This book differs from most others related to teaching online because it takes a how-to approach with the twin goals of answering the call to transform nursing education and benefiting from research in cognitive psychology. Each chapter includes relevant concepts, theories, and models to guide course design and teaching online, as well as templates that can be downloaded to save precious time. The focus in the book is on the RN-BSN, master’s, DNP, and PhD programs, as they comprise most of the online programs in nursing, but the contents are applicable to teaching any level of nursing online. Teaching and assessment are one when teaching online; they are not individual activities and cannot really be separated. This is an important concept to grasp, especially if people are a seasoned classroom instructor accustomed to creating separate assignments that add to one’s workload. The book explores how this interconnected approach works. Grading is an important function that drives learning and deserves some attention, as the author thinks people have lost their way to some degree when assessing what constitutes academic achievement. Rubrics have replaced other grading strategies, but not all meet the expectation of greater objectivity in grading, which is their initial intent. A hot topic in online education that relates to workload is the expectation of faculty presence in an online course from both faculty’s and the student’s perspective. This topic is explored in the book. Converting a classroom-based course to the online environment can be a time-consuming task without some guidance as to where to start. Online education is more than uploading one’s classroom lectures into the Learning management systems. The book provides a step-wise approach with some additional tips on converting a classroom course to the online environment.
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Mental health workers need to be members of the disaster response team from the onset and take mental health services to survivors. A range of psychological and emotional responses to disaster are normal and should not be “pathologized” or “medicalized”. This chapter helps the reader to identify the psychosocial effects likely to occur in various types of disasters, identify the elements of a community impact and resource assessment, and describe the normal reactions of children and adults to disaster. It provides brief description on bioterrorism and toxic exposures, community impact and resource assessment, normal reactions to abnormal events, special needs popluations, and community reactions and responses. The psychosocial impact of a disaster and the resources that will be needed to respond to the disaster can be estimated based on data from past experiences with a variety of natural and man-made disasters.
This book is intended as an approachable reference guide for one of the most common neurological conditions, Parkinson’s disease and the spectrum of Parkinson-like syndromes. Parkinson’s disease is a slowly progressing neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects older adults. The book outlines the new advances in the management and treatment of the Parkinson patient, comparing risks and benefits as well as efficacy of new and older anti-Parkinson’s disease drugs. The task of diagnosing Parkinson’s disease and providing comprehensive guided treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach. Those involved in the diagnosis and care of the patient include neurologists; nurse practitioners; nurses; physical, occupational, and speech therapists; sleep medicine specialists; neuropsychologists; psychiatrists; radiologists; nutritionists; and social workers. The book is divided into seventeen chapters spread across four sections. The first section, Parkinson’s Disease, describes the following: neurobiology of Parkinson’s disease, patient exam, idiopathic Parkinson’s disease, imaging and advanced studies, neuropsychological analysis, and additional evaluations. The second section, Parkinsonisms, discusses Parkinson-plus syndromes and other Parkinsonisms. The third section, Treatment of Motor and Non-Motor Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease, describes treatment of motor symptoms and non-motor symptoms such as autonomic dysfunction, sleep disturbances, disturbances of thought, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The final section, Alternative Therapies and Other Considerations, talks about exercise, complementary and alternative therapies, nutrition, and caregiver burden. The book provides additional details such as Hoehn and Yahr Scoring scale, drugs that should be avoided in patients with Parkinson’s disease, patient-prepared information, standardized intake questions for evaluating a Parkinson’s patient, standardized questions for evaluating the patient in a follow-up visit, and resources in the appendices.
The management of psychosocial effects begins with a sound plan to mitigate the adverse impact of the disaster on the emotional, cognitive, and behavioral capacity of the individual. Involvement of mental health professionals, such as psychiatric nurse practitioners and clinical nurse specialists, should begin with the development of the community or agency disaster plan. Management of the psychosocial effects of disaster will continue long after the initial impact. Psychological first aid is an evidence-informed approach designed to reduce distress in the immediate aftermath of a disaster and foster adaptive functioning and coping. Major depression and PTSD can be disabling consequences of exposure to disaster among those of any age group, thus, early diagnosis and treatment are critical to the prevention of future disability. There is a growing body of research identifying that effective treatment for PTSD and cognitive behavioral approaches along with exposure therapy are most likely to be beneficial.
Although assisted living administrators do not serve as clinicians to older persons within their facility, understanding normal psychological changes related to the aging process allows administrators to perform their work more effectively. Understanding many of the normal aging-related changes in neurological functioning, mental health functioning, memory, and cognition can be important in understanding how elders function in assisted living communities. Furthermore, issues related to memory changes, dementia, depression, suicide risk, alcohol, and substance abuse can be commonly experienced by the elderly. An awareness and understanding of these issues can be beneficial to assisted living administrators. Many individuals associate memory changes and problems as an inherent part of the aging process. This chapter identifies and presents best practices in selected areas associated with psychological aspects of aging. Best practices can provide administrators with information and examples of strategies for approaching some of the psychological issues present in aging individuals.
- Go to chapter: Avoiding Diagnostic Fixation Errors: A Person-Focused Approach to Human Factors Analysis
This chapter focuses on the enormity of preventable medical errors that cause injury or death and one root cause associated with those errors called “human factors”. Human factors have been identified as a root cause of medical errors, particularly diagnostic errors. The chapter talks about latent failures, mental models, misdiagnosis, and sentinel event. The science of psychology and physiology tells us that the human mind works very rapidly, which raises the risk of making a judgment error. Human factors reengineering is discussed as a much-needed mechanism to address fixation errors and decrease diagnostic errors. Misdiagnosis is much too common in health care. A diagnostic fixation error is a phenomenon of clinging to a single presumed diagnosis despite mounting evidence that one is on the wrong track. The application of human factors engineering can and should include data from patients and their families so as to capture the most optimal solutions.
Both full-time military service members (
MSMs) and part-time Reserve and National Guard component ( RC) personnel face multiple transitions related to training, education, deployments, and reintegration to accomplish the Armed Force’s missions. This chapter’s purpose is to provide a better understanding of the complex transitional phases of deployments and/or the reintegration from the military to civilian life. It provides information about the physical, behavioral, and social impacts during the various stages of deployment for the MSM/ RC, along with their families/loved ones. The Ecological Model of Veteran Reintegration and its four levels of system factors—individual, interpersonal, community organizations, and societal effects—are used to illustrate the interchanging psychosocial and environmental aspects. The chapter presents specific reintegration challenges of employment, education, and caregiving. Nurses have a pivotal role in screening psychosocial and physical needs, while promoting healthy coping and parenting, to expand the delivery of family-centered care during these transitions.