This chapter describes many of the theories that involve taxonomies. Most taxonomies of love begin in the same place: The language of love is examined, whether through an examination of film, literature, music, or firsthand accounts of people about their love life. The three primary love styles are eros, storge, and ludus. Eros is a passionate kind of love that is characterized by strong emotions and intense physical longing for the loved one. With storge, should the lovers break up, there is a greater chance than with other love styles that they remain friends. Ludus commonly is displayed by people who prefer to remain single and who see love as a game of conquest and numbers. A pragmatic lover hesitates to commit to a relationship until he or she feels confident of finding the right partner. The different love styles also correlate with some other personality traits.
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This book is about all the exciting aspects that have been investigated in the science of positive psychology. One of the reasons that the interest in positive psychology has increased so much in recent years is that people are interested in happiness, and they’re interested in enhancing their well-being. All conceptions of positive psychology involve something to do with the “positive side of life”, which is clearly contrasted with the negative side of life. The positive side of life seems to go by many names, such as happiness, flourishing, thriving, a worthwhile life, a meaningful life, a fulfilling life, or “what goes right in life”. The study of positive subjective states involves two related but distinct areas of study: positive emotions and subjective well-being (SWB). Positive psychologists often refer to two types of happiness: hedonic and eudaimonic. Any treatments of the history of happiness spend little time on ancient Jewish contributions to our understanding of well-being. From the early Christian tradition, writers encouraged enduring suffering now in the light of future happiness in the afterlife. The book focuses on two theories that are both representative and helpful to the field of positive psychology: the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and the Hedonic Adaptation Prevention (HAP) model. Gratitude and compassion are very important to the good life; however, when we also emphasize strengths such as prudence, humility, self-control, and integrity, we are much more likely to flourish. The issue of Internet relationships also brings up an alternative form of relationships: Our relationships with our pets. The book attempts to describe the cognitive characteristics of happy people.
- Go to chapter: Foundational Concepts and Issues of Positive Psychology: The What and Why of Happiness
This chapter shows that how positive psychology is in fact important to psychology as a whole. It attempts to explain the foundations of positive psychology. It looks at basic conceptions of happiness and subjective well-being (SWB) including all the debates therein, it explores the history of happiness, it debates the criticisms of positive psychology, it examines important theories of SWB and positive emotion, and finally it gives a taste of research in positive psychology. The chapter demonstrates the importance of the study of happiness and SWB. Moreover, as Fredrickson’s theory has shown, positive emotions are crucial, in that they broaden the authors’ momentary thought/action readiness and build essential personal resources for the future. Happiness and joy are consequential, as Helen Keller affirmed, “Joy is the holy fire that keeps our purpose warm and our intelligence aglow”.Source:
This chapter provides methods to overcome the negative self-talk, by replacing it with balanced thinking that includes some realistic optimism. We humans have problem-solving, thinking brains that are always trying to make sense of our world. Sometimes sleep-related thoughts persist and this is when we need to face them head-on, evaluate them and respond to them in a new way so they are not so alerting and troubling. The chapter introduces us to the “cognitive therapy” component of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (
CBT-I). Feelings are basic and instinctive and easier to identify than thoughts. Therefore, the chapter presents an exercise that starts with asking one about their feelings, and then asks them to identify their associated automatic sleep-related thoughts. It provides an example, based on a real person with insomnia.
This chapter starts with a global definition of motivation: an internal state that arouses people to action, moves them in particular directions, and keeps people engaged in certain activities. Motivation is not a learning theory, but it affects what people learn. Classical conditioning, think Pavlov’s dogs is a learning theory and motivation has essentially no role in it. The chapter provides an overview of early theories of motivation, starting with Aristotle. Compulsion occurs when people feel that they must act, even though they may not wish to act in a particular way. For ancient Greek philosophers, hedonism meant pleasure is to exceed pain over the long haul, thereby acknowledging life will not always be pleasurable. The James–Lange theory involves motivation from an emotional perspective. Behaviorism is hard to describe mainly because most people have a misunderstanding of two of its elements: punishment and reinforcement.
This chapter is about “the self” and how people think about their successes and failures. It describes several focused theories within the thematic concept of self-evaluation or self-judgment. For example, attribution theory examines how an individual attributes success and failure across activities. Self-efficacy focuses on the original concept of one’s belief in the ability to successfully complete a task. Attribution theory seeks to predict expectancy and emotions by examining individuals’ causal attributions in attempting to make sense of their related performances in many achievement-related instances. A major reason for using attribution theory as a framework is that it addresses two important components of achievement motivation that are relevant to collaborative contexts: expectancy for success and emotions. In general, there is a small relationship between self-concept and school success. Self-efficacy is a vibrant research area in education, business, sports, and across cultures.
Individuals have beliefs and judgments about their ability to successfully complete an activity or task. In the motivation world, people call these expectations. In addition to expectations, people also have a value system associated with the expectation. Modern versions of expectancy value (EV) are still descendants of Atkinson’s work and are based on achievement performance, persistence, and choice. Within the task-value beliefs there are four components: attainment value, intrinsic (interest enjoyment) value, utility value, and cost. There are emotional components to success and failure or even the expectancy of the two. In addition to the poor performance, people tend to try and avoid making a mistake, quit early, and lose interest rapidly. This pattern, fear of failure leading to performance-avoidance goals, leads to poor adjustment skills and anxiety. Related to the performance and mastery concepts is an implicit theory of intelligence.
This chapter reviews some of the earlier approaches through psychology to understanding what love is. It considers some of the major approaches namely philosophical approaches, literary approaches and clinical approaches. The philosophical approaches include reinforcement theories and cognitive-consistency theories. For many people, love is the most important thing in their lives. Perhaps the earliest approach to understanding the nature of love was through philosophy. Literature helps us understand not only love but also the forces that can undermine and even destroy love: family quarrels, economic hardship, incompatible goals in life, jealousy, inability to control one's rage or other negative emotions, and so forth. One of the earliest approaches toward understanding the antecedents of love was based on reinforcement theories, which are theories aimed at explaining behavior through patterns of environmental rewards. Cognitive-consistency theories basically hold that people strive to keep their cognitions psychologically consistent.Source:
Today there are a number of evolution-based theories that are intended to explain love from a biological perspective. This chapter considers the evolution of sexual preferences. It explains the view of love as involving decision-making biases. The chapter focuses on love from an attachment perspective. Love can be shaped by factors such as gender, age, and culture. The point is that every normally functioning human being has a propensity to experience love at some point in his or her life. A study asking people in a variety of countries whether they were currently in love found that more than half of the respondents were in love at the time, further suggesting that love is a universal emotion. Culture has an impact on the decision rules surrounding love, but that impact is limited because our decision biases have developed over human evolution based on the problems our ancestors faced.Source:
This introduction presents an overview of key concepts covered in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book discusses human memory: how it works, how it sometimes doesn’t work, why it’s important, and why it’s interesting. It explains the role of trauma in memory and the complex set of loss of function and preserved function that occurs in amnesia. The book talks about whether one really needs a superior memory in the first place. Memory is intrinsically interesting because it involves a re-experiencing of the past in the present. Researchers have found that many of the same brain regions involved in perceiving an event become active again when one remembers the event. Memory teaches us about other things and other human beings. Memories can serve to define ourselves to others. And memory can also serve as a kind of control on our emotions.Source: