Competent school psychologists consider human diversity in all aspects of their psychological service delivery. Diversity within the student population provides educators with an important opportunity to teach students how to live in a pluralistic U.S. society and an increasingly global world. This chapter explores the importance of valuing and incorporating diversity in the delivery of school psychological services. It discusses how the use of multiculturalism can guide school psychological service delivery and describes the recommendations for multiculturalism and social justice orientations to school psychology practice. School psychologists should consider diversity in all aspects of their service delivery. The use of multicultural and social justice frameworks provides a practice foundation for engaging diverse clients. The ever-increasing diversity of the U.S. population necessitates school psychologists’ critical attention to providing culturally relevant, competent, and effective service delivery to diverse children, families, and schools.
Your search for all content returned 8 results
The field of school psychology has broadened its focus over time, gradually moving toward a systems-focused prevention and intervention orientation. School psychologists are uniquely poised to proactively advocate for systems change that enhances school and student functioning. This chapter provides school psychologists with information on systems change and the practitioner leader’s role within it. It first introduces the value of systems change, factors that influence the change process, and prominent models of systems change. Next, it outlines considerations for leading systems change and educational reform efforts, including necessary skills for practitioners and considerations for maximizing success. The chapter then defines program evaluation and describes how school psychologists can engage in process and outcome evaluation of their systems change efforts to drive further improvements. Finally, the authors assume a social justice perspective in which school psychologists are viewed as advocates for equitable service delivery for all children and families.
The existence of individual differences in cognitive aptitude for learning from instruction is the most longstanding, well-established fact in educational psychology. Indeed, in virtually every classroom, it is common for teachers to observe that some students struggle to acquire certain knowledge and skills, while others learn that same material quickly and with ease. Intelligence tests were originally developed to improve educational efficiency by identifying children and youth who were at risk for educational failure. Such tests were used to classify students to fixed educational structures on the basis of general intellectual ability. This chapter reviews the current status of intelligence testing in the schools. It defines intelligence, its structure, and distribution, and discusses the origins of individual differences in intelligence and its malleability. The chapter examines how intelligence is measured and how tests of intelligence are used in the schools. It concludes with a discussion of intelligence and social justice.
There is a considerable need to educate school personnel, parents, legislators, and the general public about the value of school psychological services. This chapter provides an overview of the field of school psychology. In particular, it defines the profession, describes the ways in which school psychology differs from other related professions, presents the 10 domains of the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) Practice Model, and describes the typical roles and functions of school psychologists in the schools. The NASP Practice Model provides a comprehensive framework for conceptualizing service delivery in school psychology. The NASP Practice Model is referenced frequently throughout the remainder of the book; thus, the figure provided in this chapter may assist readers in understanding how various components of practice are interrelated. The chapter defines the term social justice and multiculturalism, and presents a rationale for the orientation of this book.
School psychology has a rich history of professional self-examination and planning for the future. The field has made great strides in identifying a professional identity, developing and implementing standards that support that identity, and establishing the importance of school psychological services in producing positive outcomes for students. This chapter offers predictions regarding future directions of the school psychology field through a review of historical trends and contexts. In particular, these predictions pertain to the composition of the workforce, the roles of school psychologists, and professional practices. The chapter identifies likely responses of school psychology professional organizations to current challenges, including shortages, standards revisions, and the evolution of professional roles. It discusses urgent challenges as one move into the future, including diversity, social justice, and technology. Finally, the chapter describes specific action steps for individual school psychologists in creating a robust future for the field.
The field of school psychology offers a wide range of important career trajectories that serve the academic and mental health needs of children and youth. There are several diverse career options within this field. Some of these career options involve working in pre-K–12 school settings, whereas others involve working in hospitals, private practice, postsecondary institutions, and other settings. Early awareness of career options in school psychology allows preservice professionals to prepare themselves for the jobs of their choosing. This chapter delineates the range of career options in school psychology. It reviews considerations in selecting graduate training programs and degree tracks. The chapter identifies strategies for optimizing specialized coursework and supervised clinical experiences aligned with career goals. It discusses considerations for mentorship that enhances professional skills and scholarly productivity to facilitate acquisition of competitive internships and jobs. Finally, the chapter provides guidance on acquiring preservice social justice advocacy knowledge and skills.
One of the primary functions of the K–12 education system is to prepare children to be ready for college or a career. Central to college and career readiness is students’ proficiency in three key academic skill areas: reading, writing, and mathematics. Given the importance of academic skills, a core skill for school psychologists is the ability to collect and use assessment data that inform an intervention targeting students’ academic skills. This chapter introduces readers to the importance of evaluating the environment in which a student is receiving instruction, assessment instruments used within schools for identifying and monitoring the progress of students with academic intervention needs, and the three tiers of multi-tiered system of support (MTSS). This chapter reviews the essential components of academic assessment and intervention as well as couches them within a MTSS. It describes the relevance of social justice in implementing academic MTSS.
This book presents an evidence-based, cognitive-behavioral framework for delivering collaborative consultation in K-12 schools. It promotes the idea of equitable educational opportunities for all students. The book presents strategies for promoting non-cognitive skills in students, career and college readiness, and optimal learning environments along with the general theories of consultation. It advocates for student support services personnel to work in concert with teachers, parents, and administrators to promote student success and social justice. The book is organized into four parts. The first part presents: (i) an historical exploration of education and school consultation, (ii) ongoing issues and current trends in education, and (iii) an overview of student support services. The second part describes models and theories of school consultation and rational emotive-social behavioral consultation. Part three focuses on application of school consultation for student success. It describes rational emotive-social behavioral consultation with teachers, parents, administration, and committees. The final part discusses student support services that complement rational emotive-social behavioral consultation and determination of needs, outcomes, and effectiveness in school consultation. The book offers an evidence-based model for school consultation that focuses on supporting student success in academic, social-emotional, and college/career readiness domains. It provides transcripts of consultation sessions with teachers, parents, and administrators. The book is intended for graduate courses on school consultation, counseling, school interventions, for use in field placement courses, practicums, internships taught in school psychology, school counseling, and social work.