This chapter discusses the historical background of the mentor connection and mentoring relationships in nursing, different types of support relationships and mentors. It also discusses why and when nurse need mentors and early career challenges and mentoring. The mentor connection is a developmental, empowering, nurturing relationship extending over time, in which mutual sharing, learning, and growth occur in an atmosphere of respect, collegiality, and affirmation. Clearly, mentor connections and networks were integral to the developmental experience of successful career-oriented men. Mentoring is a vital component of professional nursing and that mentors are essential for nurses’ ongoing development and leadership achievement. In organizations, mentoring relationships serve as an antidote to disrespectful attitudes and behaviors among nurses and physicians and other health care providers. Mentors mentoring activities can be broken down into two categories: career functions and psychosocial functions.
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David C. Pate learned about nurses as leaders from an early experience as a volunteer in a busy surgical intensive care unit. The professional status imbalance between medicine and nursing is often learned in medical and nursing education, and certainly often is dominant in the clinical arenas. One of Pate’s most important messages is the potential for nursing leadership in health care delivery in the future. The chief nursing officer (CNO) was an integral part of the team expected to be able to explain the vision, inspire the employees to achieve their goals, demonstrate accountability, participate in setting the strategies, and engage in their team meetings whether the subject involved patient care or not. The CNO/nurse executive will be critical in redesigning the health care delivery system of the future. Nurses and nurse leaders can and must lead this change in the care model together with physicians and other providers.
In times past, leadership of schools of medicine and nursing would have directed their efforts to the education of autonomous professionals. Our educational systems have matured to the point that they focus, in a collaborative professional practice model, on the tenets of our professions and the needs of those we serve. In the health care setting, be it subacute or acute; inpatient or outpatient; low or high intensity; or community or academic in its orientation, each patient needs advocacy. Interprofessional clerkships allow nursing students to form teams with their future health care delivery partners, as they pursue learning opportunities in clinical, community, and policy pursuits. Nurses can play a key role in the education of patients and the improvement of the patient condition.
- Go to chapter: Closing Thoughts on Nursing Leadership From the Present Into the Future: Perspectives From a Collaborative Team
Closing Thoughts on Nursing Leadership From the Present Into the Future: Perspectives From a Collaborative Team
This chapter addresses an influential aspect of leadership in nursing how it is perceived by others. The term “nurse” represents a wide range of roles, work experiences, and educational levels. Duke University Hospital (DUH), the flagship hospital of the Duke University Health System (DUHS), is a 924-bed tertiary care facility, and Kevin Sowers, serves as its president. The chapter highlights two recommendations salient to the issue of nursing leadership: expansion of opportunities for nurses to lead and diffuse collaborative improvements; and preparing and enabling nurses to lead change to advance health. The future is bright for nursing, with increasing roles and responsibility, particularly in leading and providing direct primary and advanced care. Health care cost is growing at unsustainable rates with challenges of providing access and achieving consistent quality of care. Modernizing nursing education and training to meet the emerging and complex needs also requires strong leadership as well as partnerships.
Around the globe many academic nursing and service organizations are developing programs across national borders to engage in global health improvement. Sustainability of global health programs requires planning in order to achieve outcomes that address change and innovation that continues after the visiting partners depart or the funding ends. Effective programs require program or project design factors that have been clearly defined, negotiated, adequately funded, and considered needs for training; include capacity building factors; and plan for sustainable innovations. Capacity building factors include structures and formal linkages, champions or leaders who engage stakeholders, administrative policies, adequate resources, and expertise to sustain innovations or program interventions. Attributes for sustainable innovations include the alignment between the program and the needs of the stakeholders, effective relationships, and ownership across stakeholder partners. This chapter presents a case study on sustaining public nursing education in Liberia.
This chapter provides an alternative view of traditional leadership, describing assumptions of leadership in global health and how these assumptions, along with leadership skills, can be adapted fluidly among members of global health projects in order to maintain partnerships. Global health nursing leadership occurs within organizations and the highest levels of government, but the concept of leadership in global health nursing extends to nurses working within nongovernmental organizations or serving as volunteers on health care teams. Critical team leadership roles include the following: convener, visionary, strategist, and team builder. Leadership roles will continue to emerge throughout the partnership as the need arises, and partners will assume leadership roles according to their personal and professional skills as well as experience. The chapter then provides two case studies that demonstrate the challenges involved in maintaining partnerships between academic institutions in different countries.
This chapter explores the resources that are essential for any health program to succeed and are key components of partnership and sustainability. Resources can be considered to be human, material, or financial in nature. Reports indicate that a shortage of human, material, and financial resources adversely affect the ability of nurses to meet their professional expectations to promote and restore population health. Nurses are often involved directly with each of these types of resources. The chapter then explains the Regis College Haiti Project (RCHP) developed by International Nurse Faculty Partnership Initiative (INFPI) to equip the educators and build up the human infrastructure of nursing and nursing education in Haiti. It also presents a case study that explains the importance of planning and ongoing evaluation for academic partnerships in global health settings.
Many people, including nurses, assume that living and working in an area that is considered multicultural or culturally diverse automatically makes them culturally astute or competent. In clinical competency, there are many models for working within cultures, yet cultural safety and cultural competence are learned skills like any other clinical competency. Working within cultures is a dynamic process, and building bridges within cultures is a skill set that should be honed. The chapter provides a case study of Aboriginal peoples in Canada to illustrate the building of bridges within cultures. It also presents a case study that illustrates how Aga Khan University School of Nursing (AKUSON) has transformed the face of nursing education and empowered women in the developing world by heavily investing in faculty development.
This chapter focuses on partnerships between low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and higher income countries (HICs). It presents information about three types of international partnerships. The first type is partnerships that focus on academic education, prelicensure as well as advanced degree programs. The second type is partnerships that focus on advances in professional nursing, which provide professional development for nurse leaders and clinicians in specific settings and capacity-building measures for the profession in the host country. The third type is partnerships that provide direct clinical care or improve a specific aspect of health care in a developing country. The chapter addresses the host partner factors and presents a case study that reports on the educational partnership between the Alice Ramez Chagoury School of Nursing (ARCSON), the Lebanese American University (LAU), and the University of New Mexico College of Nursing (UNMCON).
Ongoing project support is a crucial part of any global health venture that involves any hope for long-term, sustainable effects. Developing a specific strategy for ongoing support at the inception of a global health endeavor will involve defining the overall life span and specific stages of the project and budgeting for appropriate resources and personnel to support all stages, even those when minimal contact is planned with the target country or population. Ongoing project support often involves monitoring and evaluation that can potentially be used to answer research questions. Evaluation is an important aspect of all project-based work not only for improved project performance, but also to demonstrate results for funders. This chapter presents two case studies, one on the interprofessional partnerships with a telehealth project in Waslala, Nicaragua and the other on the use of technology to support an ongoing partnership for nursing education in Uganda.
This chapter focuses on factors that began the process of silencing the voices of the immigrant midwives. In debating the ‘midwife problem’, much was written in the early 1900s about the abysmal mortality and morbidity statistics at that time. A New York State midwifery law enacted on June 6, 1907, empowered this city to adopt rules and regulations and adopt ordinances governing the practice of midwifery. Carolyn Conant Van Blarcom was one of the first voices to advocate that nurses, particularly public health nurses, be trained in midwifery. First School for midwives in the United States was the Bellevue school for Midwives, opened in July 1911. The enticement to childbearing woman that took them into the hospital was the promise of painless childbirth from the use of twilight sleep. Nursing underwent professionalization with national organizations, journals, and educational programs and standards approximately 50 years after medicine did in the mid-1800s.
This chapter describes the components of a professional practice model (PPM) implementation plan. Planning, selecting strategies, and ensuring accountability for PPM implementation requires a working group of diverse nursing professionals from multiple levels of a health system to fully capture their expertise and insights. The chapter reviews the steps of the implementation process and provides examples of a strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities/threats (SWOT) analysis, broad goal statements, and measurable objectives. It demonstrates the distinction between goals and objectives and suggests criteria for selecting among many implementation strategies. The chapter explores several implementation strategies: such as education, modification of work roles, workflow redesign, effective communication, and ongoing support and enrichment. It explains accountability for the plan’s implementation in terms of assigning responsibility, prioritizing goals, and setting realistic time frames for completion. Finally, the chapter presents the key success factors, including an optimistic leadership tone.
This chapter highlights some of the driving forces in the changes that have taken place since the new millennium in health care. The major driving forces in health care have been the Affordable Care Act, the Institute of Medicine's report on the future of nursing, technology, genomics, and global health. The Institute of Medicine's (2010) Future of Nursing report has had a profound effect on the nursing profession. The report includes four key messages and eight recommendations. The four key messages are: nurses should practice to the full extent of their education and training, nurses should achieve higher levels of education and training through an improved education system that promotes seamless academic progression, nurses should be full partners, with physicians and other health professionals, in redesigning health care in the United States, and effective workforce planning and policy making require better data collection and an improved information infrastructure.
This book provides information and strategies to help an experienced nurse begin her journey forward and achieve her educational and career goals. It is divided into three units. The first unit deals with the starting of the journey, with the first chapter covering the transtheoretical model (TTM). TTM is composed of four constructs: stages of change, decisional balance, self-efficacy, and processes of change. The chapter on decisional balance focuses on the motivations and barriers nurses may consider when making the decision to return to getting educated. Others chapters cover the various choices, which nurses have for getting educated again, and the steps necessary to apply to a graduate nursing program. Unit II deals with the preparation at various levels that have to be undertaken by the nurses to succeed in their efforts with the chapters discussing the mental-emotional preparation, financial preparation, computer and technology preparation, academic preparation, family/social preparation, physical preparation and work preparation. Nurses need to know to how handle change in their lives and self-assess their attitudes, the various financing options available, and to use social media to access sites of professional organizations. In addition, nurses need to have academic skills essential for success, and family and social support when they return to the school. They also have to maintain their physical health while in school and negotiate their work schedule to fit with the school. Unit III highlights the need to enjoy the journey back to school and to stay motivated.
- Go to chapter: “On Such Teachers Rests the Future of Nursing”: Preparing Faculty for Associate Degree Programs at the Mid-20th Century
“On Such Teachers Rests the Future of Nursing”: Preparing Faculty for Associate Degree Programs at the Mid-20th Century
The advent of the associate degree in nursing (ADN) model for the education of nurses in the early 1950s was a watershed event in the history of nursing education in the United States. This chapter argues that the little-discussed but highly organized efforts to prepare faculty to teach in the newly created ADN programs in the late 1950s serve as an exemplar for the continued efforts of the profession to provide a more educated nursing workforce. It provides a brief overview of how the ADN was developed and then explores the efforts of nurse leaders to educate the faculty for these new programs, which were opening at breakneck speed across the United States beginning in the late 1950s. The chapter presents the development of Bronx Community College (BCC), not far from Teachers College (TC) and one of the faculty demonstration projects in New York, as the case study.
This chapter centers on the importance of family and social support when one “return” to school. It provides examples of how nurses prepared their immediate family members for their decision as well as strategies they used when family or friends were not supportive. Throughout the literature, the value of family and other types of social support for returning students is evident for all levels of nursing education. This support not only facilitates a nurse’s decision to apply to school but also impacts persistence to complete a program. A common dilemma for nurses who returned to school was how to get their family members to pitch in and help take over some of the household tasks. The chapter addresses the need for nurses to take a serious look at their activities and obligations and determine which to keep, which to put on hold, and which to eliminate.
This chapter reviews prevention, including genetic counseling. It discusses genetic testing for diagnosis as opposed to screening and the treatment for genetic disease. Methods of prevention begin with education of the public and health care professionals and identification of those at risk. Genetic counseling is the process of helping people understand and adapt to the medical, psychological, and familial implications of genetic contributions to disease. The malignant cells often exhibit aneuploidy as well as translocations that are found only within the tumor cells. Genetic errors that arise from specific cell lines are somatic mutations. It is suggested that there is a thorough collection of family, genetic, and medical history for children entering the adoption process. Nurses may play a variety of roles in genetic counseling that reflect their preparation, area of practice, primary functions, and setting. The chapter explains the incidence of chromosome abnormalities.
- Go to chapter: The Lady With the Lamp: Florence Nightingale and Her Effect on the Nursing Profession in the 19th Century
The Lady With the Lamp: Florence Nightingale and Her Effect on the Nursing Profession in the 19th Century
Florence Nightingale had a significant impact on the nursing profession: She is often referred as the founder of modern-day nursing. This chapter provides a brief insight into her life and workings. It describes the timeline of events in Florence Nightingale's life and Florence Nightingale Pledge. Florence Nightingale played an influential and pivotal role during the Crimean War. The chapter describes the foundations of nursing theory. Nightingale's model of nursing is a four-step process that includes observation, identification of needed environment alteration, implementation of the alteration, and identification of the current health state. During the 19th century, formalized training programs began to emerge, and many were based on the Nightingale Principles of Nursing Education. She developed a formal nursing school called the Nightingale School of Nursing. This chapter outlines the timeline of nurse-training programs in late 19th-century America and their general admission criteria. It also describes nurse-training programs around the world.
This chapter explains the diverse choices nurses have when making a decision to go back to college. It discusses what to assess in a school, followed by what to assess in a nursing program; however, it does not matter which nurses do first as long as one evaluate both. Selecting the right school and program to meet their educational goals is an important decision. As a consumer of higher education, nurses may need to consider a number of factors that will influence what choice they make. Doctoral nursing programs traditionally offer courses on the history and philosophy of nursing and the development and testing of nursing and other health-care techniques, as well as the social, economic, political, and ethical issues important to the field. Data management and research methodology are also areas of instruction”. Some nursing programs offer service-learning experiences, which are different from the traditional clinical experiences.
Deans/directors need to realize that their success is highly dependent on the success of students in their school/college/department. First and foremost, for a dean/director to be successful, students enrolling in all of the school/college/department’s nursing programs must succeed in graduating. Graduates must then be successful in passing licensure and/or certification exams. It cannot be overemphasized that the administrative and academic success of a dean/director is manifested through her or his students. This chapter describes approaches for fostering academic success among nursing students. Before a nursing student officially enrolls in any nursing courses for credit, he or she needs to have developed an array of study habits that work. Time is a resource that each student must allocate wisely. Even though students and faculty have busy schedules, it is highly advisable for students to schedule and keep regular appointments with their advisers. The chapter finally discusses the institutional resources.
This book is designed to introduce the historical, global, societal, and scientific events that have patterned and influenced today's health care system. It helps us to understand the significance of the transformation in nursing and the profound influences these changes have had on our approach to nursing practice today. The book showcases the role of nursing and its key place within the development of medicine from ancient and medieval times to the present. It delves into the unique role of the nurse in the care of the injured during wartime; traces the impact of key events, such as Florence Nightingale's effect on the care of soldiers during the Crimean War and nursing's role in subsequent wars, on today's practice of nursing; and describes the future of health care and its direct influence on the nursing profession. The history of the nursing profession is closely intertwined with that of health care, medicine, society, and public policy. This book helps nurses understand the important events and influential nurses that shaped nursing as a professional practice discipline. It provides key information in an easy-to-read format, with "Fast Facts in a Nutshell" identifying key points throughout every chapter. The book includes an interview with a nurse historian, Dr. Jean Whelan. It provides a brief historical overview of the origins of nursing and the profession. The book next focuses on Florence Nightingale and her significant contributions to nursing, nursing in early 1900s and new developments in nursing, such as public health nursing, and the impact of both world wars. It provides a more in-depth account that focuses on the tremendous growth and professional development over the past 100 years. Finally, the book looks closely at nursing theorists and leaders, nursing education, nursing research, professional organizations, and the future of nursing.
This chapter describes the landmark reports that influenced nursing and the evolution of training schools. It also describes the evolution of diploma programs, associate degree programs, and baccalaureate degree programs. The chapter outlines the timeline of important events in nursing education and lists the early nurse leaders who influenced nursing education. It explains why nurses supported advanced degrees in master's and doctoral programs. This chapter describes the current trends resulting in the expansion of nurse practitioner programs and the requirements of licensure. It analyses how nurse education in the United States compares with that in other countries.
- Go to chapter: Pioneers in Nursing Education and Social Activism: Lavinia Lloyd Dock, Isabel Hampton Robb, and Mary Adelaide Nutting
Pioneers in Nursing Education and Social Activism: Lavinia Lloyd Dock, Isabel Hampton Robb, and Mary Adelaide Nutting
This chapter talks about effects of health policy on nursing practice and the roles of nurses in advocacy and social activism. It describes the contributions of Lavinia Lloyd Dock, Isabel Hampton Robb, and Mary Adelaide Nutting in nursing education and social activism. Lavinia Lloyd Dock was a nurse, feminist, author, pioneer in nursing education, and social activist. She campaigned for women's suffrage. Dock, with the assistance of Isabel Hampton Robb and Nutting, founded the American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nurses of the United States and Canada, which became the National League for Nursing. They advocated for health care policy that addressed issues of social justice and equity in health care. Dock, Robb, and Nutting understood how clinical practice was derived from regulations, laws, and policies. They were committed to long-term careers that strengthened nursing education and brought transformational change to nursing and health care.
Joy and satisfaction may be found in serving in the position of dean/director of a nursing school, college, or department, but stresses may also be encountered. The joy and satisfaction that a dean/director can experience flows mainly from two sources: building a culture and environment of happiness and joy in the school, college, or department and implementing, and witnessing the fulfillment of the vision for nursing education. This chapter offers an overview of the demands of deaning and directing; qualifications, competencies, and personal qualities of nursing deans and directors; and best practices for finding joy and satisfaction as a nursing dean/director in the context of a very complex, intense, and challenging role.
This chapter focuses on the importance of the application process. It reviews the article by Jones that has a comprehensive review of all the steps necessary to apply to a graduate nursing program, including the application process, Graduate Record Examination (GRE), letters of recommendation, and sample interview questions. Some programs accept credits from challenge exams. These standardized tests assess a student’s mastery of a subject and are available for a variety of topics. Some colleges or programs have a list of what they want us to include in a portfolio, others contract with services such as the Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL) to complete a prior learning assessment (PLA).
Recruitment of talented, high-caliber faculty and staff is one of the most important aspects of leading a nursing program. Recruitment is also one of the most difficult aspects of the job of deans/directors. Retention of faculty and staff is often directly related to the relationship they have with the unit’s leader. This chapter addresses issues regarding recruitment and retention of faculty and staff as well as strategies to tackle the challenges. It shares the best practices for faculty and staff recruitment and retention from the experience and perspective of the author. Recruitment and retention of qualified faculty and staff challenge even the most experienced nursing dean/director. There are many opportunities and strategies to effectively address these challenges.
This chapter discusses how to align nurse’s work setting with their educational goals. It outlines information on utilizing employee benefits, negotiating their work schedule to fit with school, and strategies on getting their supervisor and colleagues on board with their decision. The nursing literature cites employee benefits as an incentive for nurses to return to school. Despite the investment required to support such benefits, improved nurse satisfaction and retention rates may offset such costs for employers. Some employers have a limited number of scholarships or loans available to potential students. Child care is another benefit offered by some employers. Some nurses experience a supportive environment, where their employers as well as colleagues encourage lifelong learning. Other ways in which employers may contribute include sponsoring an onsite Toastmasters club, offering a mentorship program, or hosting a recognition ceremony when nurses complete a degree.
Several factors played a part in the growth and expansion of nursing as a profession, and the Crimean War in Europe and the Civil War in America had a profound effect. The role of nurses in the early part of the 19th century was fairly similar to that in the 18th century; however, by the latter part of the century, conditions were vastly improved. Training programs were established, and Florence Nightingale had a major influence on health care, nursing, and nursing education. This chapter describes what nursing in the 19th century was like and who the influential nurses were during this period. It explains how nursing and medicine were influenced by the Civil War and how the medical model influenced nurse-training programs. The chapter also describes initial training programs in nursing and the timeline of early nurse-training programs. It describes the evolution of nursing matrons in 19th-century England.
The chapter highlights some of the forces behind the movement toward a more highly educated nursing workforce. It describes how the decision to return to school is a process that can occur at any time during the nursing career. The chapter provides information as well as strategies to help people begin their journey forward and to achieve their educational and career goals. Many nurses plan to continue their education but hesitate because they want to wait until life settles down before returning to school. The transtheoretical model; TTM is a model that may provide a framework to describe the process nurses go through when making the decision to return to school. TTM is composed of four constructs: stages of change, decisional balance, self-efficacy, and processes of change. The personal and professional transformation that results from people decision to return to school can be invigorating and lead to so many opportunities.
The practice of clinical genetics and genomics has infiltrated nearly every area of health care. Becoming competent in the use of genetic content begins in undergraduate and generic nursing education programs. Part I of the book discusses the place of genetics in health care and the health care trends related to genetics. The Human Genome Project (HGP) led to the establishment of the ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) programs of genetic research. The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) collaborated on a series of articles to help nurse educators focus on genetics and genomics. The book then reviews of basic and molecular biology, a discussion of human variation and diversity, and gene action and types of inheritance. Minisatellites and microsatellites are often used interchangeably to denote Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTRs) and Short Tandem Repeats (STRs). The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) laboratory technique amplifies large quantities of a specific segment of DNA. The topics of prevention of genetic disease, genetic testing, and treatment are presented, including aspects of genetic counseling. Typical Mendelian patterns of inheritance include autosomal recessive (AR), autosomal dominant (AD), X-linked recessive (XR), X-linked dominant (XD), and Y-linked inheritance. Part II applies these principles to areas of clinical nursing practice. Specific application of genetics and genomics in regard to pharmacology, history taking and physical assessment, maternal-child nursing, adult health and illness and medical-surgical nursing, psychiatric mental health nursing, policies, and social and ethical issues are all discussed. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a genetic condition and is the most common enzyme abnormality known. The hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme system comprises a group of related enzymes known as a superfamily. The broad concepts are presented in a nursing context with selected disease examples and case examples.
This chapter examines how education shapes the role of the nurse and explores the issues related to the enduring confusion about education, practice, and roles. It does so by examining the historical development of three educational pathways into nursing and the unintended consequences of each as we continue to treat them all the same. The chapter presents the histories of the three educational pathways: the Bellevue School of Nursing, as diploma case study; the University of Cincinnati (UC) School of Nursing and Health, as BSN case study; and the Cooperative Research Project (CRP) in Junior and Community College Education for Nursing, as ADN case study. The major purpose of the Society was to ‘establish and maintain a universal standard of training’ to regain control of nursing. Nurse leaders acknowledged the rapidly changing environment of nurses’ work both in the hospital and in public health and proposed higher education for nurses.
This chapter explores the value of preparing mentally and emotionally for a return to school. It provides suggestions on how to handle change, both in nurse’s personal life as well as in the academic environment. In the past, many nursing programs structured their courses around lectures and readings, with associated tests used to measure knowledge on a topic. This type of passive learning, based on rote memorization, does not utilize higher cognitive skills such as critical thinking and synthesis. The chapter highlights the ideas on how to self-assess nurse attitudes and behaviors so they can form a positive outlook and presents some simple stress-management techniques that may help when things get tough. To foster self-discipline, most nurses felt it was important to set up a schedule for school, as it was easy for other responsibilities to divert them or put things off until it was too late.
This chapter examines the technologies and current trends, programmatic requirements, and student, faculty, and senior leadership traits to be successful in online learning environments and management systems used in nursing education. Learning management systems continue to be hubs on which institutions base their online learning, but a variety of accompaniments are being added to enhance the student experience and expand the instructor’s toolbox for education. These accompaniments provide improved communication, increased collaboration, and the creation and distribution of high-quality audio/video learning objects. With the ever-expanding market for online education and technology, it is important to reinforce the true reason behind using any technology—to support the learner, instructor, and learning objectives at all levels. In order for the technology used to reach its maximum potential, instructors and students need to embrace the necessary competencies, be creative, and always be open to a new learning opportunity.
The demands of preparing to serve in combat and live within the military ethos are sources of strengths and vulnerabilities for veterans. This chapter summarizes those psychiatric disorders commonly seen among veterans in both student and client roles and to assist educators to integrate knowledge about veteran mental health concerns into educator and clinical faculty roles. It challenges educators to operate from within their educator role by developing a necessary context to educate veterans who may be struggling emotionally, behaviorally, and psychologically. Additionally, the chapter provides insights for faculty who are preparing students to work with veterans as patients and clients. That being said, the chapter provides the reader with a composite picture of Global War on Terrorism veteran, common mental health concerns affecting veterans, a military centric stress first aid framework from which to assess and respond to crisis, and two vignettes designed to apply the introduced concepts.
Veterans may experience complex health problems as a result of their time in military service. Such health concerns can include physical sequelae of training and time in service regardless of deployment status. These health problems may include Gulf War illness, orthopedic problems, neurological injuries, or chronic pain. Many of these diagnoses will be comorbid, meaning the veteran may experience more than one service-related diagnosis, or the service-related diagnosis may occur concurrently with other health problems that are unrelated to service. Many of these diagnoses may also intersect with mental health issues such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Caregivers of veterans with ongoing health problems may also experience health challenges. This chapter provides a background to understanding health problems experienced by veterans as well as describes each healthcare topic. Each of these complex medical issues has implications for nursing practice and education. Research implications are also noted.
This chapter helps the learner to identify the roles of the MSN-prepared nurse in interprofessional collaboration (IC); determine strategies to engage others in IC; and examine challenges that may arise when participating in IC. It also evaluates the need for shared goals when participating in IC and develops strategies to navigate candid conversations. The American Nurses Association (2015) defines IC as “integrated enactment of knowledge, skills, and values and attitudes that define working together across the professions, with other health care workers, and with patients, along with families and communities, as appropriate to improve health outcomes”. The American Association of Colleges of Nursing essentials of the master’s-prepared nursing education include IC as one of the expectations within all MSN educational programs. Collaboration is key to ensure that outcomes are met.
The art of nursing has been in existence since the beginning of time. People have been caring for the ill and injured for as long as history has been recorded. In many early societies, no formal education for nurses was available, so the caregiver role was allocated to women, medicine men, shamans, or as predetermined by culture. The nursing profession was not identified as an organized career until the mid-1800s when Florence Nightingale cared for the sick and injured during the Crimean War. Since inception of nursing as a profession, several others have been instrumental in the development and evolvement of the role and have impacted how nursing is practiced today. This chapter identifies the founders of nursing, distinguish organizations maintaining the history of nursing, and discusses how the history of nursing influences modern nursing practice.
Changes in technology and automation influence the way nursing faculty teach nursing. Institutions of higher education prepare students for lifelong learning by including soft skills, such as critical thinking and communication, in the curriculum. The role of faculty members is to use technology in teaching to create authentic, problem-based learning strategies. Including the instructional designer in designing courses that include the technology-based strategies is a priority. Matthew Lynch (2018) describes expected changes in technology that impact online learning. The changes in technology include: mobile learning, project-based learning, learning analytics and visualization software, redesign in online classrooms, and movement to blended learning environments. Adaptive learning technology will employ software that adapts to the learners’ learning needs and styles. The chapter briefly discusses the role of the faculty educator and the expectations of the future faculty educator.
College financial aid is money given by the federal government and the institution to help students pay for the cost of their education. The first step to receiving financial aid is the completion of the infamous Free Application for Federal Student Aid (
FAFSA). The financial aid regulations state that when students earn their first undergraduate degree, they are considered independent students for financial aid purposes. This means that when such new “independent” students submit an FAFSAapplication, they should report only their—not the family’s—prior, prior year tax information. In addition, the FAFSAcan identify nursing graduate students who may be eligible for institutional need-based loans, apart from federal subsidized or unsubsidized loans. Need-based grants or scholarships or unsubsidized loans reflect an assessment of the student’s ability to pay. The school awards these amounts based on information provided on the FAFSAor any additional supplemental forms required by the institution.
- Go to chapter: Veteran-Centered Teaching Strategies, Learning Activities, and Resources for the Clinical Setting
Veterans are a population with unique healthcare needs; however, only one third are enrolled in the specialized Veterans Affairs Health Care System (
VAHCS; U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs [ VA], 2018a). Therefore, it is vital to determine how to meet veterans’ distinctive needs in all care settings. This chapter includes an examination of veteran-centered clinical competencies for healthcare professionals and includes recommendations for educators—in both prelicensure nursing programs and staff education at healthcare facilities—to guide education material development. In addition, veteran-focused teaching strategies, learning activities, and clinical resources are provided to create new curricula and enhance existing ones. This will better prepare educators and healthcare professionals to provide culturally sensitive veteran-centered care. Suggestions for placement of possible learning activities in specific clinical courses are presented. Taken together, the veteran-centered competencies, teaching strategies, learning activities, and resources will improve care of veterans in all clinical settings.
With the move towards assuring the public that nursing students are graduating with the needed competencies to step into their very important careers, competency-based education (
CBE) has become increasingly important. This book describes how competence is the outcome and how nursing students can rise to meet the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective skills needed to become professional nurses that make a positive impact on the health of individuals, families, and communities. The Coronavirus ( COVID-19) crisis has underscored the importance of CBE. Nurse educators throughout the country have analyzed standards, criteria, regulations, and student learning outcomes to define the competencies needed during this disruptive time in nursing education. Nurse educators have creatively and innovatively assisted nursing students to meet the needed competencies in alternative formats, thereby ensuring graduates will have the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective skills needed to become excellent professional nurses. The book is arranged to assist nurse educators to understand and reflect on the concepts and components of CBE, as well as the pragmatic implementation of CBE. It is a clear, succinct tool needed by nurse educators to move from a traditional nursing curriculum to one that ensures that nursing students are ready for today’s healthcare challenges. This book format uses examples and evidence to assist nurse educators to take the first steps in moving a nursing program towards a CBEand ensuring nursing graduates are ready to face evolving healthcare needs and future events.
- Go to chapter: Veteran-Centered Care in Education and Practice: Faculty, Student, and Nurse Competencies
Due to current and past wartime realities in our nation, nurses in all practice settings are challenged to meet the need for providing competent specialized healthcare services to military service members, veterans, and their families. Providing veteran-centered care in nursing education and clinical practice involves knowledge, expected behaviors, and application of essential competencies. As practice environments change over time, nursing faculty and clinical nurse educators are in a prime position to facilitate nurses’ educational needs. Nurse educators must identify, develop, and emphasize veteran-centered competencies to modify curricular needs, ensuring relevance to clinical practice outside of nursing silos (Harada et al., 2018), and assess the military and veteran cultural competence of their students (Meyer et al., 2015). This chapter presents various topics within the realm of professional competency, along with strategies educators can utilize to enhance student competency at all degree levels.
Decades of wars contribute to veterans with a wide range of visible and invisible wounds, temporary and permanent, which can influence their health over a lifetime. The health of veterans is a growing public health concern, yet nursing education is still in the early stages of integrating military/veteran-related content into already content heavy curricula. Nurses at the bedside lack adequate knowledge to care for this population in a culturally sensitive manner. This chapter provides a brief overview of veterans in today’s society, the major health issues challenging military service members, veterans and their families, and national initiatives that have been the catalyst for change to meet this population’s needs. It also addresses the current status of veteran-related content in nursing education, why it is important, and where we need to go moving forward to ensure nurses are educated to deliver culturally sensitive, patient-centered care to this population.
Skills acquisition is an important component of nursing education, beginning early in the curriculum and continuing throughout the nursing program. Learning laboratories provide a safe environment for initial psychomotor skills acquisition while offering opportunities to socialize students into the professional role of a nurse. The challenge for nurse educators in the laboratory is to assist students in understanding that acquisition of psychomotor skills is foundational to nursing practice but is only one component of being a nurse. Educators in laboratory settings are charged with encouraging the development of a strong foundation of learning so students can advance in their understanding of the depth and breadth of the art of nursing. This chapter provides practical strategies embedded in educational pedagogy of skills acquisition. It helps the reader to describe process of skill development and implications for teaching in learning laboratories and analyze the role of the learning laboratory in nursing programs.
Ethics is a topic that is important to revisit at each level of a nurse’s education. The role of ethics in nursing must be understood to completely understand the role of nursing in research. To frame the role of ethics in nursing research, it is important to discuss examples of ethics in nursing and how the current experiences apply to ethics in the context of nursing research. This chapter covers an overview of ethics in nursing, and discusses the role of ethics in nursing research. The terms that one needs to know as the basic backbones of ethics are beneficence, justice, respect for persons, and nonmaleficence. These are the terms one learned in Ethics, but when related to the professional role of the master’s-prepared nurse, they become real-world tools used to make decisions. These terms are defined and discussed in the context of their presence in nursing research ethics.
This chapter helps the learner to discuss the history of nursing education; compare and contrast the three major roles of the nurse educator; explain the three roles of an academic nurse educator; examine how a nurse educator can become nationally certificated; and distinguish the benefits and challenges of being a nurse educator. There are three major roles for a nurse educator: community educator, staff educator, and academic educator. Each role has a slightly different focus but uses the same basic skills taught in educator courses. Nursing education is an excellent role to consider when earning your master’s degree. It provides flexibility in your work schedule and allows one to be at the top of the required knowledge in your area of expertise. As a nurse educator, one can impact many lives directly or indirectly.
Academia should be considered as the foundation of the movement to end bullying, but it is often where bullying in nursing begins. Academia, like all areas of nursing, has long-standing traditions and expectations. This chapter enables the reader to list the root causes of bullying in nursing education and the bullying behaviors found in nursing education. It also helps the reader to list the bullying behaviors demonstrated by the student nurse and the ways bullying nursing education can be decreased. The chapter describes how nursing staff may be stressed by the presence of nurse educators on the nursing unit. The student may be bullied by various professionals, but nursing faculty and nursing staff are also subjected to inappropriate student behaviors as well. Education, bullying recognition strategies, and zero-tolerance policies will help to eliminate the nurse who becomes a bully.
Competency-based education (
CBE) is becoming the new curriculum model in healthcare for several reasons: Need for greater practitioner accountability; Increased social expectations for quality care; and Need for educational systems that can readily adapt to change. This chapter delves into the specifics of revising or developing a nursing curriculum using a CBEmodel. Curriculum revision or development must consider many variables including the educational mission, the competencies identified as needed, the framework, and the constraints encountered in traditional educational systems. The chapter discusses the development of CBEcurricula. It compares CBEto traditional curriculum models and helps the reader to identify leadership attributes needed to develop or revise curricula. A curriculum framework organizes content and competencies. Milestones are built in to ensure logical succession of competency achievement. Assessment and evaluation of competency achievement is completed along the way to ensure student success in reaching program outcomes.
A major challenge for nursing faculty has been, and continues to be, to engage in more scholarly writing when they have had limited formal training and experience with scholarly writing. A second challenge with transitioning nursing education into universities is that a significant proportion of nursing faculty members are dedicated (almost exclusively) to educating students on clinical nursing skills. This chapter explores the reasons why nurses often do not write well, which contributes to some nurses “hating” to write or choosing not to write at all. It then explores the reasons why nurses should write. Finally, the chapter explains the structure of scholarly writing and uses an example of a class assignment to demonstrate how to develop the structure of a scholarly manuscript. The chapter also includes some general tips to help you structure a piece of writing for ease of comprehension and maximum effect.
Fast Facts on Combating Nurse Bullying, Incivility, and Workplace Violence:What Nurses Need to Know in a Nutshell
Incivility, bullying, and workplace violence in nursing is a significant problem–so much so that the American Nurses Association (ANA) developed a position statement in 2015 addressing the issue (ANA, 2015). ANA’s Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements notes that nurses are required to “create an ethical environment and culture of civility and kindness, treating colleagues, coworkers, employees, students, and others with dignity and respect”. This book explores the topic and gives the reader practical hands-on skills on how to identify and deal with this phenomenon. It provides detailed information, emphasizing why it is not okay to put new nurses “through the ringer” because we were once in that position. The book is intended to be a “field guide” to bullying and incivility: how to define, recognize, and deal with the behavior. It helps in understanding workplace violence in health care and the cost of nurse bullying on the health care system. The book explores the effects of bullying on the nurse and how to resolve and heal these effects, and the movement for formal workplace bullying legislation. It describes the responsibilities of nursing leadership and the employer and explains how to resist nurse bullying. Finally the book presents four case studies on bullying and the student nurse, bullying and the novice nurse, bullying in nursing education, and bullying in nursing administration.