This chapter examines the cultural and relational contexts of postpartum depression. Postpartum depression (PPD) is a debilitating, multidimensional mental health problem that affects 10"-15” of new mothers and has serious consequences for women, children, families, and marriages. Although women’s experience of postpartum depression has been the subject of considerable recent study, nearly all of this work has been interpreted within a medical or psychological frame. The chapter looks at a social constructionist lens to this body of research through a meta-data-analysis of recent qualitative studies of PPD. Though hormonal changes as a result of childbirth are related to depressive symptoms after childbirth, biological explanations alone cannot explain postpartum depression. A social constructionist approach to postpartum depression focuses on how the condition arises in the context of ongoing interpersonal and societal interaction. Climbing out of postpartum depression is an interpersonal experience that requires reconnection with others.
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This chapter gives an overview of the conditions and child vulnerabilities that can disrupt relationship building. In the context of parenting and/or adult-to-child caregiving, theoretical understanding of the importance of human relationships, connections, and alliances has been guided by major models, including evolutionary psychology, attachment theory, social learning, social cognition theory, social development theory, and social control theory, bioecological systems theory and human behavioral genetics theory. Relationship formation is critical in positioning caregivers to serve in a “curative” role in assisting children to make gains and recover from the experiences of not having normal parental experiences. Kinship caregivers are in a unique position to help children develop relational competence. Relational competence is a person’s ability to appropriately interact with others and to develop meaningful relationships and connections. The caregiver can help the child reconnect or restore broken relationships.
Contextual therapy originated from the work of Ivan Boszormenyi-Nagy, who was a prominent pioneer in the family therapy movement. Contextual therapy has not been as popular with training therapists in recent decades. The waning in popularity is not because the theory is not effective or robust, but the theory and approach has been criticized for being possibly too intellectual. This chapter attempts to provide historical information on the development of contextual family therapy and the recent evolution of the model as it pertains to restoration therapy. It discusses the concepts of contextual family therapy: entitlement; loyalty; parentification; revolving slate; and ledger of merits. The contextual therapy approach is historically an integrative process of four dimensions of reality: facts, individual psychology, systemic interactions, and relational ethics. The main conceptualization of the contextual family therapy is that the present dynamic is typically a continuation of past loyalties, injustices, and entitlements.
In the field of family therapy, there is a need for working with families struggling with medical problems. The collaboration of both medicine and psychology in addressing the particular familial and individual issues that occur in dealing with illness have led to the medical family therapy (MedFT) model. MedFT represents a meta framework that encompasses overarching principles within which any mode of psychotherapy can be practiced. What sets MedFT apart from other family therapy theories is the routine collaboration with medical professionals as well as seeing illness as part of the systems. Collaboration is a primary aspect; medical family therapists need to have an understanding of the medical system to embrace a multidisciplinary team approach with physicians and other healthcare providers. The hope is that the MedFT therapist will aid the family, along with the medical staff, traverse illness and journey united together in coping with the effects of illness.
This chapter focuses on the commonality between domestic violence and other forms of violence against women. There are at least two major types of cultural issues that need to be understood in the United States by researchers and service providers: first, the cultural issues of those with less access to resources and the dominant cultural privileges, and second, the cultural issues of those who have emigrated to the United States from other countries, whether legally or illegally. Given the attention to cultural diversity issues in providing clinical services, there is a body of literature that deals with how these services, particularly medical and psychological treatments, must accommodate to cultural differences. Some researchers suggest that women of color in domestic violence relationships are less likely to seek help from mental health professionals because they perceive the helpers as insensitive to the racial and cultural context of their lives.Source:
The legal system relies heavily on jargon. This chapter discusses the terms and phrases most commonly used in family law. Few of the terms and phrases includes appeal, applicant, best interest of the child, case manager, case management directions, child’s representative, complainant and court order. The chapter also discusses the roles of counselors in family court and provides step-by-step guidelines on how to expand one’s counseling practice to include family forensic services. Depending on the state, a custody evaluator generally is a licensed physician who has board certification in psychiatry, a licensed psychologist, a licensed clinical social worker or licensed social worker in private practice, a licensed clinical professional counselor, or a licensed marriage and family therapist. Regardless of terminology, the custody evaluator is licensed at the highest tier of his or her profession. Mandatory mediation and joint custody were issues regularly considered in courts in many states.
This chapter reviews some of the earlier approaches through psychology to understanding what love is. It considers some of the major approaches namely philosophical approaches, literary approaches and clinical approaches. The philosophical approaches include reinforcement theories and cognitive-consistency theories. For many people, love is the most important thing in their lives. Perhaps the earliest approach to understanding the nature of love was through philosophy. Literature helps us understand not only love but also the forces that can undermine and even destroy love: family quarrels, economic hardship, incompatible goals in life, jealousy, inability to control one's rage or other negative emotions, and so forth. One of the earliest approaches toward understanding the antecedents of love was based on reinforcement theories, which are theories aimed at explaining behavior through patterns of environmental rewards. Cognitive-consistency theories basically hold that people strive to keep their cognitions psychologically consistent.Source:
The book covers both theories and data, and provides a comprehensive grounding in the psychology of love. The basic thesis of the book is that scientific research can help us all in our loving relationships. Consequently, the book talks not only about theory and data, but also about how to apply them to our close relationships. One chapter provides questions and answers about loving relationships, based on scientific research. Another chapter discusses online dating and the issue of just what we can expect when we meet people online. The complete “Triangular Love Scale” is presented in the book and will enable you to analyze in some detail the levels of intimacy, passion, and commitment in your relationships. The scale, based on psychological theory and validated using large numbers of participants, will show you how psychologists not only construct theories, but also translate these theories into measures that can assess scientifically the phenomena they study. The book considers most of the standard topics in the psychology of love, covering research primarily about heterosexual but also about gay couples. It describes different kinds of love, including the kinds that are more likely to lead to relationship success and also the kinds associated with relationship failure. It specifically discusses factors that lead to greater or lesser success, as well as personality variables and their associations with different kinds of love. While the book focuses mainly on romantic love, it also covers other aspects of love, such as parental love and friendship.
Evolutionary psychologists argue that passionate love is innate to human nature and is based on biological processes that are universal, applying to people of all cultures. However, it is possible that people fall in love more or less often depending on their culture's social organization and ideology. Research has found that some of the antecedents of falling in love are reciprocal liking, appearance, personality traits, similarity, familiarity and isolation. Even if romantic love occurs in many or even all cultures of the world, it is still reasonable to assume that the experience of being in love is colored by one's cultural values and the society to which one belongs. The emic approach gives us quite a different picture of what people considers love to be from that obtained with the etic approach.Source:
Few guides exist that outline the use of contextual therapy theory as a supervision model for training systemic therapists. This chapter presents an overview of contextual therapy theory and its application to supervision, the role of the supervisor and supervisee, and the application of this supervision model to the given case example. The contextual therapy approach assumes an integrative, intergenerational stance, positing that both individual and relational realities constitute human existence. In order to examine both individual and relational realities in the supervision relationship, the contextual supervisor should incorporate the four basic tenets of the contextual therapy model into the supervision approach: existential facts/biology, individual psychology, transactional relational patterns, and relational ethics. The supervision relationship should also incorporate specific components related to ethics, such as fairness, trust, loyalty, and entitlement. The goals for training a contextual therapist mirror the goals put forth for the therapeutic relationship.