This chapter discusses comprehensive school crisis interventions, identifies the characteristics that define a crisis, finds ways to assess for the level of traumatic impact, and determines what interventions can be provided to help with response and recovery. It highlights the PREPaRE Model of crisis prevention and intervention. There are six general categories of crises: acts of war and/or terrorism; violent and/or unexpected deaths; threatened death and/or injury; human-caused disasters; natural disasters; and severe illness or injury. Children are a vulnerable population and in the absence of quality crisis interventions, there can be negative short- and long-term implications on learning, cognitive development, and mental health. Evidence-based interventions focusing on physical and psychological safety may be implemented to prevent a crisis from occurring or mitigate the traumatic impact of a crisis event by building resiliency in students. Crisis risk factors are variables that predict whether a person becomes a psychological trauma victim.
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Divorce is a lengthy developmental process and, in the case of children and adolescents, one that can encompass most of their young lives. This chapter explores the experience of divorce from the perspective of the children, reviews the evidence base and empirical support for interventions. It provides examples of three evidence-based intervention programs, namely, Children in Between, Children of Divorce Intervention Program (CODIP), and New Beginnings, appropriate for use with children, adolescents, and their parents. Promoting protective factors and limiting risk factors during childhood and adolescence can prevent many mental, emotional, and behavioral problems and disorders during those years and into adulthood. The Children in Between program is listed on the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices. The CODIP and the New Beginnings program are also listed on the SAMHSA National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices.
Children and youth with serious emotional, behavioral, and social difficulties present challenges for teachers, parents, and peers. Youth who are at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) are particularly vulnerable in the areas of peer and adult social relationships. The emphasis on meeting academic standards and outcomes for children and youth in schools has unfortunately pushed the topic of social-emotional development to the proverbial back burner. This chapter emphasizes that social skills might be considered academic enablers because these positive social behaviors predict short-term and long-term academic achievement. Evidence-based practices are employed with the goal of preventing or ameliorating the effects of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) in children and youth. An important distinction in designing and delivering social skills interventions (SSI) is differentiating between different types of social skills deficits. Social skills deficits may be either acquisition deficits or performance deficits.
- Go to chapter: Integrating Theories of Developmental Psychology Into the Enactment of Child Psychotherapy
Child psychotherapy requires case conceptualization through the lens of developmental psychology in a multimodal approach to assessment, diagnosis, treatment planning, and clinical interventions. This chapter outlines a blueprint for therapists to provide treatment for children by integrating these fundamental principles while collaborating with the other people in the child’s life. The chapter guides the therapist through case conceptualization that integrates the most efficacious treatment interventions into the eight-phase template of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Adaptive information processing (AIP) theory drives treatment with EMDR throughout the eight phases of that protocol and provides a template for case conceptualization and treatment planning. The use of the EMDR approach to psychotherapy is well documented and approved as evidence-based practice in Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA) and California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare (CEBC).
There is abundant evidence of the importance of sleep and sleep disorders in nursing practice. This chapter provides a perspective on future directions in nursing research, practice, and education relative to sleep promotion and prevention and treatment of sleep disorders. It also provides an opportunity to examine some of the exciting possibilities and challenges for advancing sleep science and the implementation of this evidence in the discipline of nursing. While the contributions of nurses to sleep science are growing, the application of science to practice and pedagogy lags behind scientific progress. The chapter presents an overview of opportunities and possible directions for nursing scholarship related to sleep, and also presents an overview of current trends that intersect with the need for evidence-based practice in sleep promotion, and suggest implications for nursing curricula. The effort will require creativity, dedication, strategic planning and successful interdisciplinary collaboration, as well as collaborations within nursing.
- Go to chapter: Neurodevelopmental Disabilities: Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Neurodevelopmental Disabilities: Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
This chapter defines neurodevelopmental disorders, and examines the medical, psychosocial, and vocational aspects of two neurodevelopmental disorders that are increasing in the U.S. population: autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It provides populations at risk of being diagnosed with ASD or ADHD, and distinguishes key considerations for outreach, eligibility determination, and rehabilitation assessment and planning. The chapter considers services to be included in the rehabilitation plan to facilitate goal achievement for consumers with ASD or ADHD, and examines evidence-based practices in job development, placement, and retention. Both ASD and ADHD can be accompanied by co-occurring psychiatric disabilities. Counseling and guidance are always individualized to the unique characteristics, rehabilitation needs, and preferences of each rehabilitation consumer. Rehabilitation counselors must also take into consideration the importance of family involvement in the transition and rehabilitation of youths with ASD and ADHD.
This chapter provides an introduction to nursing informatics (NI), the organization of data, information, and knowledge important to nursing. It examines the responsibilities, challenges, and opportunities presented to the nurse in working with information systems at the point of care, the importance of attending educational programs to expand knowledge on and to impact nursing practice, and the management of continuously evolving research data. Nurses must embrace and integrate technology skills into their daily professional practice. Informatics technology strengthens an evidence-based approach through open, complete, and current access to continuously emerging data surrounding the nursing profession. With the incorporation of electronic health records (EHRs) into health care professions, nursing is challenged to build informatics competencies into their knowledge base. Informatics technology (IT) is no longer a recommended addition to current nursing curricula; it must be integrated into all clinical courses.
This chapter explores the application of critical thinking, nursing process, and current evidence as a foundation for informed, safe, and professional nursing practice. The American Nurses Association (ANA) Standards provide the framework necessary for critical thinking in the application of the nursing process. The nature of evidence-based practice, its relevance to nursing, and the skills needed to support it are essential components of baccalaureate nursing education, all of which lead to the development of independent, self-directed learners, and, ultimately, professional nurses. Evidence-based nursing is the practice of making clinical decisions based on the best available current research evidence, clinical expertise, and the needs and preferences of the client. According to guidelines from The Joint Commission (TJC), the care planning process is the structural framework for coordinating communication that will result in safe and effective care.
This book provides a better understanding of emerging disabilities and their impact on all areas of life and explores implications for rehabilitation counseling practice, policy, and research. It first defines emerging disabilities and examines current societal trends that contribute to the onset and diagnoses of chronic illnesses and disabilities that are considered to be emerging in the United States. Then, the book provides an overview of medical, psychosocial, and vocational aspects that distinguish emerging disabilities from traditional disabilities. The first section of the book includes four chapters on emerging disabilities with organic causes or unknown etiologies. It examines disabilities and chronic illnesses that are characterized by chronic pain. The second section of the book examines the role of natural and sociocultural environments in creating new patterns and types of disabling conditions. It focuses on both lifestyle factors and climate change and how these contribute to the onset and/or exacerbation of chronic illness and disability and explains physical disabilities, chronic illnesses, and mental health conditions that result from violence. The final section of the book explores implications for rehabilitation practice, policy, and research to better respond to the unique concerns and needs of rehabilitation consumers with emerging disabilities. It suggests research topics, designs, and procedures for building upon our knowledge about the rehabilitation needs of emerging disability populations and developing evidence-based practices to facilitate successful rehabilitation outcomes for individuals in these populations.
This book is a response that fosters education, practice development, and professionalism. The bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) is the essential educational foundation to give nurses the knowledge to improve health outcomes and provide the highest quality care. It provides the essentials of nursing theory and the importance of having a philosophy of nursing that informs our professional role. The book is written to assist with the transition from the role of the LPN to the baccalaureate-prepared registered nurse (RN). Licensed practical nurses (LPNs) who enter a university to advance their education through seeking a baccalaureate of nursing degree often find the experience of socializing into the new professional role challenging. The book analyzes the change process, discusses Benner’s stages of clinical competence, examines the philosophy of nursing and describes stress reduction measures. The terms leadership and management are described, and the role of the baccalaureate-prepared nurse as leader and manager is explored. Finally the book talks about the Skill Competencies required for the Baccalaureate-Prepared Nurse-electronic health records (EHRs); the Technology Informatics Guiding Education Reform (TIGER) Movement; Simulated E-Health Delivery System (SEEDS) and Nursing Informatics Education Model (NIEM). The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) program was created in 2005 by an expert panel of nursing educators with the aim of preparing future nurses to continuously advance the quality and safety of the health care system in which they practice. The group developed six core competencies to be incorporated into nursing curricula: client-centered care; teamwork and collaboration; evidence-based practice; quality improvement; safety; and informatics.