This book brings together the work of experts from a variety of fields such as adult development, adult education, family science, family therapy and counseling, gerontology, psychology, social work, and sociology. It is organized into four sections, each of which contains chapters reflecting a given theme as it pertains to grandparenting. Section one explores the breadth of the grandparent role from multiple theoretical perspectives, explores both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies in the study of grandparenting. It examines cohort effects and emphasizes the multigenerational developmental contexts in which grandparents and grandchildren are situated. In addition, it presents variations on grandparenting: grandfathers, great-grandparenting, and step-grandparents. Section two focuses on the diversity among grandparents, examining such issues as variations in sexual orientation in such persons, grandparents who are raising their grandchildren, and changing gender roles among grandparents. Section three examines the difficulties and challenges that grandparents face in enacting their roles as well as the resources and strengths they bring to bear. It discusses the impact of having to cope with both acute and chronic illness on intergenerational relationships, the design and implementation of interventions to positively affect emotional functioning. It discusses the clinical case study approaches to helping grandparents, resilience and resourcefulness in the face of stress. Section four emphasizes the societal and cultural aspects of grandparenting, exploring issues of race and ethnicity, grandparent education, global grandparenting, and many dimensions of social policy as they relate to grandparents. The last chapter pulls the material together in presenting a multidimensional, multileveled, and dynamic picture of grandparenting stressing the influence of evolving historical and interpersonal contexts on such persons and their grandchildren. It also offers suggestions for future research over the next two decades.
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This chapter focuses on the clinical treatment of four impaired grandfamilies in rural areas. The approach and experience are similar to grandfamilies in urban areas, especially inner cities, but their social/economic situation may be more desperate and culturally enhanced, and with few resources. The first case study involves the treatment of a child from a toddler through his adolescent years the lens is on resilience. The second one looks at grandfamilies from a family systems approach. The third explores the impact of early trauma and transgenerational influences on the adult children and grandchildren. The fourth case study examines the role of the judicial system and the need for clinicians to advocate in the courts on behalf of grandfamilies. In all four of the cases, the chapter implements a holistic, but personalized, approach to mitigate the negative impact of substance- and alcohol-use disorders, family abuse, transgenerational effects, and cultural influences.
The chapter discusses elements of Afrocentricity; pointing out that Afrocentric scholars de-emphasize the marginalization of people of African ancestry and place them at the center of all discourses. It focuses on the need to contextualize a treatment framework that encompasses the confluence of a family’s idiosyncratic processes and the Nguza Saba, the seven principles of Kwanzaa. The chapter explores how an Afrocentric perspective can be used in family treatment with African Americans, and focuses on how the construct of intersectionality can be used to contextualize the lives of this group. It provides an overview of slavery, highlighting the multiple ways in which families have been affected. Slave trauma syndrome and posttraumatic slave syndrome are two relatively new constructs that are receiving attention from social scientists who have argued that the horrendous acts of physical and psychological violence perpetrated under the institution of slavery have culminated in psychic trauma.
Family therapy is often the most value-conflicted and ethically challenging of therapies because family therapy often evokes strong countertransference of feelings in the practitioner. Although professionals may not have had the same experiences as their individual clients, almost all family therapists share a similar experience with their clients as the former have also grown up in families. This concluding chapter discusses the ethical issues and future directions of family therapy. It briefly describes how the new edition of this book integrates new research and understandings related to family therapy. In this book, there are four new chapters written by psychologists, which address important emerging issues in family therapy such as multiracial families. Furthermore, it adopts an intersectional approach to deepen the understanding of families from diverse backgrounds, a most necessary and important consideration, as the number and combination of cultures expand. The culturagram, which is a family assessment tool, has been expanded to include this intersectional approach.
Informed by the tenets of the ecological perspective and the life model of social work practice, this chapter presents an overview of clinical practice with Hispanic families. The ecological perspective helps to promote clinicians’ understanding of the psychosocial problems experienced by culturally diverse client populations as well as the socio-environmental variables (e.g., racism, discrimination, poverty) that impede optimal physical, psychological, and social well-being. Because the process of individual or family treatment cannot separate personality structures and issues from the cultural factors that influence the emotional health of the individual, the chapter also underscores the key cultural characteristics of Hispanic individuals and families and their relevance for culturally competent clinical practice. It emphasizes treatment recommendations and strategies for effective psychosocial intervention with Hispanic families.
In the three decades since Francine Shapiro introduced the model, adaptive information processing (
AIP) and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing ( EMDR) have provided mental health clinicians with a method for conceptualizing clients' responses to traumas as adaptive and protective without diminishing the pain that comes from holding stored trauma. For those working with child clients, the goal of healing emotional and relational wounds becomes substantially more attainable when caregivers also come to view children's trauma responses as adaptive and protective, all the while developing increasing capacity for being with their children's woundedness. EMDRtherapists who provide family-based play therapy need ways to establish and monitor safety within family systems in order for the integration of these modalities to offer their full power. This chapter aims to offer sandtray as a modality that allows for this integration. Sandtray offers a common language for all who engage.
Membership in a profession offers an individual status and responsibility. Law and medicine, both considered models of professionalism, are founded on a body of knowledge, technique, and practice. This chapter describes the mental health professions and outlines types of degrees, degree requirements, licensure requirements, board certifications associated with a profession, and the scope of practice of the professions. The chapter helps the reader distinguish counseling from psychology and the other mental health professions. Psychiatrists are licensed physicians who hold either the
MDor DOdegree. Psychologists treat individuals with psychotherapy and counseling, and assess individuals with IQ, aptitude, personality, and interest tests. Psychiatric nurses are master’s-degree–trained nurses with specialized coursework in psychotherapeutic approaches. Marriage and family therapists focus on relationship concerns experienced by couples or families. Social workers generally specialize in public policy or clinical social work.
The practice of couple, marital, and family counseling is unique among the counseling specialties. It is developing and growing as a counseling specialty. This chapter describes ethical issues related to the practice of couple therapy or family therapy. It addresses issues of privacy, confidentiality, privileged communication, informed consent, roles and relationships with clients, responsibility, professional competency, and values. The chapter addresses professional issues related to couple, marital and family therapy as a specialty of counseling versus a separate profession of “marital and family therapy”. It also addresses the ethics codes of respective professional associations and diversity issues. The chapter discusses the major issues in couple, marital, and family counseling, including professional identification, licensure, and certification. Couple, marital, and family counseling is founded on theory that has evolved to be culturally relevant and acknowledges cultural differences.
Aside from the study of theories of counseling and psychotherapy, there is probably no other area of study that is more related to the everyday practice of counseling that than the area of professional ethics. This book is a major revision of the prior edition, providing continuity to faculty who has used the book in teaching courses on ethics in counseling, but with notable changes and additions. The new edition has a distinct and timely focus on counseling as a profession. A new section provides material that not only applies to mental health practice generally, but it applies specifically to specialty practice with chapters specifically titled and focused on counseling specialties. Many of the early chapters are updated versions of those that appeared in the earlier edition. The book has been organized to provide the developing mental health professional with a clear and concise overview of ethical issues in counseling and psychotherapy. It intends to provide a thorough and scholarly foundation, defining ethical concepts and practice, legal issues, methods for clarifying values, decision-making models, and contemporaneous and emerging issues. The book is broad in its coverage of the most practiced specialties in mental health practice, and provides an efficient and effective overview of the broad scope of particular areas addressed in counseling. The specialities addressed are: mental health counseling; school counseling; couple, marital, and family counseling; rehabilitation counseling; addictions counseling; career counseling; and group counseling. It is hoped that this book will inspire ethically sensitive counselors and psychotherapists who will reflect before acting and who will consult with educated colleagues at those moments when ethical dilemmas arise. Ethical counselors and psychotherapists are those who have the best interests of their clients at heart, and who also respect the rights that derive from being professionals.
This chapter examines various effects, social costs, contextual theories, and implications for counseling regarding survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). A meta-analysis of studies of the psychological effects of IPV reveals that depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which have a high degree of comorbidity, are the most prevalent mental health problems associated with IPV, with the occurrence of PTSD in battered women statistically much higher than in nonabused women. Law enforcement personnel have been reluctant to intervene in domestic violence situations because attempts to separate the abuser from the victim often result in the formation of a united front against the police. The most damaging effect of IPV is its impact on succeeding generations of human relationships and its profound reduction of quality of life. The family systems theory assumes that all individual problems are a manifestation of the dysfunction present in the family unit.