This chapter reviews prevention, including genetic counseling. It discusses genetic testing for diagnosis as opposed to screening and the treatment for genetic disease. Methods of prevention begin with education of the public and health care professionals and identification of those at risk. Genetic counseling is the process of helping people understand and adapt to the medical, psychological, and familial implications of genetic contributions to disease. The malignant cells often exhibit aneuploidy as well as translocations that are found only within the tumor cells. Genetic errors that arise from specific cell lines are somatic mutations. It is suggested that there is a thorough collection of family, genetic, and medical history for children entering the adoption process. Nurses may play a variety of roles in genetic counseling that reflect their preparation, area of practice, primary functions, and setting. The chapter explains the incidence of chromosome abnormalities.
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Healthcare is in a state of rapid change. Although practice environments have become more complex, educational delivery methods have remained stagnant. Innovative technologies provide opportunities to enhance nursing student learning and help nursing programs become more responsive to changes in the practice environment; however, obstacles may hinder successful implementation. With the increasing complexity of today’s health care environment, innovations in nursing curricula are necessary. This chapter explores some of the general challenges associated with the integration of innovative educational technologies, as well as some challenges unique to virtual simulation. It helps the reader to analyze the challenges of integrating educational technologies into nursing education associated with faculty, administrators, and students. It also helps the reader to examine practical and philosophical barriers related to technology integration and explores challenges unique to the adoption of virtual simulation.
Simulation has many advantages for nursing education, some of which include creating safe learning environments for students and reinforcing information learned in the classroom; it also has the advantage of being available in inclement weather as well as 24 hours a day for student access. Simulation in nursing is one of many methods used for teaching students. Teaching and learning in a virtual learning environment has many advantages for administrators, faculty, and students. One of the advantages includes the use of other disciplines to help create or participate in a virtual world learning experience. The virtual learning environment can be created to look similar to real communities, disaster areas, or homes, with avatars populating that environment. The advantage to using virtual reality, rather than a real-life experience, is that in real life, students could be immersed in an environment that could cause them harm.
This chapter discusses the historical background of the mentor connection and mentoring relationships in nursing, different types of support relationships and mentors. It also discusses why and when nurse need mentors and early career challenges and mentoring. The mentor connection is a developmental, empowering, nurturing relationship extending over time, in which mutual sharing, learning, and growth occur in an atmosphere of respect, collegiality, and affirmation. Clearly, mentor connections and networks were integral to the developmental experience of successful career-oriented men. Mentoring is a vital component of professional nursing and that mentors are essential for nurses’ ongoing development and leadership achievement. In organizations, mentoring relationships serve as an antidote to disrespectful attitudes and behaviors among nurses and physicians and other health care providers. Mentors mentoring activities can be broken down into two categories: career functions and psychosocial functions.
This chapter focuses on partnerships between low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and higher income countries (HICs). It presents information about three types of international partnerships. The first type is partnerships that focus on academic education, prelicensure as well as advanced degree programs. The second type is partnerships that focus on advances in professional nursing, which provide professional development for nurse leaders and clinicians in specific settings and capacity-building measures for the profession in the host country. The third type is partnerships that provide direct clinical care or improve a specific aspect of health care in a developing country. The chapter addresses the host partner factors and presents a case study that reports on the educational partnership between the Alice Ramez Chagoury School of Nursing (ARCSON), the Lebanese American University (LAU), and the University of New Mexico College of Nursing (UNMCON).
This chapter provides an alternative view of traditional leadership, describing assumptions of leadership in global health and how these assumptions, along with leadership skills, can be adapted fluidly among members of global health projects in order to maintain partnerships. Global health nursing leadership occurs within organizations and the highest levels of government, but the concept of leadership in global health nursing extends to nurses working within nongovernmental organizations or serving as volunteers on health care teams. Critical team leadership roles include the following: convener, visionary, strategist, and team builder. Leadership roles will continue to emerge throughout the partnership as the need arises, and partners will assume leadership roles according to their personal and professional skills as well as experience. The chapter then provides two case studies that demonstrate the challenges involved in maintaining partnerships between academic institutions in different countries.
This chapter addresses many requisite elements of the doctor of nursing practice (DNP) essentials and answers a variety of practice questions. In the world of always-competing priorities, ever-increasing complexity, and persistent uncertainty, how do organizations manage to stay on track, move forward, evolve, and even succeed? The chapter explores the answers to these and other questions that arise when observing organizations, both large and small. It discusses a sample organizational framework that allows nurse executives and managers to lead and stay on course. The chapter introduces the concepts of strategy, alignment, organizational planning, executing, and monitoring as well as provides sample tools for accomplishing these important leadership functions. It then looks at capital budgeting, projects feasibility, evaluation, and selection and provides a sample model for financial decision making. Although the concepts and tools contained herein are widely applicable to many industries, the chapter concentrates on nursing services and nursing education.
This chapter focuses on factors that began the process of silencing the voices of the immigrant midwives. In debating the ‘midwife problem’, much was written in the early 1900s about the abysmal mortality and morbidity statistics at that time. A New York State midwifery law enacted on June 6, 1907, empowered this city to adopt rules and regulations and adopt ordinances governing the practice of midwifery. Carolyn Conant Van Blarcom was one of the first voices to advocate that nurses, particularly public health nurses, be trained in midwifery. First School for midwives in the United States was the Bellevue school for Midwives, opened in July 1911. The enticement to childbearing woman that took them into the hospital was the promise of painless childbirth from the use of twilight sleep. Nursing underwent professionalization with national organizations, journals, and educational programs and standards approximately 50 years after medicine did in the mid-1800s.
This chapter explains the diverse choices nurses have when making a decision to go back to college. It discusses what to assess in a school, followed by what to assess in a nursing program; however, it does not matter which nurses do first as long as one evaluate both. Selecting the right school and program to meet their educational goals is an important decision. As a consumer of higher education, nurses may need to consider a number of factors that will influence what choice they make. Doctoral nursing programs traditionally offer courses on the history and philosophy of nursing and the development and testing of nursing and other health-care techniques, as well as the social, economic, political, and ethical issues important to the field. Data management and research methodology are also areas of instruction”. Some nursing programs offer service-learning experiences, which are different from the traditional clinical experiences.
This chapter discusses how to align nurse’s work setting with their educational goals. It outlines information on utilizing employee benefits, negotiating their work schedule to fit with school, and strategies on getting their supervisor and colleagues on board with their decision. The nursing literature cites employee benefits as an incentive for nurses to return to school. Despite the investment required to support such benefits, improved nurse satisfaction and retention rates may offset such costs for employers. Some employers have a limited number of scholarships or loans available to potential students. Child care is another benefit offered by some employers. Some nurses experience a supportive environment, where their employers as well as colleagues encourage lifelong learning. Other ways in which employers may contribute include sponsoring an onsite Toastmasters club, offering a mentorship program, or hosting a recognition ceremony when nurses complete a degree.