Grief counseling refers to the interventions counselors make with people recent to a death loss to help facilitate them with the various tasks of mourning. These are people with no apparent bereavement complications. Grief therapy, on the other hand, refers to those techniques and interventions that a professional makes with persons experiencing one of the complications to the mourning process that keeps grief from progressing to an adequate adaptation for the mourner. New information is presented throughout the book and previous information is updated when possible. The world has changed since 1982; there are more traumatic events, drills for school shootings, and faraway events that may cause a child’s current trauma. There is also the emergence of social media and online resources, all easily accessible by smart phones at any time. Bereavement research and services have tried to keep up with these changes. The book presents current information for mental health professionals to be most effective in their interventions with bereaved children, adults, and families. The book is divided into ten chapters. Chapter one discusses attachment, loss, and the experience of grief. The next two chapters delve on mourning process and mediators of mourning. Chapter four describes grief counseling. Chapter five explores abnormal grief reactions. Chapter six discusses grief therapy. Chapter seven deals with grieving for special types of losses including suicide, violent deaths, sudden infant death syndrome, miscarriages, stillbirths and abortion. Chapter eight discusses how family dynamics can hinder adequate grieving. Chapter nine explores the counselor’s own grief. The concluding chapter presents training for grief counseling.
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This book incorporates an inclusive representation of women and girls across ages and cultures by examining the intersection of their identities and integrating experiences of women and girls around the world. The overarching themes of the book include an examination of the contextual elements that affect the female experience and a focus on prevention and intervention strategies to support the empowerment of women and girls throughout their life spans. The first section of the book provides a foundation for the book and offers a context for understanding gender socialization and the female experience. This section includes chapters introducing empowerment feminist therapy, gender socialization, intersectionality, and relational-cultural theory. The second section offers detailed information on developmental issues and counseling interventions for women and girls throughout their life spans. Chapters focusing on gender identity development, childhood, adolescence and young adulthood, and middle and older adulthood are included in this section. The third section provides an in-depth look at specific issues affecting women and girls and includes relevant background information and practical application for counselors. In this concluding section, readers will learn about violence against women and girls, educational and work environments, females and their bodies, and engaging men as allies. Each chapter includes helpful resources to further educate yourself and others, as well as practical suggestions for advocacy efforts that can help create social change. Prevention and empowerment are key themes and foci of the book, and counseling implications and interventions are offered for each area of concentration.
Advocacy is key for the clinical mental health counseling profession. Clinical mental health counselor advocates (
CMHCAs) rely on the advocacy competencies to guide their assistance to clients in removing barriers and to secure deserving resources, or to advocate on behalf of clients, groups, or communities. This chapter addresses the importance of advocacy and social justice advocacy, and the strategic positionality of the clinical mental health counselor as an advocate for addressing social and institutional barriers that reduce client access, equity, and success. It identifies the advocacy competencies and approaches to advocate for clients care, and emphasizes the ways that they foster resilience and growth. Specific cases illustrate clients' and professionals' understandings of and access to a variety of community-based resources. The chapter also addresses strategies to advocate for the profession and for clinical mental health counseling professionals.
This chapter sheds light on how the managed care system works as well as the counselor's role in managed care and the importance of advocacy and issues related to payment and reimbursement. It offers a starting point to understand the system, and counselors must continue to seek more resources, join organizations and build networks with other counselors and change makers to become active members of the professional community. Managed care is an integral part of the healthcare system, and it is imperative for counselors to be able to understand the system in order to navigate it better. Counselors can anticipate the issues that are related to cost and payments and can provide more efficient service to the clients, if they understand how managed care system operates. The chapter demystifies the issues of payment for counseling services, specifically third-party billing, managed care, medical assistance programs, and other issues therein.
The practice of professional counseling is governed at the national and state levels by a variety of governing boards and regulatory agencies. This chapter focuses on the legal and ethical issues that are salient to clinical mental health counselors. Specifically, it discusses the American Counseling Association (
ACA) Code of Ethics, the American Mental Health Counselors Association ( AMHCA) Code of Ethics, state licensure and national certification, confidentiality, mandated reporting, duty to warn, and scope of practice. The chapter also focuses on the responsibility of counselors to engage in ethically based practice. In addition, the chapter connects the ACAand AMCHAethical codes and the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs standards to several topics in ethical practice, including values clarification, bias assessment, boundary awareness and maintenance, and self-reflection. The chapter concludes with a case scenario to illustrate chapter concepts and a section on resources to provide further information.
- Go to chapter: A Context for Understanding and Beginning the Practice of Clinical Mental Health Counseling
It is important for beginning Clinical Mental Health Counseling (
CMHC) students to understand that their engagement in the CMHCspecialty is one part of the larger professional counseling framework. This chapter provides a historical overview of the counseling profession and its developmental trajectory, emphasizing the origins of mental health treatment and the reemergence of counseling as a wellness-based approach. It offers discussion concerning the push toward a pathogenic model of conceptualizing mental illness and the subsequent, current resurgence of a strength-based notion of care. The chapter provides an overview of the major theories of counseling as a means for understanding the development of counseling as a unique and separate field from psychology, psychiatry, and social work. It identifies the specializations within the counseling field, the range of employment opportunities and the current labor market, and how counseling is integrated within a system-of-care approach.
This chapter makes a distinction between grief counseling and grief therapy. Counseling involves helping people facilitate uncomplicated, or normal, grief toward a healthy adaptation to the tasks of mourning within a reasonable time frame. The chapter reserves the term grief therapy for those specialized techniques that are used to help people with abnormal or complicated grief reactions. The overall goal of grief counseling is to help the survivor adapt to the loss of a loved one and be able to adjust to a new reality without him or her. Whatever one’s philosophy of grief counseling and whatever the setting, there are certain principles and procedures that help make grief counseling effective. The chapter provides guidelines for the counselor so that he or she can help the client work through an acute grief situation and come to a good adaptation.
Michael is a 12-year-old Black male in the seventh grade in a remote rural farm community. He recently relocated to this community from a large metropolitan area, where he was a sixth-grader in a culturally diverse elementary school. He is the oldest of three children with parents who have become pillars in the community despite being new there. Identified as gifted in his previous elementary school, Michael took science and math classes in higher grade levels by single-subject acceleration. He had to work much harder in his language arts classes, but he loved his school and was liked by his peers and teachers.
While Michael’s new school is culturally diverse, the school and community norms for students are different. The emphasis is on community fellowship, service, and helping one’s family. Little is said about college; instead, jobs in agriculture and manufacturing are emphasized. Michael has been invited several times to participate in the 4H club. Upon arriving at his new school, despite providing his previous years’ school records, he is placed in the traditional seventh-grade classes. He complains to his parents that his math and sciences courses are a repeat of information from his previous school. Michael is also encountering difficulties in his language arts classes, which require more traditional essay-writing than his last school did.
In a six-week progress report, Michael’s teachers noted that he seems unengaged and withdrawn in class. His parents believe he has become apathetic about school, and they are worried he might lose his love of math and science. In addition, Michael’s language arts homework frequently leads to anger and frustration at home.
Michael’s parents have requested meetings with his teachers, with the school counselor, Brenda, also attending. Prior to the meeting, she evaluates Michael’s cumulative file. Based on his grades, standardized test scores, and teacher comments, she determines that he is extremely bright and very talented in math and science, but has challenges in language arts and social sciences. His teachers’ comments include “Handwriting continues to be a challenge, but he is working very hard,” “Michael is a very hard worker, but writing paragraphs or persuasive essays requires much more effort,” “He is quick at multiple-choice questions and short-answer questions are okay,” “His reading comprehension is fantastic, but writing brings out frustrations,” and “I realized Michael was much more at ease with oral book reports than written. His love of learning really shines through when he gets to talk about what he knows, in all subjects. He even manages to get his peers interested.”
Brenda makes a phone call to the school counselor at Michael’s former middle school and the elementary school he attended. She hears wonderful things about Michael, as well as about his challenges with written work. Many of his former language-arts teachers allowed Michael to demonstrate his mastery of content and skills orally or via multiple choice or computerized testing. The middle school counselor reported that he and Michael’s parents had discussed talking to their school psychologist about more testing for Michael because they were concerned about the increased requirements for writing in middle school. But that conversation did not lead to changes before the end of the school year, when Michael’s family moved.
To set the stage for what counselors need to know, this chapter introduces the reader to an overview of theories that lay a foundation for working with adult clients. It provides a discussion of theoretical perspectives that relate to both individual development and contextual factors. To capture this intersection of influence, the chapter highlights Erikson’s (1950, 1963) psychosocial stage model, along with contextual and life span perspectives of adult development. It introduces the transition perspective, delving into the transition process itself. Adults face times that are increasingly challenging. A central theme in our current social context is change, reflecting the dynamic impact of forces across demographic, social, cultural, technological, political, and historical domains. A theory is a set of abstract principles that can be used to predict facts and to organize them within a particular body of knowledge.
Despite the attention paid to diversity and inclusiveness, counselor education programs often overlook the gifted population, resulting in a training gap that complicates school counselors' awareness of—and ability to appropriately respond to—the unique needs of gifted individuals. This book is a complete handbook for understanding and meeting the needs of gifted students and is most useful to counselor educators, school counselors, and parents. It is mostly to inform school counselors and counselor educators about gifted kids as a special population and to offer guidance for responding with appropriate counseling services. The book is organized into thirteen chapters. The first chapter provides an overview on counseling gifted and talented students. The second chapter talks about aligning service to gifted students with the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) national model. The next two chapters discuss the characteristics and concerns of gifted students, and intersectionality of cultures in diverse gifted students. Chapter five presents theories that support programs and services in schools. Chapter six describes the common practices and best practices in identifying gifted and talented learners in schools. Chapter seven examines working with classrooms and small groups. Chapter eight focuses on academic advising and career planning for gifted and talented students. Chapter nine addresses personal/social counseling and mental health concerns. Chapters ten and eleven talks about creating a supportive school climate for gifted students through collaboration, consultation, and systemic change, and empowering parents of gifted students. Chapter twelve presents school counselors as leaders and advocates for gifted students. The final chapter provides brief summaries of the above chapters described in the book.
In a rural school district, Abby is responsible for creating and delivering gifted-education programming across all school levels. She wants to develop a comprehensive K–12 affective curriculum for it. Though the majority of students are from middle-class families, others come from families that are struggling economically due to unemployment, military deployment, parental incarceration, single parenting, and addictions. Teachers and administrators are concerned about student well-being. Bullying has been a school concern, and the community has been shocked by three student suicides among the “best and brightest” over the past 2 years. Abby believes that attention to the social and emotional development of gifted students during all school years might make a difference. She wants to collaborate with Jack, the one K–12 school counselor, in possibly cofacilitating two proactive small discussion groups of gifted students. She wants to observe his listening and responding skills and share information with him about giftedness. In the past, Jack has not thought of organizing small groups for gifted students, but agrees to the collaboration. He says they should conduct a needs assessment among students identified as gifted and organize a group of high achievers around a common concern, such as bullying or bereavement—an approach he used in the past with the general population. Abby has something different in mind, but is hesitant to advocate for her view, since group work is in Jack’s “territory.” After she learns some skills from Jack, she wants all identified students to have a small-group experience at some point. She also understands that programming should address needs of more than just high achievers, including highly intelligent academic underachievers, who currently are not viewed as eligible for it. Abby needs to have a clear rationale for both the group format and mixing achievers and underachievers in the groups before she talks with the counselor again.
Samantha has been the middle school counselor in a small rural district in the Midwest for the past 3 years. She has spent most of her time in program development and building relationships with students, parents, staff, and community partners. Currently, she is working with community and district administrators to increase access to Internet and other technology in her building for more program options; unfortunately, the district’s increasingly tight budget precludes upgrades to current systems. As the academic year comes to a close, she talks with Rachel, a veteran teacher with considerable experience in differentiation. Rachel is concerned about some of her math students. By year’s end, due to her differentiated curriculum, at least seven will have completed Algebra 1, the most advanced math class at the school. Rachel wonders what can be planned for them for next year. A few parents have expressed concerns about future classes as these students progress. She asks to meet with Samantha about this situation.
An experienced, progressive superintendent is new to a large school district, and at her first meeting with all teachers, she describes ambitious goals, one of which is to reconceptualize and reorganize the program for gifted students. She wisely does not speak negatively of the present program; instead, she explains that an administrative transition is simply an opportunity to look at existing programs. Regarding gifted education, she wants to examine current thought in the field about giftedness, what residents in the district think about those perspectives, whether criteria used for identification of eligible students in the district match the programming offered, which programming models are available, which kinds of goals might be appropriate for local programming, which community resources might supplement and enhance programming, and whether the “whole” gifted child is adequately attended to.
The district she left had experienced individual and family tragedies and disturbing student behavior in recent years involving gifted scholars, gifted athletes, gifted musicians, gifted visual artists, gifted leaders, and gifted underachievers. She says she has already begun her own personal exploration of pertinent literature, and she wants the district to be proactive and strategic regarding preventing poor outcomes for gifted and talented students—at all school levels, beginning at the elementary level. She promises to organize a task force of representative classroom teachers, school counselors, gifted-education personnel, parents, and possibly students to study pertinent literature, explore various models, and make recommendations. She encourages individuals interested in being on the task force to contact her.
Ben, a middle school counselor, immediately expresses interest. He has been frustrated with not being able to connect adequately with some gifted students who have concerns—both high and low achievers. He was always a high achiever himself, but he has realized that gifted students are highly idiosyncratic, with many not fitting common stereotypes. He wants to understand them better and help them understand themselves better as well. He is glad the superintendent seems interested in their well-being, not just their academic performance.
Ben suspects there are many counseling needs in this population, but he has never heard a local or state counseling peer refer to these needs at professional meetings. He also has wondered about the identification process and the fit of his most complicated gifted counselees with the current programming. In fact, he has met with brilliant thinkers who have not been deemed eligible and assumes that learning disabilities affect the test scores used for screening. Last, since he has worked with a number of referred gifted underachievers, he has wondered which kind of program would engage them in school and academics—and even whether academic achievement should be the sole goal.
Ben believes that being on the task force, if he is selected, will be informative and helpful as he considers how to be more effective with this special population. In fact, he is selected. The superintendent is wise to include a counselor on the task force.
Tosha and Erik are the two school counselors in a large suburban elementary school. For 5 years, they have worked to create a school counseling program aligned with their state’s framework, which was developed with the
ASCANational Model in mind. This year, they are hosting a school counseling intern, Tony, from a program in the school of education at a local university. Although the school counselors are grateful to have an intern with fresh eyes and new ideas, they wonder whether the supervision will require too much time and divert their attention from the report they must write prior to a visit by the state department of education later in the year. At the initial interview, Tosha and Erik learn that because Tony had already had several education classes, his program advisor suggested that he take some electives in areas of interest. During his student-teaching experience, he had been intrigued by creative and artistic students and therefore opted to take a few courses in gifted education. He is excited to be working with Tosha and Eric and wants to know if he might work with gifted students and find out how the gifted-education program is currently serving them.
This concluding chapter presents brief summaries of the chapters of the book. The chapters in the book have covered a wide range of theories, concerns, and perspectives. Chapter content has implications for policy and practice. School professionals can incorporate the information and recommendations in them into their current services to ensure that gifted students receive needed support. School counselors respond every day to students who feel different, perhaps painfully different, from those around them—at home, at school, or in the community. Those counselors are distinguished in the school context by rare skills and perspectives that can be used to help gifted students make sense of themselves, value their differentness, and embrace their complex feelings and sometimes perplexing behaviors. Change can happen in either direction because of life events or circumstances. Moving out of impasse and accomplishing developmental tasks can contribute to increased motivation for underachievers.
Groups have been around since the beginning of humankind and across all cultures. People have historically gathered into groups to create, achieve, and resolve matters that would be otherwise impossible. Besides the potential to accomplish tasks, groups are sources of meaning and belonging, meeting needs for personal contact and interaction. This chapter focuses on group counseling as a useful modality for facilitating transition work with clients. Groups are complex, requiring counselors to combine individual counseling and group-leadership skills. It begins with some general information about the unique value of groups and discusses factors that are relevant to group work, including therapeutic factors, cultural diversity, and multicultural competencies. It also illustrates the different types of groups designed for adults who are experiencing various types of transitions. The chapter turns to an examination of the value of groups in helping people assess their assets and liabilities in each of 4 S areas.
- Go to chapter: Identifying Gifted and Talented Learners in Schools: Common Practices and Best Practices
Ben, the middle school counselor from Chapter 5, continues to work with the district’s task force. There, he also meets Julie the district’s coordinator of gifted and talented services. Based on the superintendent’s concerns, Julie wants to re-imagine the district’s identification and programming for gifted youth. Ben’s experiences have given Julie new insights into potential roles of school counselors when working with high-ability learners and their parents. Julie was particularly drawn to Ben’s discussions of talking with parents about why their students were not identified. Ben’s frustrations with the gifted services have also included the pervasive mythology that the program is a “cookie” program used as a reward for “good” students with “good” behavior and even better grades—a myth that disenfranchises diverse populations in the school district, including underachieving students, and doesn’t accurately identity those students who may need services. Historically, because the district has implemented identification procedures in third grade, Julie has contacted several of the elementary school counselors in her district to get their perspectives. She is surprised by the range of their knowledge about identification and the degree of the school counselors’ involvement in this process. While Ben has informed her that all practicing school counselors have training in testing and assessment, not all have connected this with identification practices for gifted learners—until they meet with their first parent.
School counselors collaborate, consult, and coordinate resources. They partner with community agencies, empower parents and families, advocate for students, and are probably part of the leadership team in their schools. Every day school counselors probably make lists of tasks that must be accomplished and then prioritize those according to level of urgency. When prioritizing student needs, the needs of gifted students may not rise to the top in the mind of the school counselor. Most educators equate "gifted" with high-achieving, perfectionistic, perhaps slightly eccentric students who have helicopter parents. School counselors work with gifted students regularly. These students come with a variety of different concerns ranging from typical developmental needs to mental health concerns that warrant immediate attention and service. While gifted students are no more or less likely to experience concerns tied to mental health, they do experience the world differently by nature of being gifted.
As best friends in a small Midwestern town, Jon and Stephen, both extremely bright and inquisitive, often talked with each other about their dreams of jobs they would have as adults. Throughout childhood, made alive through imaginative play, their wide-ranging ideas about careers were inspired largely by television and movie characters. They were enthralled with the idea of “special powers” to save the universe, but soon realized that “superhero” wasn’t a career. A few years later, they considered becoming crime scene investigators, lawyers, emergency room doctors, and, briefly, even astronauts. Jon and Stephen were inseparable and were regarded by the elementary school’s Gifted and Talented (G/T) coordinator as the most academically advanced students in her memory. They loved to learn, had vivid imaginations, and inspired their classmates and each other to “dream big” about the future. They were big fish in a little pond (e.g., Marsh, 1987; Salchegger, 2016).
Then Jon’s family relocated to an affluent suburban neighborhood on the West Coast after his father took a position in Silicon Valley. Jon, in middle school, had to adjust to a new set of expectations and found the adjustment quite challenging—in fact, far more so than he had imagined. Surrounded by a large group of intense and extremely driven students, who all seemed to aspire to top-tier universities, and struck by the harsh realization that he was no longer one of the very best students, Jon now felt as if he were a fish out of water. He was plagued with self-doubt about his abilities and future educational and career prospects. Compared to the other students, who had long positioned themselves to earn coveted spots in the local
STEM-oriented magnet high school, Jon felt inadequately prepared to compete and felt his excitement for learning fading quickly. Once a confident and enthusiastic student, Jon was immobilized by his fear of making mistakes, especially in the presence of his new peers, and he began to retreat from others both at school and at home. He had difficulty dealing with even minor setbacks and grew to resent the students who seemed ambitious and competitive. Adopting a defensive posture, Jon downplayed the importance of thinking about future goals; in his own words, it was “stupid” to worry too much about college and career. Although he generally maintained respectable grades (mainly to make his parents happy and to keep their anxieties at bay), he refused to take the most challenging courses at school and stopped taking academic risks. Since he was getting mostly As and Bs and an occasional C on his report card, Jon’s parents were not alarmed by the changes in his behavior and failed to notice that he had turned away from learning. His academic self-concept had taken a major hit.
In contrast to Jon, Stephen remained in the same small Midwestern school district for the remainder of his precollege years and continued to feel passionate—about everything! Stephen’s parents encouraged him to indulge his intellectual curiosity and explore every subject that captured his interest. But Stephen had difficulty narrowing his interests for the sake of establishing career direction. When he was first exposed to chemistry, for instance, he quickly memorized the periodic table and spent many nights at the dinner table teaching his younger brother everything he had learned about each element. Later, when introduced to physics, he could hardly contain his excitement about quantum field theory, cosmic inflation, fluid dynamics, and a host of other topics. Of course, he also loved math and was eager to learn computer languages. Adept not only in
STEMsubjects, Stephen also excelled in and enjoyed writing, history, and politics. However, because the school district was small and lacked resources, he often learned advanced content on his own by reading books and searching the Internet. The local public high school he attended offered few Advanced Placement ( AP) courses, and school officials believed they could not justify offering additional APcourses just for him. Without his friend Jon, he had no intellectual peer with whom he could share ideas and interact meaningfully. As his precollege years progressed, Stephen did not gain sufficient clarity about educational and career direction to focus his efforts on developing any particular interest to a high level outside of the classroom.
Childhood bereavement support is provided by a variety of professionals including chaplains, social workers, mental health counselors, psychologists, child life specialists, nurses, school counselors, thanatologists, and educators. This chapter discusses the issue of professional accountability and ethical considerations when working with bereaved children and their families in order to offer a framework for standards for this important type of support. It is not enough to solely provide orientation training to volunteers, it is also important to offer continued training for both new and existing volunteers. Organizations that provide support to bereaved children should establish written, agreed upon standards of practice to which program staff and volunteers are held accountable. The parent or legal guardian of children attending individual support, peer support groups, or grief camps should be provided a clear description of services being provided. Services provided should fit within the mission, vision, and values of the organization.
- Go to chapter: Collaboration, Consultation, and Systemic Change: Creating a Supportive School Climate for Gifted Students
Collaboration, Consultation, and Systemic Change: Creating a Supportive School Climate for Gifted Students
Stewart and Tray are the seventh- and eighth-grade school counselors in a new middle school in a large urban district with a diverse student population. Wintercrest Middle School has been a magnet school for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (
STEM) for only 3 years. Currently students can take Algebra I, Geometry, Honors Biology, and semester classes in Advanced Computing, Introduction to Physics, Robotics, and Trigonometry. Logistically, the magnet school functions as a school within a school, with students attending classes in one wing of the school building. Teachers and students who are not involved in the magnet school are located in two other wings on the opposite side of the school. During the past school year, Tray and Stewart have sensed tensions in the school in various relationships, including within, between, and among teams of teachers, between parents and teachers, among students, and between administrators and teachers. Mr. Wallace, their building principal, has seen the explosive outcomes of some of these tensions and has encouraged the counselors to investigate the current school climate.
Angela was extremely excited to begin school as a kindergarten student and was matched with a supportive teacher for her first year in the rural community in which her family lived. She was lively and talkative around adults, and her parents worked hard to find opportunities for Angela to connect with kids her own age. However, in their small community there were limited possibilities for connection, and Angela often retreated physically behind her parents in public.
During the first parent–teacher conference for Angela, her parents were surprised at the teacher’s observations that Angela was reading well beyond the level of her peers. Not knowing many other children with whom to compare Angela’s abilities, they had assumed she was on par with most other kids her age. While there were no services available in their school system until the third grade, the kindergarten teacher remarked that the Lees might want to look into additional enrichment opportunities for Angela elsewhere. However, the teacher was eager to provide additional reading opportunities. Because reading was one of Angela’s favorite activities, this arrangement seemed to be a good fit.
It was during Angela’s third-grade year that challenges began for her at school. She often came home upset that she was reprimanded at school, and she rarely talked about positive interactions with her peers. She shared with her parents that she did not have much in common with many of the girls in her class, and that they often teased her about her friendship with a boy in the class they all thought was “weird.” This social tension was exacerbated when she was reprimanded for not showing her work in math class. She expressed her frustration with “Why do I need to write out all the steps for something when I just know the answer!” A friend of Angela’s parents worked in the school Angela attended and shared with them that contacting the school counselor might be the best next step.
Counseling adults in transition is an exciting and challenging job that gives us an opportunity to function at many different levels. Advocacy, consulting, and program development are three ways that one can assist the clients with their transitions–through changing the situation, enhancing their sense of self, developing more supports, and increasing the strategies available to them. Some counselors now work in the corporate world, and others are community organizers; some counselors design programs in colleges and universities, whereas others develop workshops for senior centers; some walk the halls of legislatures as lobbyists, whereas still others talk about mental health on talk shows, on their own or others’ blogs, on twitter, or other internet sites and social media. This chapter talks about a variety of ways counselors can do these things, including consulting, developing programs, and advocacy.
This chapter reviews the current scope of practice in rehabilitation counseling and the impact that counselor licensure legislation has on the field concerning eligibility for counselor licensure and becoming an independent rehabilitation practitioner. It defines the foundational skills and scope of practice required for effective, competent, and ethical rehabilitation counseling practice. The chapter explains a psychosocial model for rehabilitation counselors (RCs) who want to structure therapeutic interactions with clients who have chronic illnesses and disabilities. The counselor uses the counseling relationship to help clients draw from their personal history, knowledge, coping abilities, resiliency skills, and overall life experiences to derive meaning. Counselors across a variety of work settings and theoretical orientations must be proficient, competent, and ethical in working with a range of people with disabilities who may be culturally different. There are both universal and specific counseling approaches, programs, and services used during therapeutic interactions for people with disabilities.
- Go to chapter: Developmental Theorists and Other Considerations Used When Counseling Children and Adolescents
Developmental considerations provide great implications for counselors. Development follows a path that is continuously impacted by systemic, relational, and multicultural influences. These influences impact how children make sense out of and act in response to critical life circumstances. Incorporating a developmental perspective when counseling children and adolescents and aiding them in successfully mastering tasks at various developmental milestones continues to be a core and essential component of counseling. Children’s level of development effects how they respond to creative and time-efficient counseling strategies, interventions, and modalities. This chapter identifies the relationship between social, emotional, and mental health maturation with child and adolescent development. It demonstrates a comprehensive understanding of how developmental theory frameworks inform crafting and integrating client-centered counseling interventions, strategies, and best practice methods. The chapter develops an awareness of counseling implications when working with children with diverse developmental histories.
Trauma work with children and adolescents remains challenging on all levels and becomes increasingly complex when violence permeates various domains of life. Counselors must also consider the reciprocal relationships between trauma and neurological, psychological, social, cultural, and systemic factors that alleviate or exacerbate the experience of trauma. Early identification, assessment, and intervention remain critical components of trauma recovery. The inclusion of trauma-informed interventions such as emotional awareness and regulation, as well as mindfulness skills can help children and adolescents diminish symptoms that overwhelm internal coping mechanisms. This chapter helps readers to distinguish the complexity and range of trauma experienced by children, identify the neurobiological, social, psychological, and academic impact of trauma causing events on children, and recognize various trauma-informed and creative interventions when working with children and adolescent clients, as well as important considerations for school counselors.
Rehabilitation counseling concepts and models have evolved progressively over the last century. This chapter describes fundamental philosophical values that characterize rehabilitation counselors (RCs) and how they approach their work. It discusses four traditional models or conceptual frameworks of disability namely, moral model, medical model, labor market economic model and ecological model. The chapter also explains four newer models such as social model, disability culture model, technology model and consumer economic model that propose alternative interpretations and responses to the stimuli that disabilities represent. An asset-oriented approach or strengths-based orientation of uncovering and exploiting the positive aspects in both the person and the situation is the widely endorsed current expectation for RCs. The interdisciplinary team has been a primary model for the delivery of comprehensive rehabilitation services, especially in large clinical settings. RCs who work in vocational programs have an essential partner in employers, sometimes called the “second client”.
This chapter addresses the most significant areas of knowledge for rehabilitation counselor (RC) competencies-general scope of use of technology, counselor and client competencies, assistive technology, distance education, and the future role of technology in the field. Although high and low technology advances hold the potential of a better quality of life (QOL) for people with disabilities, technological access to those individuals with physical, mental, and cognitive functional differences continues to lag behind that of the general population. The first legal mention of assistive technology devices or services is found in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 1990). The individuals involved in the provision of assistive technology are considered to be from a multidisciplinary profession. There are a number of technologies holding promise for the future that may have profound effects on the field of assistive technology. Self-driving vehicles may be the most dramatic of these developments.
- Go to chapter: Completing the Practicum/Internship and Preparing for the Future as a Professional Counselor
Because future practicum and internship placements depend on the willingness of the field placement site, it is important that one should always be mindful of how one should complete the final internship placement. Ideally, besides completing all internship requirements, one will express their gratitude to the field site supervisor and colleagues in the school, agency and so forth, in addition to saying goodbye to the clients. A job search involves many facets: planning, résumé writing, mock interviewing, applying, interviewing, following up, dealing with rejection, entertaining an offer, accepting a job, and negotiating salary, to name a few. This chapter is devoted to completing the practicum/internship sequence and preparing for the job search. It addresses termination of the field supervisor–intern relationship. It also covers preparing for the job search, including preparing a résumé or curriculum vitae, letters of reference, cover letters, interviewing, and issues of licensure and credentialing.
The practicum and internship experience is the backbone of any counseling program. Beginning a practicum/internship represents a major step in our development as a counselor. The goal of this book is to provide orientation and guidance to help us successfully navigate our field placements. This chapter first discusses various general issues regarding the counseling profession itself; then, it offers a brief overview of the practicum/internship process. It reviews some basics of the counseling profession. The chapter briefly describes some of the key organizations that one will likely encounter as a student or over the course of our professional career. It provides brief introduction to the counseling profession, professional counseling organizations, licensure and certification, theoretical approaches, and our practicum/internship experience. The counseling profession has experienced dramatic growth in the past two decades and the future suggests continued expansion, particularly for the areas of clinical mental health, addictions, and clinical rehabilitation counseling.
A speech/theater teacher at a large urban high school refers Andrew (pseudonym for a composite profile), 16, to the school counselor because “he’s out of control and living dangerously.” The counselor, who routinely examines the student’s school file before such a meeting, finds standardized test percentiles in the high 90s, a good attendance record, and regular participation in the arts, but also a high incidence of lateness to class and an academic record that has deteriorated in high school. Family information shows an older brother attending a distant university, parental divorce when Andrew was 5, and, at age 12, Andrew relocating with his brother and mother when she remarried.
Andrew presents as personable, verbal, socially smooth—and somewhat arrogant. He claims he can raise his current low grades before the semester ends. Missed assignments are the key. He says he adds provocative comments to class discussion, and teachers like him.
His best friend lives 2000 miles away, where Andrew lived prior to his move at age 12. Andrew has gravitated toward dramatic females locally, and his current girlfriend is in high conflict at home. His grades deteriorated after becoming involved with her. He has run away several times and now has thoughts of running away with her. He mentions a special relationship with a male friend. When he drinks, he drinks too much, and his friends worry about him.
Andrew believes the psychologists he saw in the past did not understand him. He was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (
ADHD) and depression, but was noncompliant with medication. He recognizes that he makes poor choices. He claims not to be suicidal currently, but has been in the past. He has self-harmed. He says his father has almost no contact with him, but his father does have a close relationship with his brother. Andrew says his own problems resemble his highly intelligent father’s. Andrew has been exploring anarchic and white supremacist groups online.
The counselor plans to meet with him in a week, but will informally check on him daily and then meet with him and his mother together, a meeting Andrew quickly agrees to. Regardless of whether a referral will be made eventually, the counselor hopes to build a therapeutic relationship with Andrew to be able to provide ongoing support at school as needed.
A few days after the school counselor’s meeting with Andrew, his mother contacts the counselor because of the girlfriend. She says Andrew struggles with impulse control, is easily distracted and affected emotionally, has difficulty managing emotions, and escalates conflict quickly when sad or angry. He resists authority at home, and his arguments with her leave her worn out and sad. She says her husband, Andrew’s stepfather, ignores Andrew and does not understand giftedness.
Multiculturalism is a critical issue in the counseling profession. Cultural humility is essential for sound, ethical, effective practice, particularly when working with diverse populations. Multicultural counselor education seeks to establish a foundation for cultural pluralism in counselor training, counseling practice, and in the manner counselors conceptualize multiculturalism. This chapter provides an overview of some of the issues related to becoming a culturally competent counselor. Because of the wide variation in global cultures, no one can reasonably claim to be an expert. Therefore, it is highly recommended for counselors to continue their education well beyond the classroom through workshops, networking, and reading texts on multicultural counseling.
- Go to chapter: Addressing the Needs of Children and Adolescents With Disabilities and Those Classified as Gifted
For professional school counselors and clinical mental health counselors to serve students with disabilities and adequately advocate within the comprehensive school and community contexts, they must first understand the legislation that exists. Congress set these legislations in place to protect the rights of students with disabilities and assure them access, inclusion, and a free and appropriate public education. This chapter helps to identify the disability categories under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and the common characteristics of giftedness. It recognizes legislative mandates that apply to education of children and adolescents with disabilities and giftedness in grades Pre-K through 12. The chapter describes postsecondary transition issues for adolescents with disabilities entering postsecondary institutions. It expresses the connection between identity and disability. The chapter explains the role of the professional school counselor and clinical mental health counselors when working with students with disabilities and those classified as gifted.
This chapter offers guidelines to assist counselors in obtaining legal advice. Ethical decision making, by contrast, is the responsibility of the counselors themselves. It helps readers to identify ethical and legal issues with unique applications to counseling minors and distinguish between parents’ rights and the rights of minor clients. The chapter describes best practices in securing informed consent, defining confidentiality, determining competence, managing crisis, and dealing with boundaries and value conflicts when counseling children and adolescents. It explains how to best address situations when a minor client appears to be at risk of suicide, non-suicidal self-injury, or other dangerous behavior. Child and adolescent counselors are called upon to exercise their professional judgment when minor clients engage in risky behaviors such as non-suicidal self injury, sexual experimentation, or unsafe use of social media. The chapter concludes with discussion of consultation with adults who are important in the lives of minor clients.
This chapter adresses how to maintain a healthier, more balanced life during the practicum and internship. It provides insights into recognizing stressors that accompany counseling a struggling population of clients. The chapter provides several exercises for the purposes of self-reflection. The ability to step back from an experience, however successful or disappointing, can be key skill for personal success as a counselor. The chapter explains how to develop and maintain a healthy and mindful lifestyle. It also includes assessments on quality of life, burnout, and mindfulness.
This book reflects the arduous procedure of breaking down thoughts into pieces that are easily comprehended and applicable. It is a text that contains a wealth of information that has been refined over time to reflect the latest thinking of scholars in the field of child and adolescent mental health. This well wrought manuscript of comprehensive chapters articulates the latest and best research in working with children and adolescents in a readable and engaging way. Thus, this book is clinical, theoretical, and practical. It is applicable to the myriad of concerns that counselors face in dealing with developmental problems and challenges. The book covers developmental theorists, theoretical viewpoints, multicultural matters, counseling stages, special populations, clinical applications, and ethical and legal considerations. In other words, all of the critical factors needed to understand and become involved with members of the two major populations addressed in this work are covered. The book emphasizes the powerful interconnections that support counseling central to children and adolescents. Potential users may find the book’s appeal lies in subject matter that can be flexibly used in both school and clinical mental health counseling settings. It offers practical applications for skill and theory development supplied by an impressive roster of counselor educators with a wealth of professional and clinical expertise. Moreover, the book assists in fostering graduate students in course engagement. This book is for counselor educators and counseling supervisors as they assist counselors-in-training and practicing counselors in acquiring a variety of child and adolescent-centered theories, modalities, and methods. The book can be adopted as the main textbook for a variety of class settings and will also appeal to educators, students-in-training, and supervisors in closely related fields including social workers and psychologists.
This book is useful to a wide range of readers and can readily serve as a core textbook or resource to explain the history, development, and current practice of rehabilitation counselors (RCs) within the context of the contemporary practice of counseling. Although most clearly useful to counselors-in-training in an introductory course, people think that those RCs at the doctoral level or already in practice interested in the field and its broader positioning and potential will find this book appealing. The book consists of 22 chapters that are divided into parts that emphasize different themes important to understanding both the people and types of situations with which RCs work and the specific roles and skill sets that describe professional practice. It consists of basic information about the structure and professional practice of rehabilitation counseling, and serves the important role of introducing the readers to the RC’s most important partner in the counseling process, the person with a disability. The book also focuses on the professional practice of rehabilitation counseling and introduces the new work in the field that sharpens the emphasis on evidence-based practices and research utilization in the field. It describes in detail, the specific functions that constitute the work of rehabilitation counseling: assessment, counseling, forensic and indirect services, clinical case management and case coordination, psychiatric rehabilitation, advocacy, and career development, vocational behavior, and work adjustment of individuals with disabilities. Further, the book introduces the competencies that provide the types of skills, knowledge, and attitudes that must infuse the practice of rehabilitation counseling because of their pervasive and overarching importance in all aspects of practice.
Counselors must consider how to approach the struggles, fears, and vulnerabilities young clients face in schools and communities, and how to help them make sense of their world. Counselors must understand their own level of self-awareness, cultural knowledge, theory of orientation, and commitment to counseling this population. Children and adolescents must gain a sense of control through counseling and feel respected and valued. Counselors identify the use of counseling theories listed in this chapter along with creative strategies and expressive approaches (e.g., drawings, music, toys, and books) as best practices for working with young clients. This chapter describes the different theoretical frameworks commonly used in child and adolescent counseling. It helps the reader to identify specific reasons why these theories effectively work with children and adolescents. The chapter applies interventions appropriate to the guiding theoretical framework.
- Go to chapter: Contemporary Issues and Counseling Tropisms: Leaning Toward Promise With Children and Adolescents
Mental health professionals who work with students must be well-versed in the protective factors that maximize youth academic, social and personal success. One can and must cultivate healthy communities and teach youngsters to advocate for themselves as one advocate for them. Significant research points to strategic ways one can strengthen schools, families and communities. All too often, violence, substance abuse, bullying, sexual assault, suicidal ideation and more threaten student well-being. The profession calls upon professional school and mental health counselors to be ethical, skilled, culturally attuned and ready to engage in prevention and intervention as they work with students and families. This chapter expresses familiarity with social challenges to healthy child development. It helps to recognize the crucial role of professional school and clinical mental health counselors in the cultivation of positive school and community contexts. The chapter hypothesizes counseling from a strengths-based, curious, and creative stance.
The counseling session remains the focus of what most counselors-in-training (CIT) think of when they reflect on the type of work that they will be undertaking. It appears, perhaps, to be the culmination of all the training and education that CITs go through. Questions asked to new counselors, such as “What happens in the counseling session?” usually evoke a likely response, “Well, we talk. We establish rapport and discuss the client’s issue”. However, when pressed for additional details about what occurs in the counseling session, new counselors may struggle to describe more specific responses. Consequently, this type of ambivalence inspires the focus of this chapter, the stages of a counseling session. Counselors work in a variety of settings. This chapter describes the purpose of the counseling session and identifies necessary skills used to conduct a counseling session. It provides a basic outline for a counseling session.
Counselors serve an important role in the lives of youth. They provide safe spaces for children to express their emotions, fears, thoughts, and worries. Supporting children and adolescents of special populations and marginalized statuses requires that counselors (a) recognize how personal bias may impact the counseling process; (b) utilize culturally competent, theory-based techniques in counseling; (c) understand how socioeconomic status, poverty, race, gender, and sexual orientation impact children and adolescents; and (d) utilize practical, strength-based approaches to counseling. Counselors remain committed to the work of building strength-based, culturally competent, and inclusive practices. The counselor’s efforts to provide culturally responsive strategies and interventions will greatly influence the success of counseling diverse populations of children and adolescents. With this in mind, clinicians must remain critically reflective of their worldviews and biases and commit to the life-long process of cultural competence.
Children and adolescents depend on many systems to foster their social, emotional, personal, and developmental needs. School leaders, school counselors, communities, families, mental health counselors, and representatives from all systems in a child’s life need to collaborate and integrate care to produce the best outcomes for every child. This chapter identifies the many systems that impact child and adolescent development. It describes ecological systems theory and recognizes the many different types of families. The chapter explains how counselors in schools and mental health settings can adopt a systemic view of child and adolescents. It illustrates the impact of culture in the systems in which children and adolescents are embedded. The chapter explains how counselors can assist in collaborating with and connecting systems for best treatment outcomes. It outlines best practices for counselors working with children and adolescents.
The aging population is at a state of development that is not as focused on employment, and thus has difficulty finding its place in a society that defines people by their careers. Research is needed on the issues of aging workers, such as training needs, career transition issues, and retirement planning. Research is also needed on which accommodations, workplace modifications, and changes to policies and practices positively impact the retention and continued productivity of an aging workforce. Counselor practitioners are in a unique position to contribute to needed research design conceptualization, metrics, and analyses to test the multiplicity of interventions we will be exploring in the coming years to keep our aging workforce healthy and intellectually engaged in the employment environment. Counselors are experientially qualified to provide the needed services to keep this population productive and more fully engaged in their communities and continuing employment.
All counselors, regardless of setting, will work with clients affected by addiction. There is no longer a question as to whether or not individuals can become addicted to behaviors. That question has been unequivocally answered through decades of empirical data and scholarship, evidence from clinical work and successful treatment approaches, and changes in diagnostic manuals, global classifications of diseases, and definitions of addiction. Now, the pressing question is how to best prepare counselors and other mental health professionals to effectively serve individuals with behavioral addictions. Researchers, clinicians, and neuroscientists are making great strides in understanding behavioral addictions and collecting evidence regarding effective interventions, assessments, and treatment strategies. This chapter provides an information related to the nature of addictive behaviors, helpful strategies for recognizing and identifying behavioral addictions, and a public health model to guide conceptualizations of behavioral addictions.
Work is the primary organizing structure of life, and the significance of work in the lives of individuals with disabilities has been radically altered over the past half a century. This chapter introduces the centrality of work and discusses the role and importance of work in meeting basic human needs. It identifies specific outcome domains for the three human needs of survival and power, social connection, and self-determination and well-being. The chapter describes the Illinois Work and Well-Being Model and discusses how it can be used to guide rehabilitation counseling case conceptualization. When the centrality of work is the core value guiding vocational rehabilitation services for individuals with disabilities, the rehabilitation counselor is working to increase the individual’s power, social connection, and self-determination. These outcomes can be operationalized by multiple outcomes and cannot be measured by the traditional dichotomous outcomes of employed versus unemployed.
Everyone has needs and struggles. Awareness is a key step in assuring that the counselor’s needs and struggles do not negatively impact the children and adolescents with whom they work. A counselor should begin by knowing and acknowledging his or her own personal issues, strengths, and vulnerabilities and how these issues might be presenting in their work as a professional counselor. Self-awareness, support, supervision, boundaries, and self-care are the foundations of a sustainable counseling practice. It is not a sign of strength or quality of character to be able to individually suffer through or manage the stressors inherent in counseling work. In fact, independent or isolated management of stress is a liability. The counselors, who experience both effectiveness and well-being, acknowledge stress and the compassion fatigue that is inherent to this work. They show willingness to look at themselves and get the help they need.
- Go to chapter: Elements of Effective Job Development: Environmental Trends and the Work of Rehabilitation Professionals
Elements of Effective Job Development: Environmental Trends and the Work of Rehabilitation Professionals
The work of Rehabilitation professional (
RP) is complex, spanning a wide range of competencies and practices. This chapter considers the practice of job development across several key professional processes. It identifies environmental trends that impact job development and explains how to develop collaborative relationships with employers in the community. The chapter discusses the importance of matching the job seeker to the employment outcome they achieve. It ends by pointing out that the work of the RPis important, not just to people with disabilities but also to businesses, employers, policy makers, and communities. Although this work can be at times demanding, frustrating, and perplexing, it is always worthwhile to return to this main truth: What RPsdo contributes significantly to improving the employment outcomes and the lives of people with disabilities.
Assistive technology (AT) has a profound impact on the everyday lives and employment opportunities of individuals with disabilities by providing them with greater independence and enabling them to perform activities not possible in the past. Self-esteem, self-efficacy, and motivation are described as central elements in increasing a consumer’s confidence and belief in self. Good outcomes and efficacy expectations, as well as strong motivation, help lead to successful adaptation to AT. This chapter presents the human component of technology, the relationship between consumers and technological devices/equipment, and the acceptance and use by consumers. It offers recommendations to assist rehabilitation professionals in helping consumers with accepting, utilizing, and benefiting from technology. There needs to be a close and appropriate fit between the technological device and consumer. Therefore, the need for the counselor to actively listen and engage the consumer in the process is essential to the effectiveness and outcome of AT success.
This chapter explores a range of topics related to obesity, including its prevalence, medical aspects, and associated complications. Other relevant areas include the psychosocial factors pertaining to societal attitudes and individual mental health issues, vocational implications concerning work/wage discrimination, Social Security regulations, and Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) protections. The chapter also discusses the implications for rehabilitation counselors regarding vocational and mental health counseling. The implications of working with persons who are obese or overweight may be broken down into mental health counseling and/or vocational counseling. Obesity and related medical complications have soared to the forefront of medical conditions that lead to premature death, discrimination in employment, compromised quality of life, and negative psychosocial implications. Counselors who are aware of the medical, psychosocial, and vocational implications of obesity can assist clients in a variety of ways, keeping Olkin’s (1999) recommendations in mind regarding disability-affirmative therapy.
- Go to chapter: Personality Development and Adjustment Considerations in Vocational Rehabilitation Contexts
Perhaps more than any other commonly assessed attribute, personality comes closest to being understood as the essence of who we are as human beings. This chapter provides an overview of the major theoretical framework for understanding personality development and expression and provides research findings that highlight the significance of personality development across life domains, including work. It identifies the interconnectedness of personality, work, and health. One of the most challenging areas facing rehabilitation counselors today is helping individuals connect with participation outcomes related to productive functioning at home and in the community, meaningful social interactions and relationships, and healthy work. Recent research has provided strong support for not only examining and leveraging traditional areas of personality but also using emerging personality-related factors such as developmental work personality and core self-evaluation to increase rehabilitation outcomes, including career development and work.
This chapter covers courses taught in the school counseling tracks or graduate counseling programs. School counselors are certified/licensed educators who aim to improve student success for all students by implementing a comprehensive school counseling program. These courses focus on the professional issues faced by school counselors and prepare students to work with children and adolescents in school environments. These courses emphasize the contemporary role of the school counselor as leader and advocate in delivering school counseling programs to all students. Emphasis is placed on acquiring the awareness, knowledge, and skills necessary to negotiate the cultural, educational, and contextual forces that impact the lives and academic achievement of students in a pluralistic society. The chapter focuses discussion and activities on these topics and others, including school culture, learning, classroom management, structured groups, counseling children and adolescents, and program development.
This chapter presents the elements of counseling that can influence self-awareness and growth among children and adolescents. It builds on the basics and offers guidance to enhance counseling effectiveness. Children and adolescents thrive within the context of responsive relationships and these relationships are central to emotional growth. A good counselor balances the child or adolescent’s need for support and the necessity of independence in self-reflection. The fields of motivational interviewing (MI), self-determination theory, and counseling with children and adolescents are filled with specific techniques to encourage growth and change. Accordingly, the chapter highlights key elements of counselor action. Of equal importance, there will be instances in which being present, in absence of action, will create space for the child or adolescent to experience and consequently increase awareness of his or her own self—a critical foundation for growth and change.
One of the primary focuses of rehabilitation counseling is the career development, employment, and vocational behavior of individuals with disabilities. Career assessment plays a very large role in the conceptualization of career-related issues and the delivery of appropriate career and employment services to people with disabilities. This chapter provides rehabilitation counselors with the necessary information and understanding of concepts and career assessments that impact the career development and employment of people with disabilities. It begins with an overview of the importance of work and the benefits derived from engaging in productive work—related activities. The chapter briefly discusses the factors that impact the career development and employment of people with disabilities and introduces the Illinois Work and Well-Being Model as a conceptual framework that can be used to guide career assessment. The chapter concludes with a description and overview of commonly used career measures used in rehabilitation counseling setting.
This chapter focuses on career counseling courses. In this course, students learn how career development theory can be applied to the practice of career counseling. There are three course objectives that are essential to this course: students will be able to identify career development theories and decision-making models; students will understand the roles, functions, and settings of contemporary career counselors; and students will practically demonstrate career and educational planning, placement, follow-up, and evaluation using mock clients or case study examples. The salient career counseling theories that should be touched on in this course are: Super’s life-space, life span theory; Roe’s personality theory of career choice; Gottfredson’s theory of circumscription, compromise, and self-creation; Holland’s theory of types and person–environment interactions; Krumboltz’s learning theory of career counseling; Lent, Brown, and Hackett’s social cognitive career theory; and Savickas’s career construction theory.
Employment is central to one’s identity, sense of achievement, and the overall quality of life. This chapter explains how and why employment is central to an individual’s life. It defines career counseling and explains the role of the rehabilitation counselor in the career counseling process. The chapter describes the stages of change and interventions that are commonly used in the career-counseling process. The role of the rehabilitation counselor in the career-counseling process is critical in assisting individuals with disabilities as they navigate through their journey in the pursuit of competitive employment. Rehabilitation counselors who embrace an active role in addressing these concerns, which are often perceived as barriers by the individual with a disability, will have a greater chance of increasing their likelihood of successful outcomes and growth. Strategies to facilitate change as well as frameworks that are more conducive to the diverse needs of individuals with disabilities are introduced.
The orientation course in counseling programs is called many names: Introduction to Counseling, Orientation to the Profession, or Becoming a Professional Counselor. Regardless of the name, these courses are content heavy and are often placed at the beginning of the student’s journey. The course provides a comprehensive overview of the entire profession. Counselor educators cover roughly 100 years of important historical events, individuals, theories, philosophies, laws, social movements, research, licensure, specialties, and more related to the counseling profession. They also cover future trends, such as social justice issues, technology, social media, politics, and other future directions of our profession. This chapter, like the others to follow, breaks down this content-heavy course. Important topics covered in this course are discussed. A brief review of the recent pertinent literature is examined. Also discussed are different approaches to prepare and teach this course. We share our personal experience when teaching this course. Lastly, course assignments used to cover important topics are described.
Assessment interviewing often takes place during the early stages of helping, which includes obtaining information about the client related to the client’s problem or area of change desired. During this stage of helping, the counselor is involved in “conceptualization or formulation” of the problem within counseling sessions or specifically within the assessment interview. Interviewing to assess entails a focus on all aspects of clinical concern, including physiology, cognition, behavior, duration, severity, relationships, and context. A detailed and thorough assessment interview that clarifies the problem holistically leads not only to accurate assessment but also, in later stages of helping, to amelioration. Assessment interviewing is viewed as the foundation of the therapeutic, counseling, and/or rehabilitation process. This chapter is on the assessment interview. It covers types and formats of assessment interviews. This overview is intended to orient the reader to the importance of depth, detail, and thoroughness within the assessment interview.
Life-span development courses cover the human experience from conception to death. Counselor educators use a holistic approach encompassing the physiological, cognitive, emotional, cultural, and social changes clients experience. These courses cover a great amount of content regarding an individual’s development from conception to death. Human development courses help students view their clients from a developmental perspective with the understanding that development does not take place in isolation; rather human development is deeply embedded within and inseparable from the context of family, social network, and culture. This course is also designed to help counselors recognize the importance of individual and systemic influences on human growth and development. This chapter focuses on theories of individual and family development across the life span, normal and abnormal personality development, addictions and substance abuse, and biological, neurological, and physiological factors that affect human development, among others.
Clients are vulnerable. They seek counseling and put their trust in clinicians to provide effective treatment. Without intentionality and adherence to this profession’s ethical guidelines, clinicians may harm clients. Ethics courses focus on the codes of ethics for professional counselors, marriage and family therapists, and school counselors. Students will also discuss ethical dilemmas they may face that may not be specifically addressed in an ethical code. When faced with these dilemmas, students will be taught to use an ethical decision-making model.
In this chapter, the book’s editors, Marini and Stebnicki presents a compelling and provocative reflection on the counseling profession. They summarize salient aspects of dealing with culture and disability that reflect how services are provided in an evidence-based practice environment. Each editor offers opinions and considerations for counseling professionals in the 21st century. Together, they hypothesize an inconvenient and potentially frightening future for Americans, particularly those of lower socioeconomic status, many of whom are minorities with disabilities. The chapter explores the ramifications of social class and classism, whereby social injustice perpetuates and exacerbates classism. In particular, Marini and Stebnicki call on counselors and related helping professionals to take a more active role in advocating beyond their traditional narrowly focused job duties of working almost exclusively with the client to adapt and survive in an able-bodied world.
This chapter begins with a discussion of the current literature related to teaching counseling students today. It explains the concept of andragogy and how it relates to teaching counseling students today. The chapter discusses counseling and related educational programs accreditation and what this means for teaching. It discusses some additional topics such as syllabi development, course objectives, evaluation of student learning and progress, classroom management, use of technology, advising, and ways educators evaluate themselves and students day-to-day. Some counselor education doctoral programs prioritize training either effective educators or researchers. The focus usually aligns with the emphases of the university that supports those doctoral programs. There are a great number of universities in the United States, and it is hard to classify these institutions. However, in 1973 the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education provided ways to differentiate between institutions.
Rehabilitation counselors can begin to assist women with issues of abuse by acknowledging that advocacy and protection from abusive behavior are a priority for many women with disabilities. By routinely asking about abuse and addressing issues of safety and control during rehabilitation planning, counselors can provide valuable information, resources, and support that may help prevent abuse from occurring and assist women for whom abuse has occurred. To address abuse issues during rehabilitation, rehabilitation professionals have several responsibilities to (a) learn about violence by using available training related to abuse of people with disabilities; (b) employ universal screening as a routine client-intake procedure; (c) volunteer information, resources, and referrals to clients who are in danger or at risk of an abusive situation; (d) facilitate collaboration with domestic violence shelters to supply personal care services and replace medications and assistive devices left behind in an emergency situation.
Job satisfaction is commonly conceptualized as an affective variable that results from an assessment of one’s job experiences. This chapter provides a brief overview of the theories and empirical research that have shaped our understanding of the job satisfaction construct. It presents an overview of the definition and measurement of job satisfaction, the consequences associated with job satisfaction, and its antecedents. The chapter discusses the research that focuses specifically on the job satisfaction of people with disabilities, including the unique challenges that they face and ideas for rehabilitation and career counselors, who help people with disabilities to find satisfying work. Individuals with disabilities have traditionally been overlooked as viable contributors to the workplace. Rehabilitation counselors have the enviable job of helping individuals overcome barriers, so that more people with disabilities might enjoy satisfying work—which leads to a host of positive outcomes—improving work lives, family life, and well-being.
- Go to chapter: National Accreditation of Academic Programs in Counseling and Human Services: Looking at APA, CACREP, and CSWE
National Accreditation of Academic Programs in Counseling and Human Services: Looking at APA, CACREP, and CSWE
This chapter presents the American Psychological Association, the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs, and the Council on Social Work Education. It discusses professional identity within the context of accreditation of disciplinary programs. The chapter identifies the purpose of accreditation, generic steps of the process, and the value of accreditation. In addition, it examines key questions pertaining to: (a) factors that distinguish counseling psychologists, counselors, and social workers, (b) how these professional identities are defined using Emerson’s Counselor Professional Identity Measure (2010) by history, philosophy, roles and functions, professional pride, professional engagement, and ethics, and (c) changes in and challenges to professional identity. The chapter provides relevant discussion not only on the stability of human services disciplines, but also on their ability to change and interpret the impact of change on professional identity and eligibility for credentialing and licensure of practitioners.
This chapter offers (a) a description of the empathy fatigue construct as it relates to other professional fatigue syndromes, (b) a recently developed tool (Global Assessment of Empathy Fatigue [GAEF]) that may be useful for screening and identifying professionals who may be experiencing empathy fatigue, and (c) resources for self-care of empathy fatigue and building resiliency. The chapter’s author hypothesizes that empathy fatigue may be different from other types of counselor impairment and fatigue syndromes. The experience of empathy fatigue is both similar and different from other types of counselor impairment or professional fatigue syndromes. Thus, it is hypothesized that the cumulative effects of multiple client sessions throughout the week may lead to a deterioration of the counselor’s resiliency or coping abilities. Developing a clearer understanding of the risk factors associated with empathy fatigue is pivotal in developing self-care strategies for the professional counselor.
Most everyone agrees that resolving sexual issues has the potential to be time-consuming and complicated. Many sexual difficulties can be resolved with sexuality counseling. Sexuality counseling is a relatively new specialty, and is distinguished from sexuality therapy, or what is better known as sex therapy, by the type of education and training that the practitioner holds. The American Association of Sexuality Educators, Counselors, and Therapists (AASECT) is an organization that provides education and certification to those individuals who wish to publicly demonstrate their competence to help people with sexual issues. Sexuality counseling is short-term and client-centered, focused on the immediate concern or problem. In counseling, the reason why a sexual problem occurred may be discussed to educate the client or to provide perspective. This chapter discusses cognitive-behavioral approaches, solution-focused counseling, and finally, when to refer for intensive therapy.
In order for students to explore and understand counseling techniques, most counseling programs provide a sequence of courses that build on each other. These courses are called by several different names, but for the purposes of this chapter, we use the following names: Methods of Counseling, Advanced Techniques, and Prepracticum. In each of these courses, the difficulty level increases for the student, and the lessons build from the previous class. These classes provide students with the building blocks for strong relationships with clients as well as help students to narrow their focus on a counselor identity. This chapter consolidates the three courses listed here into a cohesive explanation of the counseling technique educational process.
It is not uncommon for children, adolescents, and families to seek counselors’ services when they are in crisis. Despite a growing literature base in school crisis prevention, intervention, and preparedness, there is a relatively scant literature base addressing mental health crisis intervention for professional counselors. This chapter addresses elements pertinent to crisis intervention, including mandated reporting, and associated trauma or grief. Children understand and process grief and trauma differently based on developmental and cognitive ability levels. Unfortunately, it is not uncommon for children to experience traumatic events before reaching adulthood. As an example, international studies document that child sexual abuse, physical abuse, or domestic violence affects approximately 25% of children. War, natural disasters, motor vehicle accidents, violence, terrorist acts, and refugee experiences can all contribute to trauma reactions. Regrettably, if left untreated, complications associated with unresolved trauma or grief can last well into adulthood.
The state–federal Vocational rehabilitation (
VR) system addresses employment disparities faced by people with disabilities by offering services to target individuals’ employment needs and promote consumer choice and empowerment. Vocational rehabilitation can play an important role in enhancing the psychosocial and vocational outcomes of people with disabilities. This chapter provides an overview of the state–federal VRprogram and the rehabilitation process and services associated with the public rehabilitation system. It reviews the best practices and outcomes of VRwithin the context of evidence-based practice. The chapter discusses the role and qualifications of VRprofessionals. There is empirical evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of state VRservices in returning people with disabilities to competitive employment. Central to the effective delivery of VRservices is the rehabilitation counselor, with support found for counselors with graduate training in rehabilitation counseling being more effective than counselors without degrees in rehabilitation counseling.
Cases in this chapter pertain to both counselor education and supervision throughout practice. At its core, counseling requires adherence to the basics of the scientist practitioner model both during training and after. The world of academia can be complex in its efforts to meet the needs of students, faculty, and the public, but practicing clinicians are also expected to stay informed of the science that drives their profession. The chapter includes seven cases related to a section of the American Counseling Association Code of Ethics examined carefully using the Hill, Glaser, and Harden’s (1998) Feminist model. The chapter highlights the ethics of supervision, training, and teaching, including, but not limited to, relationships with superiors, values in education and training, the use of case examples, and confidentiality in supervision.
Diversity courses can go by many names: Cultural Diversity, Counseling Diverse Populations, Multicultural Counseling, or Cultural Diversity and Advocacy. Diversity courses are critical to a counselor’s development. These courses build on the skills developed in other courses and prepare students to work with clients, couples, and families and in school systems on topics such as culture conflict and personal identity, gender and racial issues, sex and sexuality, lifestyle concerns, coping versus personal empowerment, and effective intervention models when working with ethnic and linguistic minorities, including building effective parent involvement programs. This chapter focuses on helping counselor educators teach the aforementioned topics to their students. It provides more in-depth introduction to the course purposes and objectives. Topics that must be broached in this course should revolve around the following ideas: culture being at the center of the therapeutic relationship, worldview, language, leveraging differences, self-awareness, counseling relationship, advocacy, religion, and spirituality.
Surprisingly, a section devoted to technology was not added to the American Counseling Association (
ACA) Code of Ethics until its most recent revision in 2014. The benefits and detriments of increased utility of technology are unavoidable in all professions, and counseling is no exception. The chapter includes seven cases related to a section of the ACACode of Ethics examined carefully using the Kocet and Herlihy’s counselor’s value-based conflict model. This chapter is a new addition to the Code of Ethics during its most recent revision in 2014. It highlights the ways in which technological advancements have made counseling both easier and more complicated, including, but not limited to, the use of video conferencing, public and private social media presence, and the importance of safeguarding confidentiality.
Counselors’ relationships with other professionals are almost as important as their relationships with their clients. Though these associations can at times be complex, managing them is critical to the profession’s continued existence. Relationships with peers can be surprisingly complicated, but the survival of the profession is predicated on our ability to work collaboratively. The chapter includes seven cases related to a section of the American Counseling Association Code of Ethics examined carefully using the Corey, Corey, Corey, and Callanan (2015) model. This chapter highlights the complexities of these relationships, including, but not limited to, differences of opinion in client management, staffing concerns, behavior in public, and resolving ethical concerns collaboratively.
Though the American Counseling Association Code of Ethics for professional counselors provides subsections for each area of practice related to clinical work and research, Section I engages in the more meta task of exploring how ethical dilemmas are actually resolved. In determining actions related to ethical dilemmas in their work with clients, the public, or other clinicians, counselors work to resolve these dilemmas with direct and open communication with all involved stakeholders. The chapter includes cases, assessed using the Corey, Corey, Corey, and Callanan (2015), Cottone (2001), and Forester-Miller and Davis (2016) models. This chapter highlights the resolving ethical issues including, protecting clients from harm, unacceptable business practices, deceased clients, interdisciplinary teamwork, and policies that are potentially harmful to clients.
Family caregiving and support are perhaps the most essential elements in their disabled loved ones’ adjustment for response to disability. This chapter first explores the prevalence of caregiving in America, including demographic information about who the typical caregiver is and what the situational circumstances are for these individuals. It is followed by providing a definition of the types of caregiving support generally provided by loved ones, as well as the nuanced differences between unpaid family care versus paid formal care. This segues into a brief exploration into the significant family role caregiving entails and its impact on each member. The chapter then discusses caregiver abuse as well as the often painful decision to place a loved one in a long-term care facility. Finally, it explores strategies for counselors to be able to support family caregivers in caring for their loved one while maintaining their own mental and physical health needs.
Confidentiality is critical in counseling. The public’s trust in the profession to keep what is discussed with their counselor private is in many ways the cornerstone of the profession. This chapter includes seven cases related to a section of the American Counseling Association Code of Ethics examined carefully using a Cottone’s (2001) Social Constructivist model. While other models emphasize a linear, intrapsychic, counselor-focused approach to ethical decision-making (e.g., Forester-Miller & Davis, 2016), Cottone’s social constructivism model posits a more interpersonal approach. The chapter deals with cases more specifically with maintaining the confidence and trust of the general public. It highlights some of the unique presenting problems related to confidentiality and privacy, including, but not limited to, seeing clients in public, accidental lapses in confidentiality, requests for information from third parties, and state law pertaining to age and consent.
One of the biggest concerns for counselors in the area of grief counseling is how to work with strong emotions as they arise in clients. Many clients will experience strong emotions as part of their grief. This chapter explores the role that emotions might play in the grieving process and how counselors can help their clients benefit from working constructively with their feelings. It discusses the importance of focusing on emotions in the counseling process. The chapter defines emotional intelligence and describes a model of working with emotions based on emotional intelligence. It identifies how a feeling vocabulary can be used in counseling practice. The chapter explores the four main feeling states and their function in human experiences and discusses the role of the counselor’s feelings in the therapeutic relationship.
Counseling is a unique form of support that occurs within a relationship between the counselor and the client, occurring within specific boundaries with the goal of supporting and empowering the client through difficult times in life. Counseling may occur with an individual client, a family, or a group of individuals who share similar loss experiences. Grief counselors help individuals as they work through the grieving process in a way that is congruent with the grieving individual’s personality, preferences, values, and goals. This chapter explores what counseling is and examines some of the more common misconceptions about counseling. It also looks at the therapeutic relationship that develops between the counselor and the client in the counseling setting, considers the different contexts in which counseling may occur, and briefly discusses the goals of grief counseling.
At its most basic, counseling is a relationship, as it involves a connection between two or more people. This chapter includes cases that are relevant to a section of the American Counseling Association (
ACA) Code of Ethics examined carefully using the Forester-Miller and Davis model. The cases outline the ways in which this relationship requires careful thought and planning to ensure the safety of all clients and the integrity of the profession. The scenarios focus on the personal and professional interactions between counselors and their clients. The chapter highlights all the ways in which that connection can become confusing and/or complicated, including, but not limited to, counselors separating personal and professional lives, the tricky business of personal values and the complexity of boundaries within the counseling relationship.
Poverty can be defined as economic deprivation. This chapter provides an explanation of the process through which a poor individual is at higher risk for acquiring a disability or chronic health problem. This chapter is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on the connection between poverty and disability: poverty as a risk factor for disability; the impact of poverty-related psychological factors on career development and health; and the impact of social role devaluation on individuals who are poor and have a disability. The second part discusses how poverty and disability affect career counseling and job placement and what counselors can do to assist persons who are poor and disabled to make effective career decisions and obtain employment. The chapter enables the reader to implement counseling strategies that can ameliorate the impact of disability and poverty on career counseling and job placement.
Counselors are required to present both the profession and themselves to the public in a manner that engenders confidence and trust. At times, a counselor’s professional responsibility can create both personal and professional challenges. This is particularly true when peers or supervisors demonstrate evidence of impairment or incompetence. This chapter includes seven cases related to a section of the American Counseling Association Code of Ethics examined carefully using the Ling and Hauck’s (2017)
ETHICSmodel. It highlights the ways in which counselors’ professional responsibility can present both personal and professional challenges, including, but not limited to, responding to peers and supervisors who are impaired in their ability to practice, responding to evidence of malpractice in colleagues, and maintaining professionalism throughout interactions with the public.
This book provides an integrated perspective on disabilities of the various disciplines of human services for counselors, social workers, and allied health professions in training. It provides an interdisciplinary and intersectional perspective on disability and psychosocial adjustment to disability in rehabilitation counseling, social work, and allied health professions. It also includes foundations of disability studies, advocacy, the disability rights movement and disability legislation, policy, and law. There is a focus on select persistent and emerging population trends in disability studies, which are supported in the literature as populations that are anticipated to represent a growing and greater proportion of individuals in need of disability and integrated services. The attention to psychosocial adaptation to disability along with the inclusion of case studies and field-based experiential exercises related to specific topics make this book an invaluable resource for students and professionals alike. The human services professions contain a wide variety of disciplines that assist individuals, families, and populations to improve their capacity to function as individuals and in society. These professionals possess specific competencies and credentials, but operate from an interdisciplinary knowledge base that requires coordination among professionals, programs, and agencies in service delivery. The disciplines typically included in responding to disability-related issues are rehabilitation counseling, counseling, mental health, social work, rehabilitation sciences, psychology, and allied and health sciences. A key feature of each chapter is application from an intersectional perspective of issues related to addressing the service needs of persons with disabilities. Based on the foundations of understanding services providers’ scope of practice, the text discusses the roles and functions of human services providers, ethics in service delivery, professional credentials, cultural competency, and family and life span perspectives of disability.
The United States continues to grow in population, particularly among persons of minority. With the statistics in mind, it becomes all the more relevant for counselors to be knowledgeable and prepared to work with the growing populations in relation to their values, culture, family dynamics, and ultimately how they view and treat their disabled members. This chapter represents a synopsis of six different groups; Hispanic or Latino Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, Middle Eastern Americans, European Americans, and Native Americans. It presents a synopsis of each specific group’s culture, cultural and family perspectives on disability, socioeconomic factors, and religion. Involving the entire family and not just the client can assist counselors to establish a relationship of trust that can be meaningful for the counselor-client relationship. Cultural competence has been known to be an important component in receiving school psychological services for Arab American youth and their families.
- Go to chapter: The Practice of Presence: Compassion and Self-Awareness in the Grief Counseling Setting
Learning how to be fully present with one’s client is foundational to the ability to be effective in working with grieving clients; however, it may also be one of the biggest challenges to beginning clinicians. Counselors need to find ways to cultivate their ability to be aware, focused, and engaged with themselves and their clients. Awareness and therapeutic presence can be cultivated through reflective and contemplative practices. The chapter defines what is meant by the term therapeutic presence and describes the components that form its foundation. The chapter explains the relationship between contemplative practice and therapeutic presence. It discusses the role of compassion and self-compassion in the counselor’s ability to be fully present to clients who are experiencing pain and suffering. Exercises are provided to assist counselors to enhance self-awareness, self-reflection, and the cultivation of a sense of presence.
Testing and evaluation are typically one of the last areas of mental health practice claimed by psychology alone, but assessment is a critical part of work as a counselor. The wellness-focused approach of the profession is in some ways at odds with the labeling required of evaluation, assessment, and interpretation, but these are an undeniable reality of clinical practice in the era of managed care. The chapter includes seven cases related to a section of the American Counseling Association Code of Ethics examined carefully using the Garcia, Cartwright, Winston, and Borzuchowska’s (2003) Transcultural Integrative model. This chapter highlights the ways in which assessment in general can become a complex area of practice, including, but not limited to, using diagnosis as a tool for billing, validity of assessment instruments administered to clients, diagnosis and wellness principles, and scope of competence.
Research is not required as part of counseling practice. However, many counselors work exclusively in academic settings, and all counselors are obligated to stay informed of research relevant to the profession as well as understand the basics of ethics pertaining to research. At the very least, all practicing clinicians should be aware of the ethical responsibilities inherent in the science that governs their work. The chapter includes seven cases related to a section of the American Counseling Association Code of Ethics examined carefully using the Jacob, Roth, Cilento, and Stoler’s (2015) model. This chapter highlights the specific components of ethical counseling research and related complications, including, but not limited to, relationships with participants, credit for work and authorship, and submissions to peer-reviewed outlets.
A Practical Ethics Worktext for Professional Counselors:Applying Decision-Making Models to Case Examples
This book is intended to be used as an addendum to a more comprehensive text associated with the Professional Counseling Orientation and Ethical Practice training required by the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Education Programs. It provides practical examples of managing ethical concerns for practicing counselors and counselors in training. Much has been made of the science-to-service problem in counseling, with the consensus being that there is a gap between the academics writing the books and papers and the clinicians actually doing the work. This text is an effort to meet the needs of both by providing an overview of case examples that are relatable and accessible and by providing responses to these cases that meet the careful scrutiny required by the American Counseling Association (
ACA). The book includes 63 real-life case examples demonstrating step-by-step application of decision-making models. It teaches counselors how to think and act quickly when facing ethical dilemmas. It helps professionals to reconcile personal and professional values.
Counselors who work primarily with bereaved individuals need to be aware of the issues that are raised by new research in the field and to stay abreast with clinical practice implications and recommendations from the research and literature in the field in order to provide support to their clients that is informed, relevant, and responsive. This chapter discusses the implications for a strengths-based approach to grief and identifies when grief counseling is indicated. It describes current issues related to competence and identifies aspects of neurobiology that are relevant to the study of grief and grief counseling practice. It discusses the diverse ways that grief can be manifested and the implications for counseling practice. The chapter identifies various ways that technology is being used to support grieving individuals, along with ethical concerns regarding the use of technology in grief counseling.
- Go to chapter: Specialized Areas of Practice: Children, Adolescents, and College Students via Telemental Health
The use of distance counseling (
DC) and telemental health ( TMH) counseling expanded exponentially during the COVID-19crisis. On March 13, 2020, President Trump declared a national emergency in the United States due to the COVID-19pandemic, and by March 30, 256 million Americans were required to stay home. More recently, online learning for K-12 students has emerged to support students who are home-schooled or home-bound. DChas been successfully utilized with children, adolescents, and young adults in a variety of clinical studies and practical applications. They must review a detailed informed consent document with clients/students/parents outlining technology risks and benefits that includes a detailed safety plan or emergency contact plan. As always, counselors must be competent to use technology for DC/ TMHinterventions, and must assess the competence, preference, access, and ability of the client or student before using distance interventions.
Being a skilled counselor requires a great deal of discipline, focus, commitment to self-awareness and understanding, and compassionate engagement with clients. Reading about these skills and the counseling process is interesting, but actually having the opportunity to “practice the process” and to spend time immersed in therapeutic encounters helps refine the counselor’s abilities and skills. This chapter describes common attending skills and their importance in the counseling relationship. It identifies ways in which the counselor can verbally track the client’s story. The chapter explains the purposes of both open and closed questions in counseling and provides examples of each. It defines what is meant by empathy and advanced empathy in the therapeutic alliance and why empathy is so important in counseling.
Through the work of bereavement researchers, clinicians, and academics, the present-day thinking about the grieving process has been extrapolated. This chapter defines grief and describes common factors that affect the grief response. It describes the main features of attachment theory and the relationship between attachment and grief. The chapter explains the dual process model of grief and the overlap of attachment style onto this model. It reviews current theories and models of the grieving process and discusses the process of meaning making after significant losses. Grief counseling serves to facilitate the natural unfolding of the grief process as it is experienced by an individual. It is important for counselors to remember that the main goal of grief counseling is not to make someone feel better, but to provide support and assistance, and journey alongside the bereaved so that the person will not have to go through this painful process alone.
- Go to chapter: The Social Context of Loss: Social Expectations and Cultural Considerations Surrounding the Grieving Process
The Social Context of Loss: Social Expectations and Cultural Considerations Surrounding the Grieving Process
While grief is often described as an individual’s unique response to loss, it is shaped and molded to a great extent by the social context in which the grieving individual identifies and resides. These contextual factors have a profound influence on how loss and grief are viewed, including expectations about how grief should be expressed and experienced, and the supports and resources that may or may not be available to grieving individuals. This chapter describes how the social context and spheres of interaction have an impact upon the grieving process. It distinguishes between micro, mezzo, and macro practice in the context of grief counseling. The chapter identifies social norms and expectations as they apply to grief in Western-oriented industrialized societies. It distinguishes between cultural competence and cultural humility in relation to grief counseling. The chapter details ways in which grief counselors can acknowledge the social context in their work with clients.
- Go to chapter: When Grief Goes Awry: Identifying Complicated Grief and the Need for Professional Intervention
Currently, there is a great deal of research and interest in the description, diagnosis, and treatment of complicated grief. Counselors need to stay informed as new research findings are released and to keep current on present-day thinking regarding appropriate support and focused intervention to address these life-altering losses and grief responses. This chapter reviews some of the terminologies often utilized in the discussion of grief that has veered away from what would be considered a normal trajectory. It also describes some of the main features of “difficult” grief. The chapter explores some of the clinical implications for complicated grief and for grief that is intermixed with exposure to traumatic events. Finally, it provides an overview of the treatment modalities that are being proposed for therapeutic work with individuals who experience complicated grief.
Ethical practice as a grief counselor involves an ongoing commitment to self-awareness, self-care, and professional development in the areas of counseling and bereavement. It is important to protect the trust that our clients place in us and to ensure sound and competent practice by our adherence to published ethical standards and guidelines in our professional association(s). This chapter explores some of the ethical issues that are pertinent to the counselor, the therapeutic relationship with clients, and the profession of grief counseling. It describes why counselor self-awareness is critical to the counseling process. The chapter discusses the role of boundaries in the counseling relationship and how the counseling relationship differs from other types of relationships. It covers guidelines and procedures for protecting client confidentiality and general guidlines identified with counselor competence.
- Go to chapter: Caregiver Issues for Grief Counselors: Navigating Occupational Stress and Practicing Self-Care
Counselors are professionals who are also human beings. The profession of counseling relies upon the ability of the individual counselor to nurture and cultivate a capacity to care and connect with clients empathically. Counselors who work primarily with individuals who have faced painful losses, traumatic events, and the death of loved ones will be exposed to levels of human suffering and pain that can profoundly affect them at a personal level. This chapter identifies three different sources of occupational stress in helping professions. It explains how the counselor’s personal experiences of loss can be both strength and a potential liability in working with bereaved clients. The chapter distinguishes between the experiences of burnout and secondary traumatic stress in helping professionals. It identifies guidelines for reflective practice and self-care strategies in grief counselors. The chapter defines what is meant by self-compassion for counselors and identifies three components of self-compassion.
Counseling has long been considered to be an art, as well as a science, of helping individuals grow and develop. This book provides counselors and counseling students with a broader awareness of the ways in which traditional theories can be supplemented with expressive arts interventions. It also provides a clear description of the ways in which multicultural considerations can be addressed via the integration of the expressive arts into practice. The book presents a collection of field-tested creative interventions contributed by practicing counselors and counselor educators. It includes 111 interventions for use with various clients and presenting issues, including more than 40 new expressive arts interventions. The book is organized into an introductory chapter and three sections. The introductory chapter gives an introduction to the use of expressive arts in counseling. The first section presents theories of counseling and expressive arts approaches such as Adlerian theory, solution-focused therapy, cognitive behavioral theory, choice theory, existential theory, feminist theory, Gestalt theory, and person-centered therapy, narrative approaches, trauma-informed counseling, family counseling, and integrative theory. The second section discusses emerging and special issues in expressive arts and counseling such as neuroscientific applications for expressive therapies and clinical supervision. The final section describes the additional clinical uses of the expressive arts such as adventure therapy, animal-assisted therapy, child-centered play therapy, mindfulness in counseling, and sandplay therapy.
Professional competence refers to our ability to perform effectively within our professional role. As counselors, we are required to remain aware of our professional strengths and weaknesses and respond accordingly when counseling situations fall outside of our ability to be effective. Professional competence involves working with client populations for which we have been properly trained, maintaining training and education throughout our careers, and identifying and addressing personal experiences or internal problems that can affect our ability to be effective counselors. In this chapter, authors cover what it means to be professionally competent, how to recognize when we are exceeding boundaries of competence, and how to maintain competence throughout a professional career. Professional competence includes a host of complex situations and variables. Much of the research and writings on the topic of competence focuses on multicultural competence. Understanding individual differences in our client population is essential for maintaining professional competence.
The advances in technology and the development of the Internet have shaped many human interactions in ways not previously imagined possible, including counseling interactions. From these developments emerged the concepts of telehealth, telemental health (
TMH) and distance counseling ( DC). The benefits that technology and the Internet have created for the human race are innumerable, including limitless access to information and the ability to connect with others at great distances. This chapter addresses both the developmental and cultural issues that technology brings to the DC/ TMHenvironment, and the counselor’s responsibility to address these issues in concert with ethical treatment. It addresses the elements of psychosocial and multicultural development that may be impacted by technology. It also addresses how counselors can be aware of these issues when preparing to work in DC/ TMHsettings and presents some questions to consider in relation to psychosocial and multicultural development and a prospective DC/ TMHpractice.
This book provides both counselors in training and established counselors the tools needed to make sound ethical decisions. It integrates a comprehensive review of ethical standards and guidelines by two major professional governing bodies in psychology: the Ethical Principles for Psychologists and Code of Conduct of the American Psychological Association (APA), and the Code of Ethics of the American Counseling Association (ACA). The book focuses on engaging the reader in critically thinking through the intersections of legal requirements and ethics codes. It integrates critical self-reflection and identifies variables that would place a counselor at risk. The book is organized into four parts. Part one provides an overview of the topics discussed in the book. Part two reviews typical ethical issues that counselors encounter in practice relating to confidentiality, professional boundaries, and professional competence. Part three analyzes ethical dilemmas that may arise given the changing face of technology and the country’s demographics relating to culturally competent treatment, managing social media, and confronting colleagues and other sticky situations. The final part focuses on recommendations for counselors to continue sound ethical decisions. The book is designed for counselors-in-training or engaged in externships and practicums. They include master’s level students in counseling psychology, clinical psychology, and mental health programs; doctoral students; predoctoral students on internship; and students enrolled in programs with dual degrees. It is also for established counselors who must remain abreast of changing standards and issues affecting clinical practice, such as those related to social media and technology, for postdoctoral counselors working toward licensure, and for undergraduate-level students who are training to become Credentialed Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Counselor (CASAC).
Confidentiality refers to the protection from unauthorized disclosure of information shared between a counselor and her or his client. Confidentiality is an ethical duty that is informed by ethical codes and standards in the American Psychological Association (APA) and the American Counseling Association (ACA). This chapter covers the importance of protecting clients’ privacy and confidentiality in order for the therapeutic relationship to flourish. However, authors went over gray areas that pose dilemmas for counselors: (a) how to ethically provide information for your clients and when to do so, (b) how to protect client information from unauthorized third parties, and (c) what are the limits to confidentiality. Although we did not go over every code of ethics that discusses confidentiality, it is clear that one must reference multiple codes, even within one set of guidelines, in order to make an ethical decision regarding confidentiality.