The Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) form a group of illnesses, characterized by a pathological form of the native prion protein, which results in a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative illness. They also are responsible for Gerstmann-Strâussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome and fatal familial insomnia (FFI), and they have been produced experimentally in several other animals. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is the most common TSE in humans. Human prion diseases have three etiologies: (a) sporadic, (b) genetic, and (c) acquired. Human prion diseases are important to understand because of their underlying pathophysiology, public health implications, and clinical features that often result in misdiagnosis. This chapter reviews the historical discovery of prion diseases and the formulation of the prion hypothesis. It explores prion hypothesis and the neuropathogenesis of prion diseases. The chapter ends with a description of the diagnosis, prognosis, and experimental treatment of human prion diseases.
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In recent decades, a number of large, complex human services and public health organizations have developed, which are becoming known as the Fourth Sector. This chapter defines the Fourth Sector, and its large, complex, nonprofit organizations, many of them members of the Alliance for Children and Families. It explores a case study that provides in-depth information about this organization and the work of the Alliance to support the complex organizations among their members. The Fourth Sector presents a unique partnership opportunity for government and must be viewed as a strategic management partner, and operations entity at the state, regional, and national levels. Hillside family of agencies (HFA) strives to improve every aspect of the organization, from business, financial, and human resources to service delivery to youth and families. Through the evolution, and implementation of the strategic intent and data-driven outcomes to inform practice, services are improved on a continual basis.
This chapter discusses the importance of integrating marketing with an organization’s mission and goals and describes the structural levels that can produce a cost-effective marketing strategy with messaging as its centerpiece. It examines cause marketing, which can serve as a link between corporate support and societal needs as well as a means to engage individual consumers in the support of an initiative. The chapter explores the global phenomenon of social media, which is quickly becoming a major form of communication. It then discusses three aspects of social media: the generation factor, the power of social marketing within niche networks, and the power of a connected organization. The chapter provides examples from Public Health Management Corporation (PHMC), A Drink for Tomorrow (ADFT), and the niche social networking provider Skipta. PHMC uses a structure that contains six levels: background/context; audiences/stakeholders; key messages/messaging architecture; objectives; strategies; and tactics.
Many social service leaders with only a focus on promoting social justice had become increasingly aware that to grow, they needed to incorporate more financial and business management practices into their nonprofit organizations. Leaders in the for-profit world are becoming more concerned about the need for social responsibility and promoting programs that not only made a profit but also reflected a social justice perspective. This book explicitly integrates social justice principles into the management of a nonprofit organization. The book discusses the history of the development of nonprofit management up to the present day. It addresses legal and ethical considerations, organizational planning and staff management, finance, public relations, fundraising, public advocacy and volunteerism, program design and grant development, governance and board development, developing an international nonprofit, information technology, career development, and creating a nonprofit/social entrepreneurship organization. Additional chapters address quality improvement, mentoring, and proposal writing. The text is ideal for students and faculty in social service administration, human service leadership, social work management, public and community health, public administration, and health care administration and management.
This book provides leaders and managers of nonprofit organizations with theoretical and conceptual frameworks, approaches, and strategies that will enable them to manage organizations that are financially sustainable. The book aims to equip students and nonprofit leaders with the information and conceptual frameworks needed to do financial analyses, manage budgets, and conduct various operations for organizational and financial sustainability. People have a tendency to think of financial sustainability almost exclusively in financial terms. The book argues that financial sustainability involves both financial and nonfinancial facets. To that end it provides a systemic conceptual framework. The chapters are articulated around four sections. The first part introduces the concepts of nonprofit organizations and financial sustainability. The second part is about key aspects of organization and planning for sustainability in a nonprofit organization. The third part discusses issues that are vital to the financial sustainability of a nonprofit organization. The last part emphasizes the contributions of management and leadership practices to the financial sustainability of nonprofit organizations. The book may serve as an introductory textbook for future leaders of nonprofit organizations, as well as students in schools or programs of nonprofit leadership, human service leadership, social work, public and community health, organization management, public administration, education, and other similar fields.