This book brings together the work of experts from a variety of fields such as adult development, adult education, family science, family therapy and counseling, gerontology, psychology, social work, and sociology. It is organized into four sections, each of which contains chapters reflecting a given theme as it pertains to grandparenting. Section one explores the breadth of the grandparent role from multiple theoretical perspectives, explores both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies in the study of grandparenting. It examines cohort effects and emphasizes the multigenerational developmental contexts in which grandparents and grandchildren are situated. In addition, it presents variations on grandparenting: grandfathers, great-grandparenting, and step-grandparents. Section two focuses on the diversity among grandparents, examining such issues as variations in sexual orientation in such persons, grandparents who are raising their grandchildren, and changing gender roles among grandparents. Section three examines the difficulties and challenges that grandparents face in enacting their roles as well as the resources and strengths they bring to bear. It discusses the impact of having to cope with both acute and chronic illness on intergenerational relationships, the design and implementation of interventions to positively affect emotional functioning. It discusses the clinical case study approaches to helping grandparents, resilience and resourcefulness in the face of stress. Section four emphasizes the societal and cultural aspects of grandparenting, exploring issues of race and ethnicity, grandparent education, global grandparenting, and many dimensions of social policy as they relate to grandparents. The last chapter pulls the material together in presenting a multidimensional, multileveled, and dynamic picture of grandparenting stressing the influence of evolving historical and interpersonal contexts on such persons and their grandchildren. It also offers suggestions for future research over the next two decades.
Your search for all content returned 139 results
This chapter provides an overview of clinical issues unique to grandparenthood and outlines specific approaches to clinical intervention that may be used to address these issues. Having a theoretical foundation for intervention is imperative, as theories provide the conceptual framework necessary for understanding the development and maintenance of grandparents’ presenting problems. Four major theoretical approaches to clinical intervention with grandparents are intergenerational, developmental, systemic, and problem solving theories. The chapter provides an overview of these major types of theories as a means of illustrating how different theoretical perspectives would differentially inform clinical intervention with grandparents. While interventions focused on grandparents continue to be underdeveloped relative to many other populations and family difficulties, common intervention approaches include providing grandparents with emotional and social support, teaching new skills, delivering information and resources, and promoting intergenerational engagement.
This chapter provides specific guidelines and examples of how to communicate effectively with attorneys, conduct interviews with parents and children, make recommendations for custody and visitation, write reports, and successfully testify in court. It includes forms for taking interview notes, templates for writing reports, examples of actual reports, sample visitation schedules, and case studies. The session with each parent is where the evaluator begins to understand the issues of the case. It is during these interviews when each parent gets to tell the evaluator what happened in the past, what is happening now, and what he or she thinks would work best for the child with regard to custody and visitation. This time is when one begins to understand the case in terms of parenting skills, communication skills, emotional involvement, flexibility, caregiving, and potential ability to coparent. The parent must understand the boundaries on confidentiality.
This chapter details the elements of counseling with children and adolescents that are essential to setting a solid stage for deeper work. It covers the techniques addressing the initial contact and important contextual issues, such as setting up a child- and adolescent-friendly office space. Initial contact sets the stage for the therapeutic alliance. Research has shown that educating clients about counseling improves treatment progress and outcome, attendance, and helps to prevent premature termination. Counseling provides a safe, nonjudgmental space in which clients can self-reflect; identify strengths; experiment with new ideas of self and ways of being; and learn effective emotional regulation, relationship, and life skills. Beginning counseling can be quite stressful for some children and their caregivers, and breaking down barriers is essential. Once relationships are established and counseling is flowing naturally, both the counselor and the client feel more relaxed.
Microskills are the basic foundational skills involved in effective counseling that facilitate the process of counseling and alliance formation. The success of counseling interventions depends largely on these skills, which help to create the necessary conditions from which positive change can take place. Children and adolescents are in the process of developing emotional competency. Often, due to their own challenges, parents and other adults in their lives have modeled avoidance of uncomfortable feelings. Many expressive techniques have been used to compliment a wide range of psychotherapy and counseling theories, including psychoanalytic, object relations, cognitive-behavioral, humanistic, transpersonal, and others. Without formal training in play or art therapy, counselors can simply utilize play and drawing to help children relax, to be creative, to be active in their treatment, to use their imagination in corrective ways, and to develop the therapeutic environment and relationship.
Investigating the human mind as an abstract concept is very difficult. Exploring its biological foundations—especially consciousness—is an even more daunting task. If developing a map of the mind is the final frontier of the life sciences, the cartography of consciousness will be its last and most important accomplishment. The study of the conscious mind alone could not lead to a complete understanding of the brain. Consciousness and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (
EMDR) have long been intimately related, albeit under a different name. Whereas the field of neurobiology has utilized the term consciousness to denote the processes of sensation, perception, learning, cognition, emotion, somatosensory integration, and memory, the discipline of psychology has chosen to use the term information processing. EMDRhas evolved into a comprehensive therapeutic approach guided by the adaptive information processing model. This introductory chapter discusses consciousness and EMDRand provides a brief description about the book.
Within the animal kingdom, sociality is on a giant continuum, with a large degree of diversity in how social, with whom, and how complex those interactions are among conspecifics. This chapter explores in greater depth some of the advanced ways that animals engage with one another. As reader sees, there appears to be a correlation between sociality and cognition. Knowing something about the depth (or lack thereof) of a species’ social behavior allows researchers to contextualize and better understand cognitive abilities such as theory of mind, problem solving, and referential signaling in communication. By learning from others, one can effectively and efficiently interact with the environment. One very special way humans and animals also use social cues are called social referencing, which involves learning from others’ emotional responses. These responses, like a grimace after the first bite of a disgusting meal, act as signals that communicate information to social partners.
For centuries, philosophers, neuroscientists, psychologists, and many others have attempted to define consciousness in humans. Depending upon who you are, what your agenda is, and how you were trained, definitions for consciousness will vary. This chapter jumps right into the hotly debated area of animal consciousness. It takes an in-depth look at how philosophers and scientists have defined consciousness, specific cognitive abilities that might signal consciousness, and which animals can be said to have them, or a version of them. The main topics covered include theory of mind, self-awareness, and emotions. Happy, the first elephant documented to behave as if she recognized herself in a mirror, as well as the important implications of this finding, is the subject of the animal spotlight. The human application section walks through how theory of mind develops in children and the ways developmental psychologists can determine whether a child has mastered it.
Everyone loves animals. We learn about them in zoos and aquariums, rehabilitate them when they’re sick, observe their habits and abilities, and treat them as members of our families. One theme that is intentionally woven throughout the book is the importance of knowing a species’ natural history before making assumptions or drawing conclusions about an animal’s behavior. The book consists of eight chapters. All chapters include an “Animal Spotlight” and “Human Application” section. The book is divided into one history chapter, one theory and methods chapter, five content chapters, and a final chapter on future directions. In addition, it pays special attention to describing the different ways that researchers set up their studies to arrive at their conclusions. Chapter one and two discusses the history and methodology of animal cognition. Chapter three discusses animal consciousness. It takes an in-depth look at how philosophers and scientists have defined consciousness, specific cognitive abilities that might signal consciousness, and which animals can be said to have them, or a version of them. The main topics covered include theory of mind, self-awareness, and emotions. Chapter four focuses on communication. It addresses many different ways that animals communicate with each other, including vocal, gestural, and olfactory. Social cognition is featured in Chapter five. Social cognition involves the many complex ways in which animals engage socially among themselves. Chapter six addresses the overall flexibility of the animal mind. For centuries, there have been those who believe animals are mindless behaving machines. Finally, Chapter seven reminds that despite the fact research findings teaches what species on the whole can do, not all animals within a species are the same; individual differences exist. The final chapter eight brings everything together.
Personality and emotional well-being are features of an animal’s behavior that are very real but have historically not been considered cognitive. Individual differences act as ever-present filters, influencing the cognitive processes that we have shared up to this point. Including this chapter at the end of the book should serve as to contextualize all of the findings. In the human psychology world, personality is considered someone’s enduring or stable, predictable ways of thinking, feeling, or behaving over time and across context. The chapter highlights some of the findings and methodological considerations that must be made at each of these stages. It provides multiple examples of how carefully researchers must work to ensure that the labels they assign to behaviors accurately reflect what they’re seeing, that the tasks themselves correspond to those labels, and that the labels say something about a particular core personality trait.