Understanding a student’s ethnic identity process coupled with the student’s sexual identity and psychosocial identity can provide a much more useful and informative portrait of his or her circumstances than merely knowing the student as a “19-year-old sophomore”. This book was developed with both the student affairs professional and the student affairs graduate student in mind. After a brief introduction, it discusses various human development theories such as Schlossberg’s transition theory, Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, Perry’s theory of moral development, and Kolb’s theory of experiential learning as well as personality types based on the Myers–Briggs type indicator. In the subsequent section of the book, the focus is on identity development in college students, with chapters covering Chickering’s Theory and the seven vectors of development, Black and biracial identity development theories, White identity development, and the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) identity development as well as disability and identity development. and career development theories. The final section of the book describes the factors that impact the selection of careers with chapters discussing the Holland’s theory of career development and Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, among other issues. Theory-based chapters open with a vignette in which the reader is presented with specific details of a case study for consideration. At the end of the chapter, the case is revisited and considered using a theoretical framework. Each case vignette provides the reader with immersion into a diverse perspective, and the chapter authors provide a clear discussion of their conceptualization of the student.
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Perry’s theory of development has had a significant impact on the field of psychology and is essential to understanding the cognitive development of college students. This chapter provides an overview of Perry’s theory and describes the ways in which it still applies to college students on a diverse, pluralistic college campus. The chapter discusses how Perry’s theory continues to apply to the diversified college student population common in modern American institutions of higher education. It outlines the ways in which Perry’s scheme applies to Fatima, the contextual and pluralistic challenges faced at each position, and future development, should Fatima continue to courageously accept responsibility for her moral development and overcome the ambiguities of relativism. The chapter describes utilizing Perry’s scheme as a lens through which to view Fatima’s development, anticipate deflections from growth, and identify strategies and campus and community resources to foster inclusivity, personal exploration, and continued development.
This chapter describes the interacting forces, understanding the self, identity and emotions. It examines adolescent self and identity, which will serve as a basis for understanding much about the social and emotional world of adolescents. The adolescent years bring with them the long process of departing childhood and emerging into adulthood. Similar to many aspects of development during adolescence that proceed somewhat differently based on gender, males and females differ in the process of self-exploration and identity formation as well. Sexual experimentation is common during adolescence as part of this gender identity struggle. An inability to develop a mature ethnic identity may entail denying one’s culture of origin, whereas a healthy identity process may result in adolescents who are proud of both their culture of origin and the culture they find themselves in currently.
Today, although most counseling center directors are clinical or counseling psychologists, some are psychiatrists and some centers are merged with health services. In the 1980s, staff at counseling centers at small schools began to notice a higher demand for services and greater severity of problems. Staffing trends in the 1980s called for more broad training of staff. By far, psychologists are the largest group of counseling center directors, with counseling psychologists still representing the highest percentage within the group. More psychologists and social workers staffed counseling centers with psychiatrists providing part-time hours, sometimes in a strictly consultative role. Peer counselors or educators are usually undergraduate students who provide basic helping services to other students. Advancement of staff would be considered an important aspect of professional development to staff counselors with career aspirations of working in college counseling centers as a career.
Women are very familiar with the experience of being evaluated by their physical attractiveness. This socialization intersects across all stages of a woman’s development beginning in early childhood. Too often, college women’s beliefs about their own attractiveness influence their self-worth. This chapter provides an overview of the “beauty pageant effect”, a phenomenon in which college women compete against one another based on their physical appearance. In addition, exploration of the beauty pageant effect suggests that social comparison theory, evolutionary psychology, and realistic comparison theory play a significant role in the interactions of college women. The chapter presents negative impacts of this type of competition and discusses a brief overview of clinical implications. Prevention work needs to target all women on campus and especially any at-risk populations, such as women with a history of mood disorder, socially isolated students, and those with a personal or family history of eating disorders.
The college counseling center provides a diverse clinical experience to graduate trainees. Counseling centers have the ability to provide training for a range of disciplines, including counselors, psychologists, social workers, psychiatrists, and other professionals. Master’s-level internship experiences differ from practicum experiences in the number of hours required, the comprehensive nature of training, and the building of a professional identity as a counselor. The doctoral practicum is also an opportunity to amass clinical hours in preparation for applying to a predoctoral internship. Obtaining an internship is an intensive, costly, and at times confusing process. Postdoctoral fellowships in counseling centers can be either formal or informal. Supervision is one of the most critical aspects of counseling center training. Professional development opportunities allow trainees to develop in their professional identities, connect with other trainees and professionals in the community, and build a framework for active postgraduate professional participation.