Reformed churches are predominantly Presbyterian in polity, where the congregation is governed by a group of elected elders who are lay persons and a minister. Regional groups of churches form a Presbytery, and groups of Presbyteries form Synods that together form the national General Assembly. The Reformed Tradition is monotheistic, affirming one God, in three persons. The persons of the Trinity are God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit. Reformed Christians are called, always and everywhere, to a committed pursuit of social justice and human wholeness. Disease, illness, suffering, and death, and indeed natural disaster as well, are a consequence of humankind’s choosing to go its own way and to live. Theologically, death is a consequence of human willfulness or going our own way in disobedience to God. Reformed Christian religious terminology reflects, in large part that found in mainstream Protestant Christian traditions.
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This chapter provides an overview of the issues of climate change, climate justice, and the environmental health issues linked with climate change. Global warming is the most dramatic and devastating aspect of climate change. Violence poses an enormous challenge globally for nursing and is widely identified as a threat to public health. Conflict and war are major threats to human health; thus, they are critical issues for nurses to address. Both flooding and droughts are emerging water-related challenges that are important for global nursing. Occupational injuries are a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, a potential link between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and maternal exposure to pesticides during pregnancy has been identified. The damaging effects of pesticide exposure and cancer are being studied in prostate cancer, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, breast cancer, and other cancers. Disasters are associated with emergent health consequences that require a nursing response.
This chapter helps to reader to identify prominent leadership theories in nursing, and describes components of ethical leadership and their relation to leadership theories used in nursing. It provides the behaviors and responsibilities of ethical leaders at the micro-, meso- and macro-levels, and applies strategies to develop ethical leadership. At the department and unit levels, nurse leaders engage nurses in decision making about patient flow and staffing, quality improvement activities, and continuous learning opportunities to improve overall care delivery. The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) documents on baccalaureate and master’s essentials support the development of leadership competencies in all nurses. At the macro-level, ethical nursing leaders are political strategists and researchers for social justice and health care reform. In ethical leadership, the principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, in conjunction with caring and virtue ethics, are applicable to patient/ family care and interactions with peers/staff and others.
This chapter examines the effects that social determinants and economic globalization have had on the health of the world’s people, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. It also explores the concept of global health ethics and how it is distinct from traditional ethics. The challenges to promoting and defending human rights to achieve the highest standard of health and well-being and to eradicate inequities in essence, creating a socially just society are complex. The traditional ethical principles autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice are useful but not sufficient to examine global health issues. A global ethics framework is needed. Three frameworks that have particular merit are: Ford’s Global Health Advocacy framework, a rights-based framework, and the more recently proposed Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH). Grootjans and Newman identify some essential attributes for nursing practice in a globalized world that complement the global ethics perspective.
In the global health partnership process identified by Leffers and Mitchell, nurse partner factors include cultural perspectives, personal attributes and expectations, and knowledge of the host country. This chapter explores these nurse factors from the perspective of the nurse as an individual and the nurse situated within an organization. Compassion, curiosity, and courage have been identified as principles of program development in global service-learning programs. Attributes and expectations intrinsic to the nurse are essential to developing a successful global partnership. Clarifying the nurse’s role within the organization provides the boundaries of the partnership, and knowing what to possibly expect on arrival and throughout the partnership facilitates ongoing understanding of the partners within the context. The standards of practice for culturally competent nursing care relevant to global health partnerships include: Social justice, Critical reflection, Knowledge of cultures, and Cross-cultural communication.
The health challenges and disparities faced by developing nations of the world have increased attention to the need for global nursing research. Contemporary global health is guided by the ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and social justice. These principles are vital to the conduct of nursing research for it to contribute to an evidence-based model needed to guide practice, research, and policy development. This chapter reviews contextual factors that influence global nursing research, models used to guide the development of sustainable partnerships, ethical issues of global nursing research, and research methods appropriate for global settings. It explores community-based participatory research (CBPR) as an approach to engage communities and addresses global health challenges. The chapter presents a case study of nursing research in Uganda to explore the development of academic exchange program with a U.S. university for the purpose of providing global health learning experiences for health profession students.
- Go to chapter: Goal 16. Promote Peaceful and Inclusive Societies for Sustainable Development, Provide Access to Justice for All and Build Effective, Accountable, and Inclusive Institutions at All Levels
Goal 16. Promote Peaceful and Inclusive Societies for Sustainable Development, Provide Access to Justice for All and Build Effective, Accountable, and Inclusive Institutions at All Levels
The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 16 recognizes that peace and justice are just as necessary to the well-being of the global village as improving utilization of sustainable resources, the eradication of poverty, and the responsible modernization of industry and infrastructure. Peace and justice are the indicators that reflect quality of life, feelings of safety, and ensure that disparities of all kinds are addressed in the quest for equality. This chapter provides SDG 16 along with its associated targets. Each global nurse has the fundamental capacity and responsibility to become a representative of peace and contribute to the goals through his or her practice and ethic of caring. The role of compassion in delivering ethically sound and equitable health care has been discussed; compassionate engagement as a central theme of artful and humane nursing; compassion as impetus, action, rationale, and outcome.
With the recent creation and ongoing implementation of the sustainable development goals (SDGs), global nurses play a vital role assisting the United Nations in addressing the root causes of poverty and the universal need for development that works for all people. The SDGs advocate to further address the worldwide antipoverty work initiated by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and improve quality of life for the global community by 2030. Global Finance shows that of the 25 poorest countries in the world, 21 of them are in Africa, with the poorest nation being the Central African Republic (CAR). Global nurse leaders need to be powerful and informed advocates for equality in health care and understand what it means: equitable care to all populations without compromise. The power of the global nurse as advocate–leader–practitioner cannot be overlooked, particularly when striving to eradicate poverty in the name of social justice and health equity.
- Go to chapter: Health, Human Rights, and Social Justice: An Interview With Paul Farmer and Sheila Davis
This chapter presents an interview between Paul Farmer and Sheila Davis, who address the intersection of health, human rights, and social justice, and offers an interprofessional perspective on providing preferential care for the poor. Global nursing has its roots in public health nursing, where social justice is a core component of practice. The HIV epidemic illuminated the haves and have-nots of society unlike any other disease, virus, or public health pandemic in modern times. The priorities of global health delivery are best based on building strong health systems of care with the public sector. Global nursing is now fully engaged in addressing human rights and integrating social justice in caring for individuals, communities, and populations. The discipline of nursing has had a long history of advocating for the sick and vulnerable that positions to play a pivotal role in advancing the health of the world’s people through social justice efforts.
This chapter helps the student to define public health and public health ethics, to differentiate public health ethics from clinical ethics, and to describe the ethical tensions inherent in addressing public health problems. It also helps the student to discuss different theoretical approaches and principles used in public health ethics and to apply a public health framework in analyzing the development of a new program or policy. The chapter presents ethical principles involved in implementing programs and designing policies in the community. Within both clinical and public health ethics, it is important to examine the theory and principles guiding normative behavior. The principles that have particular relevance of public health ethics are paternalism, human rights, and social justice. Disparities in health are often driven by social determinants that include socioeconomic status, social structure, education, social position, racism, and discrimination.