspective, cultural humility and competence, work with diverse families, and consideration for special subpopulations. The chapter provides activities and classroom assignments to engage students in thinking critically about social justice, diversity, and social work practice in schools.
Over the years, many of the participants in the authors’ facilitative leadership training programs have worked to implement facilitative leadership in their agencies and community organizations. The authors have asked them for recommendations on how to increase facilitative leadership skills. While the authors had attempted to demonstrate that facilitative leadership is greater than the sum of leadership and facilitation skills, having some materials that build both of those skills can greatly benefit individual social workers and their agencies. Whenever possible, persons with good facilitative leadership skills within the agency or community organization and outside facilitators are paired with other individuals so they can observe the skills being put into practice. Asking group members with limited experience in serving as the formal facilitative leader to take various parts of the group process is an excellent way for them to build skills. Facilitative leadership and social justice are two strong, stand-alone concepts.
This chapter provides an overview of leadership and discusses several historical and current leadership theories. One’s path to becoming a facilitative leader involves learning about some of the theories and research about leadership. Equally important as the concepts of leadership are the views those theories articulate about followership. The trait theories come from historical roots that the leader is a great man and a hero. Leadership is often presumed in people with high positions, including corporate CEOs and directors of agencies. Administrator is a neutral position, and persons in that position may be perceived as positive or negative according to the leadership values they bring to the job. Social workers must engage in leadership and also that their efforts should address issues of social justice and injustice. Like Theory X-Theory Y, situational leadership is a theory designed around how those in leadership positions perceive followers.
This introduction presents an overview of key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book reviews both the management and social change skills and knowledge needed by nonprofit executives to succeed as nonprofit leaders. The value of social justice and advocacy is very important for a nonprofit leader to incorporate in the organization’s work. The book promotes an integration of business and social service with a focus on social justice advocacy, it would be ideal to have an organizational culture that is supportive of this work, that is, all staff united with a culture of care rather than complaint. Hiring and supporting a diverse workforce are inextricably linked for nonprofit leaders who want to develop and maintain a nonprofit agency committed to social justice. Our goal is to make a commitment to social justice and advocacy key to the organizational culture of the nonprofit organization.
This conclusion presents some closing thoughts of key concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book illustrates the emerging importance of social justice when developing the nonprofit leader of the future. It describes the importance of financial management skills for the nonprofit leader. The book explores the changing role of a nonprofit board that includes more accountability and a higher level of demands. It analyzes many diverse functions within the nonprofit ecosystem and discusses how social justice is now an absolutely essential skill set when developing leaders in this field. The book examines the evolution of nonprofit boards from its humble beginnings as a neighborhood organization to its current state of a more formal entity. It indicates the definition of ‘social justice’ as creating an egalitarian society that is based on equality and solidarity where human rights and the dignity of each individual is of utmost importance.
This chapter refers to the most important federal tax laws relating to nonprofit governance. It addresses the relationship between tax-exempt status and advocacy for “social justice” that is an important public policy issue. The chapter describes the type of nonprofit organization, the primary responsibilities of directors, trustees, and officers, how to address conflicts of interest and related party transactions, important governance rules related to fundraising and what legal rules affect nonprofit organizations engaging in advocacy for social justice. A nonprofit status is generally a state law concept that may make an organization eligible for benefits such as state income, sales, and property tax exemption. The ultimate legal authority and responsibility for a nonprofit organization lie with the governing board, which is composed of directors or trustees. The chapter concludes by extracting some general principles and best practices for good governance of nonprofits.
This chapter presents a summary of authors’ perspectives as Fordham Graduate School of Business lecturers who had the opportunity to teach in an entirely different environment with students seeking to develop their skills in the field of nonprofit leadership for social justice. There are many similarities between the for-profit and nonprofit sectors in terms of the need to focus on leadership, management, strategy execution, organizational design, measuring performance, and developing talented individuals. The chapter reviews the principles and methodologies of strategic planning and the planning process used in for-profit organizations. It focuses on the assignment and discussion of an actual case study of the Madison Community House (MCH) as an example of a nonprofit strategic planning process and also on developing a course that would foster a robust learning environment. A theme of the course is to create a culture of integrity and ethical behavior.
This chapter provides a brief history and identifies the size of the nonprofit sector, and explores theories that explain the existence of the nonprofit sector. It examines the political and economic aspects of the operating environment of nonprofit organizations (NPO) and addresses the importance of keeping the social justice missions to the organizational sustainability of an NPO in today’s environment. The nonprofit sector emerged as major historical forces, laws and regulations, social institutions, political and economic trends, and events developed within the unique social context of the United States. Throughout the 19th century, religious organizations played a key role in the development of nonprofits. Historians believe that nonprofits reflect the rich voluntary traditions of America. Supply side theory further highlights the altruism and giving traditions of nonprofits. As the history of nonprofits has shown, nonprofits believe that they can and should contribute to building a more inclusive social justice movement.
Narrative Therapy was first introduced in the early writings of Michael White and David Epston in the early 1990s. Narrative theory presents stories as the performance of identity, not as representative of identity. The uniqueness of Narrative Therapy in today’s society is that it emphasizes and brings in a different perspective about looking at and situating human beings in their environment. With a strong appreciation for social justice, Narrative Therapy does attend to inequities of gender, race, economics, sexual orientation, and more. The process of supervising and training a narrative therapist parallels the process in the therapist-client relationship. The utilization of definitional ceremonies in the therapeutic process also enhances the reflecting team’s effectiveness. Definitional ceremonies are typically provided to underserved populations whose personal narratives are affected by issues of diversity, privilege, power, and marginalization.
Counselors must deal with a variety of ethical issues and dilemmas. Counseling and psychotherapy are also guided by encompassing ethical guidelines, defined as ethical principles (high standards for ethical behavior). This chapter describes the six core ethical principles underlying ethical analysis in the profession of counseling. These principles are autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, fidelity and veracity. The chapter contrasts principle ethics with virtue ethics. The concept of justice involves fairness and equality in access to resources and treatment. Distributive justice involves access to resources and services that may be considered scarce. The chapter discusses the processes of considering their application to ethical issues and defines the concepts of balancing, weighing, and assigning prima facie merit to principles. Ethical standards are specific profession-relevant directives or guidelines that reflect the best ethical practice of professionals. The chapter discusses the principles with attention to how they inform ethical standards and practices in counseling.
Counseling Adults in Transition, 5th Edition:Linking Schlossberg’s Theory With Practice in a Diverse World
This fifth edition is updated with new, evolving theories, and provides an increased focus on specific practical applications for meeting the clients’ needs in an increasingly diverse and ever-changing socio-cultural landscape. It also attempts to address the dramatic changes mentioned above, including the Pandemic, economic instability, Black Lives Matter and climate change. The dramatic and unprecedented changes in the environment challenge us to adapt the theoretical conceptualizations, methods, and strategies for working with clients. The book provides an updated vision for working with transitions, with the integration of new theories, along with Schlossberg’s timeless model. It is predicated on several assumptions. The book includes enhancing resilience and coping, illuminated by updated literature and discussion of applications of Schlossberg’s theory and 4 S model–a model that offers effective techniques to understand and successfully navigate life transitions. The book addresses the roles of hope, optimism, and mattering. It also deepens the discussion of race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and social justice, along with intersectionality regarding multiple identities as diverse individuals and their families navigate life transitions. The book highlights the role of escalating changes in the current global, political and socio-cultural landscape. It focuses on the increasing importance of helping adults navigate transitions and integrates Schlossberg’s unique transition model with both classic and emerging theories to guide adults in transition. The book discusses sociocultural and contextual factors in shaping the coping process and presents culturally sensitive strategies and interventions. It emphasizes social justice concerns and advocacy on behalf of underrepresented populations and delivers rich and diverse case studies focused on transition issues. The book includes updated learning activities and exercises to enhance understanding.
Throughout history, social work has played a significant role in the changing healthcare delivery system. This chapter highlights the history of healthcare and social work, including the roles social workers are engaged with diverse populations. It underscores the unique contributions and challenges that social workers are involved with in practice, policy, and research. Social workers have advocated for human rights and social justice throughout history. Social workers can help to change the healthcare delivery system that embraces collaboration with the individuals, families, communities, and other disciplines to insure good health for all members of society. Social workers recognize the dignity and worth of all people as well as the influence of the environment on human life. The recognition of healthcare disparities that continue to exist in society is a major concern of social workers responding to the needs of vulnerable populations.