The concept of risk behaviors became a model for public health interventions in the late 1970s and 1980s. This chapter describes contemporary knowledge on the risk behaviors of gender and sexual minority (GSM) persons. It highlights research findings, with particular attention paid to studies of different GSM subgroups, and evaluates interventions that have sought to modify behaviors in the pursuit of better health outcomes. The chapter then focuses on the potential contributions of other theoretical frameworks to the study of GSM risk behaviors, including opportunities to incorporate disclosure, resilience, intersectionality, and minority stress theories. It also presents recommendations for future directions for researching health risk behaviors among GSM persons, addressing the risk of harming GSM populations, and diverting attention and resources from addressing justice and social determinants of GSM health. The chapter concludes with suggestions for future research and interventions in support of more equitable health outcomes.
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This chapter introduces the scope of this volume by reviewing thirteen guiding principles for a new field of equity in health. The thirteen guiding principles are: The drive for a major paradigm shift, the drive for new models of health care and training, the drive for new theories, perspectives, and identities, the drive for evidence-based approaches, the drive for transdisciplinary teams and community-based participatory research, the drive for globalization and global collaboration, the drive for cultural competence and cultural appropriateness, the drive for health literacy and linguistic appropriateness, the drive to ensure the right to health, the drive for social justice and acknowledgment of forces in the social context, the drive to protect and support the most vulnerable, the drive to repair damage, restore trust, and take responsibility, and the drive to redistribute wealth and access to opportunity. These principles provide hope for a future global transformation in health.
- Go to chapter: Strategies for Reducing Disparities in African Americans’ Receipt and Use of Mental Health Services
Mental health professionals play a critical role in enforcing social justice in mental health care service. This chapter discusses various characteristics of and attitudes about mental health services that may serve as barriers to parity in mental health service delivery and services among African Americans. It describes strategies for mental health providers and systems in addressing these service delivery disparities. These strategies improve the quality of mental health services for African American clients, minimize structural barriers in the receipt of mental health care among African Americans, and decreases the stigma associated with counseling use among African Americans and promote more favorable help-seeking attitudes among African Americans. Mental health professionals should work at the individual, community, and institutional levels to address external barriers, differential quality of care, and beliefs that African Americans may bring into their interactions with mental health systems.
- Go to chapter: Leading Change Through Partnership: Community Organizing, Coalition Building, and Engaging Nontraditional Partners
Leading Change Through Partnership: Community Organizing, Coalition Building, and Engaging Nontraditional Partners
This is a significant time in our nation’s history to discuss change and the way public health professionals can and will lead us through it. The country is grappling with an unprecedented pandemic and is coming to grips with how its ugly history of racism has embedded itself in our systems and structures. It is being further challenged by a polarized political climate, civic unrest, the ramifications of prolonged social distancing, and a struggling economy. The public health community has been catapulted into the spotlight. This chapter focuses on skills, strategies, and practical frameworks to help lead change through partnerships. Collective work with diverse stakeholders is the essential way to build the momentum to create change in our antiquated systems and structures so that the possibility of achieving whole health is available to all people. These new systems will promote community and population health, racial and social equity, and justice.
This chapter describes how systems change leaders can place the values of racial justice and power-sharing at the heart of practice, thereby shifting our own system in the process and supporting social movements to achieve systems change. It describes the following core principles and capabilities to implement this kind of approach: (1) How to develop a shared analysis and expand our mental models about how power imbalances, racism, and other forms of oppression define and structure the systems that drive health. (2) Attend to the work of ‘being’ together, and not just “doing” together, as a way of deepening the relationships necessary to disrupt these patterns at the interpersonal, team, organizational, and community levels. (3) Establish change processes that embody a model of sharing power and shifting who is represented in and leading transformation.
This book provides the ultimate resource for all students and practitioners seeking the professional credential and committed to lifelong learning and career growth in public health. Chapters are organized by all ten core competency domain areas, beginning with Evidence-Based Approaches to Public Health and including chapters on Communication, Leadership, Law and Ethics, Public Health Biology and Human Disease Risk, Collaboration and Partnerships, Program Planning and Evaluation, Program Management, and Policy in Public Health, before concluding with Health Equity and Social Justice. Covering over 150 topic areas, each chapter introduces the core objectives of each domain area to frame the goals of the
CPHexam and highlight the complete content outline featured on the exam. Chapters include the fundamental information public health professionals must learn to be effective workers in the field followed by approximately 600 practice questions with detailed rationales for correct answers at the end of each chapter. Using this method, the number of practice questions are divided equally among each domain area for comprehensive study and exam preparation. Written by a CPHcertified educational leader in public health and containing over three exams’ worth of questions, this book is the most useful and thorough exam review resource on the market, great for on-the-go study and preparation.
It is increasingly important to gain competency in recognizing health equity and social justice issues, with particular attention on the tools and resources needed to prevent problems and to correct problems before they become entrenched. The questions in this chapter focus on key components of health equity and social justice topics with relevance to the following competencies: application of a social-ecological model to analyze population health issues; assessing how the values and perspectives of diverse individuals, communities, and cultures influence individual and societal health behaviors, choices, and practices; analyzing the availability, acceptability, and accessibility of public health services and activities across diverse populations; conducting culturally appropriate risk and resource assessment, management, and communication with individuals and populations; incorporating strategies for interacting and collaborating with persons from diverse backgrounds; and describing the characteristics of a population-based health problem, for example, magnitude, person, time, and place.
In democratic societies, public health practice sits squarely at the intersection of science and policy. The questions in this chapter focus on key components of policy in public health. These components include opportunities to develop positions on health issues, law, and policy; to establish goals, timelines, funding alternatives, or partnership opportunities for influencing policy initiatives; educate policy makers and decision-makers to improve health, social justice, and equity; and to use scientific evidence, best practices, stakeholder input, or public opinion data to inform policy and program decision-making. The components also include opportunities to identify the social and economic impact of a health policy, program, or initiative; and to analyze political, social, and economic policies that affect health systems at the local, national, or global levels. Other components include opportunities to analyze policy options when designing programs and to ensure the consistency of policy integration into organizational plans, procedures, structures, and programs.
The field of health equity is broad and ever-expanding. It challenges us all to think about the fundamental nature of health, society, and ultimately of human rights. This chapter provides an abbreviated history of the field of health equity. One of the major complexities with the field of health equity is a lack of consistency of definitions, and at times contention among practitioners and researchers regarding terminology. The chapter describes how health is not treated as a fundamental right within the United States. It discusses the meaning and interrelated nature of health disparities, health equity, and social justice. The chapter describes how the Healthy People initiative helped to frame the approach to achieve health equity in the United States. It summarizes the ways in which historical factors influence the ability of groups impacted by health disparities to trust the healthcare industry and contrasts the concepts of equality, equity, and justice.
This chapter explains specific values and traits that are particularly helpful to developing public health leadership. It provides priorities to subjective, based on leader’s own experiences, observations, and reading. Reliance on evidence to inform decision making can also help leaders counter groupthink, which may be a downside of the generally positive structure of shared beliefs among public health practitioners. Values in public health leadership work are influenced by the history of the field and by legal obligations to protect the public health codified in law. Public health leaders generally recognize the necessary role of government in reducing the risks people can’t manage on their own, and the pursuit of social justice. They honor, respect, community self-determination, transparency, interdependence, and evidence in performing their work. Public health leaders also can benefit from having the seven traits: integrity, initiative, empathy, comfort with ambiguity, passion, courage, and persistence.