Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is common during pregnancy and can have adverse mental health outcomes in women. Our objective was to evaluate the association between IPV and symptoms of depression in Peruvian pregnant women.
Methods: In this study, we performed a secondary analysis of the Demographic and Family Health Survey, ENDES 2013–2019. The study population consisted of a subsample of married or cohabiting Peruvian pregnant women. IPV was defined as any reported violence (psychological, physical, or sexual) committed by the last partner of women. The symptoms of depression were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Poisson regression-generalized linear models were used to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).
Results: Overall IPV was 11.64%. The prevalence of psychological, physical, and sexual IPV was 6.92%, 8.56%, and 1.12%, respectively. After adjusting for confounding variables, IPV was associated with the symptoms of depression (aPR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.88–2.73; p < 0.001). Likewise, psychological, physical, and sexual violence were also associated with the symptoms of depression (aPR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.65–2.50; p < 0.001, aPR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.91–2.86; p < 0.001, aPR: 2.31, 95% CI: 1.45–3.68; p <0.001).
Conclusion: One in 10 pregnant women experienced IPV, the most frequent type being physical violence. One in four pregnant women experiences depressive disorders. Furthermore, the presence of psychological, physical, or sexual violence independently doubles the probability of the occurrence of depression in Peruvian pregnant women.