This book provides both counselors in training and established counselors the tools needed to make sound ethical decisions. It integrates a comprehensive review of ethical standards and guidelines by two major professional governing bodies in psychology: the Ethical Principles for Psychologists and Code of Conduct of the American Psychological Association (APA), and the Code of Ethics of the American Counseling Association (ACA). The book focuses on engaging the reader in critically thinking through the intersections of legal requirements and ethics codes. It integrates critical self-reflection and identifies variables that would place a counselor at risk. The book is organized into four parts. Part one provides an overview of the topics discussed in the book. Part two reviews typical ethical issues that counselors encounter in practice relating to confidentiality, professional boundaries, and professional competence. Part three analyzes ethical dilemmas that may arise given the changing face of technology and the country’s demographics relating to culturally competent treatment, managing social media, and confronting colleagues and other sticky situations. The final part focuses on recommendations for counselors to continue sound ethical decisions. The book is designed for counselors-in-training or engaged in externships and practicums. They include master’s level students in counseling psychology, clinical psychology, and mental health programs; doctoral students; predoctoral students on internship; and students enrolled in programs with dual degrees. It is also for established counselors who must remain abreast of changing standards and issues affecting clinical practice, such as those related to social media and technology, for postdoctoral counselors working toward licensure, and for undergraduate-level students who are training to become Credentialed Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Counselor (CASAC).
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This chapter provides recommendations regarding the development and maintenance of ethical practices, as well as summary messages for trainees and early career counselors, supervisors, and training programs. The recommendations are grounded in their clinical experiences, including their theoretical orientations, as well as their training, research, and teaching approach. In providing recommendations, the authors acknowledge some are not new, and discussed by previous scholars and researchers. The authors bridge the fields of mental health counseling, counseling psychology, and clinical psychology, as well as other fields of study including multicultural, health, and social psychology. The recommendations are person-centered with attention to the multiple variables that impact functioning including the environment and group memberships. The chapter also reviews ethical codes and standards of both the American Psychological Association (APA) and the American Counseling Association (ACA) as they relate to self-care and requirements regarding responding to ethical complaints.
This chapter describes the types and prevalence of social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) problems that school-age youth may experience. It describes how these problems affect students in educational settings. The chapter presents a multi-tiered model of service delivery, including intervention and assessment strategies, for supporting students’ SEB wellness in schools. Within a multi-tiered framework, school psychologists and other personnel can provide high-quality, evidence-based supports that are appropriately matched to the type and intensity of students’ needs. Multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) allow schools to make the most efficient use of their potentially limited mental health and behavioral support resources. This chapter surveys a variety of common assessment and intervention methods at each tier. The literature on school-based SEB assessment and intervention is expansive, and practitioners should be well versed in this research before selecting procedures for their unique school contexts.
This chapter opens with an abridged history of the education system in the United States. It also presents an overview of the establishment of student support services and the emergence of consultation in schools. The chapter helps the reader to have a basic understanding of the history of American education, identify key events that lead to the emergence of student support services, recognize educational themes that require school-based consultation, and to understand the development of student support professions. In order to maximize our strengths, student support professionals must take responsibility for understanding their roles and the services they provide within the historical context of U.S. education. The roles of student support services personnel have continued to evolve to include social service, mental health support, and student/family counseling and guidance. As a result, consultation and collaboration have become integral components of the school counseling, school psychology, and school social work professions.
This chapter provides information for school psychologists that focuses on child trauma and the ways in which children and adolescents respond to traumatic experiences. It addresses Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition;
DSM-5) diagnostic issues related to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD) and considers the use of a proposed diagnosis: developmental trauma disorder. Cultural issues related to traumatic events experienced by children of color, such as community violence, racial trauma, and PTSDsymptomatology among underrepresented groups, are also addressed. The chapter informs school psychologists about the impact of trauma on social–emotional well-being, behavioral functioning, and learning among children. Implications for school psychologists and their role in implementing educational and social–emotional supports and mental health interventions are discussed.
The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of childhood and adolescent mental health problems. Prevalence, risk factors, and protective factors are examined. The need for school-based mental health services is explored and potential benefits of implementing such programs are discussed. The role of school psychologists as mental health providers is addressed. The chapter also compares the use of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (
DSM-5), in diagnosing mental health disorders in the medical/clinical field and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act ( IDEA) to determine eligibility as a student with a disability in schools.
This chapter reviews current research and practice regarding persistent depressive disorder (
PDD). This chapter highlights the diagnostic criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition; DSM-5) as well as information regarding potential school-based eligibility for special services for students with depression. Risk factors and behaviors in the home and school are reviewed. The school psychologist’s role in assessment, advocacy, consultation, and therapeutic intervention are explored.
This chapter provides an overview of Hoarding Disorder for school psychologists with regard to criteria and considerations from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition;
DSM-5). Risk factors and genetic components related to etiology and treatment are also examined. The chapter addresses school and home functioning for individuals with hoarding disorder and their families across childhood and adolescence. Implications for school psychologists and their role in school-based supports and effective intervention implementation are discussed.
Counseling children and adolescents requires the ability to adapt theoretical terms and concepts that are more abstract in nature to the individual’s developmental level. Such adaptation is essential to cognitive behavioral therapy (
CBT) as cognitive ability and maturity are key considerations in assuring that students understand the relationship between their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in order to make change. The chapter reviews sample-applied strategies and related activities that school mental health providers can use when working with the students they serve. The options are of course unlimited, and there are numerous free-access published worksheets or activities for inspiration in customizing sessions for students.