Gender identity has a significant impact on how an individual navigates and experiences the world. This chapter provides an overview of the intersections of social identities, offers an introduction to intersectionality, explores the impact of systems of oppression on mental health and well-being, and suggests strategies for incorporating principles of intersectionality and identity construction into counseling practice. Locating individual identity within sociopolitical contexts and recognizing the mutually constitutive interplay of social identities cause a significant shift in how identities are experienced, studied, and treated within counseling relationships and educational contexts. Many practitioners ground their work in social justice principles, recognizing that power, privilege, oppression, and discrimination impact sense of self as well as life experiences and expectations. Intersectionality has been deepened and broadened by scholars in education, counseling, sociology, psychology, cultural studies, history, queer theory, feminist studies, ethnic studies, and many other fields.
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- Go to chapter: Intersectionality: Understanding Power, Privilege, and the Intersecting Identities of Women
Members of privileged groups have important roles to play in social justice efforts. Because they have social advantages and greater access to resources, they are in unique positions to address issues in ways that are more difficult for those with disadvantages, as they are somewhat protected from the negative outcomes of doing so. Thus, White people can work to reduce racism, wealthy people economic inequality, heterosexual people homophobia, and so forth. This chapter highlights how the participation of those in privileged groups is essential to the success of social movements. Sexism is a form of prejudice, and it is important to have a clear understanding of how it works. Many people in dominant groups define prejudice in individualistic terms, as a consciously held attitude. Everyday allies are men who practice supportive behaviors whenever they encounter the opportunity.
Advocacy is key for the clinical mental health counseling profession. Clinical mental health counselor advocates (
CMHCAs) rely on the advocacy competencies to guide their assistance to clients in removing barriers and to secure deserving resources, or to advocate on behalf of clients, groups, or communities. This chapter addresses the importance of advocacy and social justice advocacy, and the strategic positionality of the clinical mental health counselor as an advocate for addressing social and institutional barriers that reduce client access, equity, and success. It identifies the advocacy competencies and approaches to advocate for clients care, and emphasizes the ways that they foster resilience and growth. Specific cases illustrate clients' and professionals' understandings of and access to a variety of community-based resources. The chapter also addresses strategies to advocate for the profession and for clinical mental health counseling professionals.
This chapter presents a type of culturally open pastoral counseling that requires a transformation of self and society beyond an educated mind and a politically sensitive vocabulary. It discusses the current state of multicultural competence and social justice discourses. The chapter offers a few guiding principles intended to foster a more culturally open approach to cross-cultural training for pastoral counselors and other helping professionals. Training cultural competence in pastoral counseling and related fields focuses on meeting the ethical guidelines established by professional organizations. Training and discussions of social justice in pastoral counseling and related fields are aimed at drawing attention to the injustices inflicted on marginalized populations and motivating privileged populations to address and eradicate the resulting disparities. The primary focus of cross-cultural training for pastoral counselors is awareness, knowledge, and self-reflection. Developing cultural competence requires heightened awareness of personal cognitive dissonance when confronted with conflicting beliefs.
This chapter presents over 100 interventions using art, drama, music, writing, dance, and movement that school counselors can easily incorporate into their practices with individual students and groups, and in classroom settings. These creative interventions, based on the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) National Model framework, support the key student domains of academic, career, and personal/social development. It provides a wider variety of modalities as well as easy-to-follow step-by-step instructions for each intervention. The chapter focuses on music-based interventions in the personal/social domain for connecting students to the Civil Rights Movement through music. Music played a key role in the movement and marked pivotal milestones as the movement progressed. The music-based interventions explore songs related to the Civil Rights Movement and as an expression for discussing social justice.
Counseling Adults in Transition, 5th Edition:Linking Schlossberg’s Theory With Practice in a Diverse World
This fifth edition is updated with new, evolving theories, and provides an increased focus on specific practical applications for meeting the clients’ needs in an increasingly diverse and ever-changing socio-cultural landscape. It also attempts to address the dramatic changes mentioned above, including the Pandemic, economic instability, Black Lives Matter and climate change. The dramatic and unprecedented changes in the environment challenge us to adapt the theoretical conceptualizations, methods, and strategies for working with clients. The book provides an updated vision for working with transitions, with the integration of new theories, along with Schlossberg’s timeless model. It is predicated on several assumptions. The book includes enhancing resilience and coping, illuminated by updated literature and discussion of applications of Schlossberg’s theory and 4 S model–a model that offers effective techniques to understand and successfully navigate life transitions. The book addresses the roles of hope, optimism, and mattering. It also deepens the discussion of race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and social justice, along with intersectionality regarding multiple identities as diverse individuals and their families navigate life transitions. The book highlights the role of escalating changes in the current global, political and socio-cultural landscape. It focuses on the increasing importance of helping adults navigate transitions and integrates Schlossberg’s unique transition model with both classic and emerging theories to guide adults in transition. The book discusses sociocultural and contextual factors in shaping the coping process and presents culturally sensitive strategies and interventions. It emphasizes social justice concerns and advocacy on behalf of underrepresented populations and delivers rich and diverse case studies focused on transition issues. The book includes updated learning activities and exercises to enhance understanding.
This chapter identifies the four tools of effective academic writing. It creates concept maps to support theory development and research criteria for literature reviews. It also addresses multicultural context in academic writing including employing bias-free writing and describes the purpose and structure of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) as a tool for successful academic writing. The chapter explores the connection between writing and thinking by way of an approach for researching and writing a literature review, which includes creating concept maps to support the theoretical foundation of a literature review and addressing multicultural issues in academic writing. It begins with the multicultural and social justice–competency as a framework. Cultural considerations in writing are expansive and can include the mechanics of language through to the context by which information is framed and communicated to an audience.
The phenomenological approach to qualitative research is rooted in philosophy and amplified in social justice and creativity. The general purpose of phenomenology is to seek the essence of its subject, and that may take the form of meaning making with a social justice context. Phenomenologist are interested in what lies at the heart of the matter. Phenomenology differs from other qualitative traditions in its unique quest for meaning making through essentialism. While all qualitative inquiry is an attempt to preserve a unique perspective, phenomenologists highlight the uniqueness as a community value, allowing the reader to engage in transference of a common purpose. This chapter helps to identify the paradigmatic hierarchy and understand how to increase rigor of phenomenological research. It describes the five types of phenomenological research and recognizes multicultural issues associated with phenomenological research.
This chapter offers practical utility to help expand rehabilitation counselors’ (RCs) and other mental health professionals’ thinking about the various considerations that underlie a culturally competent social justice approach to rehabilitation counseling practice. Rehabilitation counseling has demonstrated its commitment to the importance of cultural competency in improving the quality and availability of counseling and rehabilitation services to clients from traditionally under represented racial/ethnic groups. The chapter describes the multicultural and social justice counseling competencies (MSJCC), with particular attention directed to the social justice framework and how it may be used to assist in working toward equity in the context of changing demographics in American society. It then explains how individual and group racial, sexual identity, cultural, and identity development may impact the counseling process. The counseling literature recognizes LGBTQ individuals as inclusive under the umbrella of multicultural populations, as well as intersecting with other groups because of multiple identities.
- Go to chapter: Other Special Topics in Counseling Children and Adolescents: Program Identity, Essential Skills, and Counselor Wellness
Other Special Topics in Counseling Children and Adolescents: Program Identity, Essential Skills, and Counselor Wellness
This chapter draws from the literature, professional counseling and education organizations, and their professional experiences to discuss the multi-faceted areas associated with counseling children and adolescents. It also details the evolving requirements to enter the school counseling profession and the standards that guide professional preparation and ongoing professional, ethical practice. Additionally, the chapter explores the challenges associated with balancing multiple roles and the benefits associated with using the literature to engage in the ethical practice of counseling that meets the needs of diverse stakeholders and supports personal well-being and professional excellence. The authors offer this chapter as a resource to counselors-in-training and persons in professional practice to remain engaged in the profession. The authors encourage readers to ponder the convergence of counselor training, professional standards, empathy, advocacy and social justice and wellness on their work, well-being, and contributions to their communities and the profession.