In 1920, in America, psychology was dominated by two main currents. The first was a tendency to reduce life to habit, and the second was to establish differences between humans by test. The second tendency, toward testing, had burst suddenly on the scene with the coming of the Binet tests to America in 1905. The idea of contextualized relationships determined by perceptual interpretation challenged the notions that had sprung up around behaviorism that the brain was empty, functioning only as a router between environmental stimulus and motor response. The idea, still vivid in American psychology during the 1920s, that psychology was “the science of mental life” was reinforced and extended by the diffusion of Gestalt psychology through American psychology over the coming decades, as the rest of these reviews of theory and practice will show.
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Gordon Allport, addressing the American Psychological Association (APA) as its president in September 1939, observed that psychology, over the preceding 50 years, had divided into its pure and applied aspects. Troland was a socialist, and proposed that a “technology of behavior” be devised to maximize human happiness. In his comprehensive psychological system, Troland proposed a hedonic theory of motivation: Behavior depends on the quantity of pleasure to which it is related. Taken together, Troland and Miles represent the flowering, during this decade, of two persisting areas of psychological applications: consultation on the design of technologies in which human sensory and perceptual characteristics interact with equipment and devices, and the study of the effects of drugs of various kinds on human performance. Within psychiatry, psychology had long had allies, and during the 1930s some powerful ones became associated with psychology and supported its aims to develop a parallel nonmedical psychotherapy system.
The 1950s, in American society as well as psychology, were characterized by two pairs of opposites: liberty versus repression and conformity versus creativity. Repression of suspected Communists and other left-leaning individuals was in full swing at the beginning of the decade, driven by long-standing partisan enmity as well as fresh anger over the loss of atomic superiority to Soviet Russia. Many of those who had been instrumental in the creation of the bonds between them had died or retired to other interests, and a new generation of psychiatrists emerged to question the qualifications of what they saw as psychiatrists practicing without medical licenses. Cognition and internal states also emerged in the 1950s versions of theories of motivation. Applied cognitive psychology, in its 1950s incarnation, interested Eddie, Helen’s husband, and he occasionally read articles by aviation psychologists working on contract for the Office of Naval Research.
In psychology, it was a prosperous year. It was 6 years since President George H. W. Bush signed a proclamation designating the 1990s as “The Decade of the Brain”, and 4 years before the American Psychological Association (APA) would pronounce the succeeding decade “The Decade of Behavior”. Since 1990, Peace Psychology, Group Psychology and Group Psychotherapy, and Society of Addiction Psychology had also been added. The Human Genome Project was about halfway through the process of mapping the entire human genome. For years, the sentiment in much of psychology, especially among the more senior members of the profession, was that as Howard Kendler put it in a 1999 article psychology could not scientifically prescribe correct moral behavior, and that psychologists should separate their scientific activity and their roles as private citizens, speaking out for social causes only outside of the official structure of the psychological coalition.
This chapter discusses that brief therapy usually calls for an active, directive therapeutic stance. One of the biggest myths pervading a good deal of the literature on psychological treatment is that therapists should not give advice. In direct contrast to Karasu’s position, London a true visionary, pointed out that “action therapy” often calls for arguments, exhortations, and suggestions from therapists who are willing to assume responsibility for treatment outcomes. Karasu, like many theorists, overlooks the fact that a good deal of emotional suffering does not stem solely from conflicts but is the result of deficits and missing information. When hiatuses and lacunae result in maladaptive psychological patterns, no amount of insight will remedy the situation it demands a system of training whereby the therapist serves as a coach, model, and teacher. The major issue is to decide when certain methods are likely to be helpful or harmful.
Alfred Adler’s individual psychology is a dynamic theory that offers counselors many opportunities to help clients find creative, socially focused, meaning-making, and growth-oriented strategies to heal and grow. This chapter discusses Adlerian theory and shows how expressive arts techniques can be used in Adlerian counseling. Adlerian theory, or individual psychology, emphasizes a basic premise that supports the assertion that each individual is unique. The theory postulates that there are four core concepts that shape the nature of human existence; these address personality development, the notion of superiority, psychological well-being, and the unity of the personality. The goals associated with the implementation of Adlerian therapy include relationship, assessment, insight and understanding, and reorientation and reeducation. Adler’s individual psychology accentuates the positive nature of humankind and focuses on assisting individuals to drive their own destiny through choice and change.
The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler provides a rich theoretical foundation for what has developed into Adlerian psychotherapy. This chapter defines the basic tenets of Adler’s theory of personality and therapy. Adler’s theory is grounded on the idea that childhood experiences are crucial to the psychological development, and that children, who are by nature in an inferior position to parents and other adults, strive to achieve some sense of superiority. Adler ’s work represents a psychological theory that acknowledges the influence of social factors on the personality. In efforts toward understanding the lifestyle, Adler viewed humans’ unique approaches to life through the lenses of the life tasks. These tasks included: the work task, the social task, and the sexual task. Adler believed that encouragement, the act of promoting courage within someone else, was the cornerstone of therapy and could inspire clients toward growth, healthy adaptation, and functioning in life.
This chapter helps the reader to be familiar with the concept of an advanced specialization practicum. The overarching goal is to learn core competencies for assessment, intervention, consultation, and systems-level pedagogical supports. There is an increasing need for school psychologists with expertize in high school transition and postsecondary evaluations as well as dual enrollment collaborative evaluations. Clinic-based examples of specialized practica might include forensics evaluation through a law clinic or adjudicated youth programs, inpatient or outpatient hospital units, community mental health agencies, and private practice. The chapter describes important considerations for pursuing a variety of advanced practicum experiences, including coordinating postsecondary transition services, conducting forensic evaluations, and working within settings that utilize a medical model. To secure disability services at the college level, eligible students are required to submit acceptable documentation.
This innovative book is the first to examine the contemporary psychological experience of African Americans through the lens of a positive, strengths-based model. It combats the deficit perspective that has permeated the psychological literature about African Americans by focusing on the strengths that have facilitated their growth and resilience—while also considering existing challenges and struggles. The author examines in depth the major areas of psychological research across family, peer, and romantic relationships, education, work, ethnic-racial socialization and identity, prosocial behavior and civic engagement, and the mental and physical health of African Americans today. With a focus on real life applications, the text includes pedagogical elements introducing topics in Current Events, Interventions in Practice, Individual Issues, African Cultural Values, and Media and Technology. Additional features include learning objectives in each chapter, discussion questions, a closing summary, an extensive trove of additional resources, and PowerPoints and a sample syllabus for instructors. One very important goal of this book is to elucidate the strengths of African Americans, but at the same time, not forget their history and current struggles. In the book, many chapters include history to help provide an understanding of where African Americans are coming from and why their progress is such an accomplishment. Furthermore, the current state of African Americans lives are discussed—the good, the bad, and the ugly. So while this is a book focusing on strengths, it would be unrealistic to ignore the current struggles of African Americans. We must note where growth is still needed. The book strives to navigate this fine line. The goal of the book is to elucidate the strengths that African Americans have while highlighting the struggles that continue and to note how strengths can be used to help more African Americans prosper psychologically, spiritually, economically, and physically.
Health professionals are often called upon to intervene in complex ethical dilemmas that involve respecting an older adult's autonomy while also considering protective interventions to ensure safety. This chapter addresses the foundational ethical competencies for psychologists and geropsychologists including the unique challenges associated with surrogate decision making, legal, clinical, and psychosocial interventions specific to working with vulnerable older adults, ethical dilemmas that can emerge within various situations including assessment and integrated care settings, detection and intervention strategies in cases of elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation, and ethical approaches to research with older adults. Finally, the authors discuss the multicultural dimensions that influence how ethical and legal issues are conceptualized and addressed. The micro-and macrosystems in which older adults live and thrive require a level of cultural sensitivity, an understanding of aging processes, and knowledge about professional ethics and legal standards involved in decision making.