This chapter examines the history of long-term services and supports (LTSS) programs to document their racially and ethnically disparate impact, and explain the current research on the access and quality of LTSS used by older adults in communities of color. LTSS are a set of health and social services delivered over a sustained period to people who have lost or never acquired some capacity for personal care. The high costs of LTSS have led a smaller number of low-income older adults to consume a large share of Medicaid expenditures. Cultural beliefs about family responsibility to care for older adults as well as attitudes toward the use of formal and/or public health and long-term care services can shape older adults’ use of LTSS. The coming sociodemographic shift of older minority adults calls attention to other structural and cultural issues that facilitate or inhibit the appropriate use of LTSS.
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- Go to chapter: Structural and Cultural Issues in Long-Term Services and Supports for Minority PopulationsSource:
This chapter provides some questions and answers so that people can see for themselves. Most theories of love predict that, as time goes on, the passion in a relationship will begin to falter. According to the triangular theory of love, passion is the quickest component of a relationship to develop but also the quickest to die down. If they always need the thrill of the early days of a relationship, they may find themselves flitting from one relationship to the next without ever experiencing any deeper satisfaction. A mismatch of stories is not as obvious as disagreement over political beliefs, the desire to have children, or religious affiliation, but it can be just as challenging to a relationship. When people end serious relationships, they often go through a period in which they are just not ready to enter a new relationship.Source:
Attention to the dimensions of culture in restorative justice practices refers to differences among peoples and also to the broader contextual issues including societal prescriptions and the vicissitudes of power, privilege, and oppression that earmark relationships between peoples. The first dimension focuses on issues practitioners must be sensitive to when they are working with people who are different from themselves and different from each other. The second dimension centers on the nature of the crime or wrongdoing, specifically hate crimes and interethnic conflict. The third dimension concentrates on the emerging interest in restorative justice by non-Westernized cultures often located in diverse corners of the world. Paralanguage or other vocal cues, such as hesitations, inflections, silences, loudness of voice, and pace of speaking, also provide ample opportunity for misinterpretation across cultures. Asians and Native Americans will often use many more words to say the same thing as their White colleagues.
The purpose of remembering trauma is to help us get free from the past. The amygdala is a small part of the brain that aids in processing highly charged emotional memories. Trauma memories seem to be encoded differently than regular memories. Memory is a complex topic with many ongoing controversies in the scientific field. Sexual trauma makes an imprint on the psyche that can permeate one’s very being. Holographic reprocessing (HR) involves discovering and exploring personal holograms by working to identify the patterns in our life. These experiences form the basis of limiting or negative beliefs, as well as protective behaviors or coping strategies. Experiential hologram refers to a theme of experiences that emerge and are reenacted in people’s relationships. Trigger is an anxiety response or the activation of the fight, flight, or freeze system in order to mobilize the person to get out of danger.
Murray Bowen Family Systems Theory attempts to explain life and the human phenomenon, rather than specific families. As with many early family therapists, the development of Bowen’s theory grew out of the decision to include family members in the treatment of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Bowen Family Systems Theory is based on the need for intrapersonal and interpersonal balance, with chronic anxiety and differentiation serving as the foundational constructs for the theory. These constructs are opposing: the former causing symptoms and the latter acting as the antidote. Bowen believed that family systems theory was describing life, not merely families, arguing that the constructs of his theory were universal to all genders and cultures. The implication of this belief is that culture-including race, ethnicity, gender, and the specific beliefs, values, and traditions that vary between people-does not matter and does not affect the ability for change to occur in therapy.
Strategic Therapy is a “deceptively simple” approach to relational therapy that centers on a brief, highly focused course of therapy sessions aimed at reducing and eliminating problematic relational interaction patterns that are distressing to clients. This chapter outlines the therapy process from the perspective of Strategic Therapy and discusses its isomorphic relationship to the supervision process. Four philosophical principles on how change occurs in Strategic Therapy are termed “heresies” by Nardone and Watzlawick. These principles are: passing from closed to open theoretical systems; focus on how rather than why; the therapist is responsible; and change comes before insight. Changing behavior creates opportunities for client and therapist alike to observe alternate perspectives on presenting concerns and client responses to troublesome behavior patterns. Ethical issues are important in Strategic Therapy. Supervisees from the Strategic Therapy model are expected to examine their own assumptions, culturally influenced beliefs and behaviors, and reactions.
Michael is a 12-year-old Black male in the seventh grade in a remote rural farm community. He recently relocated to this community from a large metropolitan area, where he was a sixth-grader in a culturally diverse elementary school. He is the oldest of three children with parents who have become pillars in the community despite being new there. Identified as gifted in his previous elementary school, Michael took science and math classes in higher grade levels by single-subject acceleration. He had to work much harder in his language arts classes, but he loved his school and was liked by his peers and teachers.
While Michael’s new school is culturally diverse, the school and community norms for students are different. The emphasis is on community fellowship, service, and helping one’s family. Little is said about college; instead, jobs in agriculture and manufacturing are emphasized. Michael has been invited several times to participate in the 4H club. Upon arriving at his new school, despite providing his previous years’ school records, he is placed in the traditional seventh-grade classes. He complains to his parents that his math and sciences courses are a repeat of information from his previous school. Michael is also encountering difficulties in his language arts classes, which require more traditional essay-writing than his last school did.
In a six-week progress report, Michael’s teachers noted that he seems unengaged and withdrawn in class. His parents believe he has become apathetic about school, and they are worried he might lose his love of math and science. In addition, Michael’s language arts homework frequently leads to anger and frustration at home.
Michael’s parents have requested meetings with his teachers, with the school counselor, Brenda, also attending. Prior to the meeting, she evaluates Michael’s cumulative file. Based on his grades, standardized test scores, and teacher comments, she determines that he is extremely bright and very talented in math and science, but has challenges in language arts and social sciences. His teachers’ comments include “Handwriting continues to be a challenge, but he is working very hard,” “Michael is a very hard worker, but writing paragraphs or persuasive essays requires much more effort,” “He is quick at multiple-choice questions and short-answer questions are okay,” “His reading comprehension is fantastic, but writing brings out frustrations,” and “I realized Michael was much more at ease with oral book reports than written. His love of learning really shines through when he gets to talk about what he knows, in all subjects. He even manages to get his peers interested.”
Brenda makes a phone call to the school counselor at Michael’s former middle school and the elementary school he attended. She hears wonderful things about Michael, as well as about his challenges with written work. Many of his former language-arts teachers allowed Michael to demonstrate his mastery of content and skills orally or via multiple choice or computerized testing. The middle school counselor reported that he and Michael’s parents had discussed talking to their school psychologist about more testing for Michael because they were concerned about the increased requirements for writing in middle school. But that conversation did not lead to changes before the end of the school year, when Michael’s family moved.
Despite the attention paid to diversity and inclusiveness, counselor education programs often overlook the gifted population, resulting in a training gap that complicates school counselors' awareness of—and ability to appropriately respond to—the unique needs of gifted individuals. This book is a complete handbook for understanding and meeting the needs of gifted students and is most useful to counselor educators, school counselors, and parents. It is mostly to inform school counselors and counselor educators about gifted kids as a special population and to offer guidance for responding with appropriate counseling services. The book is organized into thirteen chapters. The first chapter provides an overview on counseling gifted and talented students. The second chapter talks about aligning service to gifted students with the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) national model. The next two chapters discuss the characteristics and concerns of gifted students, and intersectionality of cultures in diverse gifted students. Chapter five presents theories that support programs and services in schools. Chapter six describes the common practices and best practices in identifying gifted and talented learners in schools. Chapter seven examines working with classrooms and small groups. Chapter eight focuses on academic advising and career planning for gifted and talented students. Chapter nine addresses personal/social counseling and mental health concerns. Chapters ten and eleven talks about creating a supportive school climate for gifted students through collaboration, consultation, and systemic change, and empowering parents of gifted students. Chapter twelve presents school counselors as leaders and advocates for gifted students. The final chapter provides brief summaries of the above chapters described in the book.
Hip-hop culture is a strong source of pride for many African Americans because despite the fact that it has international appeal, it is still viewed as an African American cultural art form. This chapter begins by examining the history of hip-hop starting with its original roots in New York City. It then discusses rap music, as one expression of hip-hop, focusing on the roots of the music form, the various genres of rap music, and the differences between mainstream and underground rap. Next, the chapter describes gender, as it applies to rap, in terms of feminism and the place of women in hip-hop. It focuses on positive uses of hip-hop including as a form of resistance and activism, as an educational tool, and in therapy. The chapter concludes with a discussion of how hip-hop can be used to reflect and improve society.
Individuals of diverse cultures suffer from substance use disorders (
SUDs). These individuals and the families that love them face devastating adverse consequences. It is crucial for research to continue to develop best practices and policies that address the public health emergency that exists across all socioeconomic levels, races, genders, cultures, and so on. This chapter highlights the importance of addressing the current public health crisis of substance abuse and SUDswith various population groups from different cultural backgrounds. It emphasizes client-centered practice from an intersectional perspective with a special focus on families. Health practices and policies that decrease disparities in healthcare are important to the well-being of marginalized groups from different cultures. Culture and its impact on perceptions, beliefs, and behaviors of different groups are critical to developing evidence-based treatments for substance abuse that are efficacious.