Grief counseling refers to the interventions counselors make with people recent to a death loss to help facilitate them with the various tasks of mourning. These are people with no apparent bereavement complications. Grief therapy, on the other hand, refers to those techniques and interventions that a professional makes with persons experiencing one of the complications to the mourning process that keeps grief from progressing to an adequate adaptation for the mourner. New information is presented throughout the book and previous information is updated when possible. The world has changed since 1982; there are more traumatic events, drills for school shootings, and faraway events that may cause a child’s current trauma. There is also the emergence of social media and online resources, all easily accessible by smart phones at any time. Bereavement research and services have tried to keep up with these changes. The book presents current information for mental health professionals to be most effective in their interventions with bereaved children, adults, and families. The book is divided into ten chapters. Chapter one discusses attachment, loss, and the experience of grief. The next two chapters delve on mourning process and mediators of mourning. Chapter four describes grief counseling. Chapter five explores abnormal grief reactions. Chapter six discusses grief therapy. Chapter seven deals with grieving for special types of losses including suicide, violent deaths, sudden infant death syndrome, miscarriages, stillbirths and abortion. Chapter eight discusses how family dynamics can hinder adequate grieving. Chapter nine explores the counselor’s own grief. The concluding chapter presents training for grief counseling.
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This book incorporates an inclusive representation of women and girls across ages and cultures by examining the intersection of their identities and integrating experiences of women and girls around the world. The overarching themes of the book include an examination of the contextual elements that affect the female experience and a focus on prevention and intervention strategies to support the empowerment of women and girls throughout their life spans. The first section of the book provides a foundation for the book and offers a context for understanding gender socialization and the female experience. This section includes chapters introducing empowerment feminist therapy, gender socialization, intersectionality, and relational-cultural theory. The second section offers detailed information on developmental issues and counseling interventions for women and girls throughout their life spans. Chapters focusing on gender identity development, childhood, adolescence and young adulthood, and middle and older adulthood are included in this section. The third section provides an in-depth look at specific issues affecting women and girls and includes relevant background information and practical application for counselors. In this concluding section, readers will learn about violence against women and girls, educational and work environments, females and their bodies, and engaging men as allies. Each chapter includes helpful resources to further educate yourself and others, as well as practical suggestions for advocacy efforts that can help create social change. Prevention and empowerment are key themes and foci of the book, and counseling implications and interventions are offered for each area of concentration.
This chapter makes a distinction between grief counseling and grief therapy. Counseling involves helping people facilitate uncomplicated, or normal, grief toward a healthy adaptation to the tasks of mourning within a reasonable time frame. The chapter reserves the term grief therapy for those specialized techniques that are used to help people with abnormal or complicated grief reactions. The overall goal of grief counseling is to help the survivor adapt to the loss of a loved one and be able to adjust to a new reality without him or her. Whatever one’s philosophy of grief counseling and whatever the setting, there are certain principles and procedures that help make grief counseling effective. The chapter provides guidelines for the counselor so that he or she can help the client work through an acute grief situation and come to a good adaptation.
Childhood bereavement support is provided by a variety of professionals including chaplains, social workers, mental health counselors, psychologists, child life specialists, nurses, school counselors, thanatologists, and educators. This chapter discusses the issue of professional accountability and ethical considerations when working with bereaved children and their families in order to offer a framework for standards for this important type of support. It is not enough to solely provide orientation training to volunteers, it is also important to offer continued training for both new and existing volunteers. Organizations that provide support to bereaved children should establish written, agreed upon standards of practice to which program staff and volunteers are held accountable. The parent or legal guardian of children attending individual support, peer support groups, or grief camps should be provided a clear description of services being provided. Services provided should fit within the mission, vision, and values of the organization.
Professional competence refers to our ability to perform effectively within our professional role. As counselors, we are required to remain aware of our professional strengths and weaknesses and respond accordingly when counseling situations fall outside of our ability to be effective. Professional competence involves working with client populations for which we have been properly trained, maintaining training and education throughout our careers, and identifying and addressing personal experiences or internal problems that can affect our ability to be effective counselors. In this chapter, authors cover what it means to be professionally competent, how to recognize when we are exceeding boundaries of competence, and how to maintain competence throughout a professional career. Professional competence includes a host of complex situations and variables. Much of the research and writings on the topic of competence focuses on multicultural competence. Understanding individual differences in our client population is essential for maintaining professional competence.
This book provides both counselors in training and established counselors the tools needed to make sound ethical decisions. It integrates a comprehensive review of ethical standards and guidelines by two major professional governing bodies in psychology: the Ethical Principles for Psychologists and Code of Conduct of the American Psychological Association (APA), and the Code of Ethics of the American Counseling Association (ACA). The book focuses on engaging the reader in critically thinking through the intersections of legal requirements and ethics codes. It integrates critical self-reflection and identifies variables that would place a counselor at risk. The book is organized into four parts. Part one provides an overview of the topics discussed in the book. Part two reviews typical ethical issues that counselors encounter in practice relating to confidentiality, professional boundaries, and professional competence. Part three analyzes ethical dilemmas that may arise given the changing face of technology and the country’s demographics relating to culturally competent treatment, managing social media, and confronting colleagues and other sticky situations. The final part focuses on recommendations for counselors to continue sound ethical decisions. The book is designed for counselors-in-training or engaged in externships and practicums. They include master’s level students in counseling psychology, clinical psychology, and mental health programs; doctoral students; predoctoral students on internship; and students enrolled in programs with dual degrees. It is also for established counselors who must remain abreast of changing standards and issues affecting clinical practice, such as those related to social media and technology, for postdoctoral counselors working toward licensure, and for undergraduate-level students who are training to become Credentialed Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Counselor (CASAC).
Confidentiality refers to the protection from unauthorized disclosure of information shared between a counselor and her or his client. Confidentiality is an ethical duty that is informed by ethical codes and standards in the American Psychological Association (APA) and the American Counseling Association (ACA). This chapter covers the importance of protecting clients’ privacy and confidentiality in order for the therapeutic relationship to flourish. However, authors went over gray areas that pose dilemmas for counselors: (a) how to ethically provide information for your clients and when to do so, (b) how to protect client information from unauthorized third parties, and (c) what are the limits to confidentiality. Although we did not go over every code of ethics that discusses confidentiality, it is clear that one must reference multiple codes, even within one set of guidelines, in order to make an ethical decision regarding confidentiality.
This chapter reviews multiple vignettes that provide examples of complex ethical dilemmas involving client and colleagues. It focuses on three specific gray areas that pose dilemmas for counselors. First, and perhaps one of the greatest dilemmas, is how to tell the difference between actions that can be addressed informally vs. actions that require reporting to ethics committees. While discussing the importance of addressing colleagues’ behaviors, it is essential to develop the ability to receive feedback ourselves. Therefore, two additional gray areas arise. First, how do we proceed when workplace rules seem to differ from our code of conduct? Second, how should we proceed if the counselor engaging in unethical behavior is a supervisor or someone in a leadership position? The chapter reviews each of these gray areas and walk through how the American Psychological Association (APA) and the American Counseling Association (ACA) can guide sound ethical decisions.
This book deals with a number of issues and strategies for counseling people with disabilities. It allows counselors and other related health professionals to learn from the writings of 16 people with disabilities across North America. The book provides information on how other professional disciplines perceive and are trained to view disability. It discusses the medical and psychosocial aspects of caregiving in the country and highlights some of the most difficult decisions individuals and families may have to make in this process. The book is organized into four parts containing sixteen chapters. Part I explores disability from a sociological perspective. The topics covered are: the history of how people with disabilities have been viewed and treated in society; attitude formation, societal attitudes, and myths about disabilities; culturally different issues and attitudes toward disability; and attitudes toward disability by specific special interest and occupational groups. Part II focuses on the psychology of disability surrounding the individual and his or her family. The topics address: theories of adjustment to disability by the individual; family adaptation across cultures toward a loved one who is disabled; sexuality and disability; and the psychosocial world of the injured worker. Part III addresses pertinent topics concerning psychosocial issues of disability. The topics include: disability and quality of life over the life span; implications of social support and caregiving of loved ones with a disability; and thriving versus succumbing to disability: psychosocial factors and positive psychology. Part IV addresses counseling strategies and insights for working with persons with disabilities. The topics discuss: which counseling theories and techniques work best with different disability populations and why; social justice, oppression, and disability; counseling families in the community; ethical responsibilities in working with persons with disabilities and our duty to educate; and basic dos and don’ts in counseling persons with disabilities.
- Go to chapter: Ethical Responsibilities in Working With People With Disabilities and Our Duty to Educate
The topic of ethics is vast and impossible to cover comprehensively in any single work. This chapter presents some of the relevant and controversial topics in this arena. It focuses on common ethical dilemmas, factors that influence counselor ethics, counselor competence, and current and debated ethical issues. Some ethical dilemmas seem inherent in the counseling process and are as likely to be encountered in the present day as they were in earlier generations. Others occur due to societal advancements and trends, new technologies, or catastrophic events or diseases that lead to increases in prejudice and discrimination. The chapter covers current and debated ethical issues related to AIDS/HIV and duty to warn self-injuring clients, biotechnology advances, wrongful birth and wrongful life actions, decisions related to choosing disability, ethics and private sector rehabilitation, online and Internet counseling, end-of-life counseling, and assisted suicide.